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Article

Zhan Wang, Xiangzheng Deng and Gang Liu

The purpose of this paper is to show that the environmental income drives economic growth of a large open country.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the environmental income drives economic growth of a large open country.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors detect that the relative environmental income has double effect of “conspicuous consumption” on the international renewable resource stock changes when a new social norm shapes to environmental-friendly behaviors by using normal macroeconomic approaches.

Findings

Every unit of extra demand for renewable resource consumption increases the net premium of domestic capital asset. Even if the technology spillovers are inefficient to the substitution of capital to labor force in a real business cycle, the relative income with scale effect increases drives savings to investment. In this case, the renewable resource consumption promotes both the reproduction to a higher level and saving the potential cost of environmental improvement. Even if without scale effects, the loss of technology inefficient can be compensated by net positive consumption externality for economic growth in a sustainable manner.

Research limitations/implications

It implies how to earn the environment income determines the future pathway of China’s rural conversion to the era of eco-urbanization.

Originality/value

We test the tax incidence to demonstrate an experimental taxation for environmental improvement ultimately burdens on international consumption side.

Details

Forestry Economics Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3030

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Article

La Shonda M. Stewart

This research examines the relative influences of different forms of government on local governments' financial management. Specifically, it seeks to determine whether or…

Abstract

This research examines the relative influences of different forms of government on local governments' financial management. Specifically, it seeks to determine whether or not the impact of financial and environmental factors on the unreserved fund balance differs between an administrative form of government, such as the Unit system, and a political form of government, such as the Beat system of county governments in Mississippi. The purpose of this study is to explain further why governments maintain far more savings than are the recommended benchmarks. The findings suggest that savings behave differently under different financial environments. During times of resource abundance, Beat systems increase savings as per capita income, property tax, and other revenues increase. Beat systems decrease savings as the population, debt per capita, and intergovernmental revenues increase. Unit systems, however, increase savings as property tax, intergovernmental and other revenues increase, but decrease savings as per capita income, population, and debt per capita increase. During times of resource scarcity, majority-non-white counties spent savings at a much slower rate than did the majority-white counties.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article

T.V. Grissom, M. McCord, P. Davis and J. McCord

–This paper is the second of a two part series which offers new theoretical and empirical insights investigating the rates structures appropriate for exhaustible resources

Abstract

Purpose

–This paper is the second of a two part series which offers new theoretical and empirical insights investigating the rates structures appropriate for exhaustible resources with a particular emphasis on urban land, based upon the differentiation of strong- and weak-form sustainability concepts constrained by the objectives of the sustainable criterion of Daly and Cobb (1994). The integration of the concepts and objectives allow the theoretical formulation of discount and capitalization rates that can be empirically tested. This empirical application employs data from 12 diverse national economies. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper integrates the concepts of discount rate development for environmental and long-term assets and discounted utility analysis to the policy concerns associated with the valuation of public and sustainable resources. The new approach empirically shows the diverse issues of competing sustainable objectives across nations.

Findings

The potential and degree of strong-form or weak-form sustainability application in each nation enabled the identification as to whether alternative capital as defined by the modified Ramsey model used per nation, or the marginal rate of resource return as defined by strong form objective of a constant natural resource endowment, can identify which form of capital becomes the major constraint on the resource valuation and allocation decision appropriate within each nation. The findings showed constraints on nation resource endowments relative to population needs and the culture preferences endemic across nations.

Originality/value

The findings serve as a basis for future research on the optimal levels of sustainable development appropriate for different nations, the impactions of the timing and level of capital re-switching associated with the application of strong- or weak-form sustainability and the develop of rate and risk measures that can assist in the consideration of sustainable resource as a distinct asset class.

Details

Property Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article

Yisca Monnickendam-Givon, Dafna Schwartz and Benjamin Gidron

The utilization of social networks is known to have an impact on micro-enterprise success. This study aims to examine the contribution of social networks in acquiring…

Abstract

Purpose

The utilization of social networks is known to have an impact on micro-enterprise success. This study aims to examine the contribution of social networks in acquiring resources and their role in the enterprise’s success.

Design/methodology/approach

A business’s success is influenced by its network structure and the network’s resources. The authors examine whether unique religious-cultural characteristics affect the social networks contribution to a business’s success. This model examines the network utilization of women entrepreneurs who own micro-enterprises in ultra-religious groups. The sample consists of 123 surveys completed by Jewish ultra-Orthodox women entrepreneurs in Israel. Data collection was conducted between February and June 2013. The authors used a snowball sampling approach where interviewees were asked to refer us to other entrepreneurs. In the hour-long interview, a questionnaire was used with open and closed questions.

Findings

Findings indicate that strong personal ties provide a micro-enterprise with social legitimacy, emotional support and assistance in the management and operation of daily activities. However, contrary to the existing literature, network utilization did not contribute to enterprise success. That is, in religious communities in particular, social networks enable the existence of businesses, but do not contribute to their success.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this paper are the mapping of the social network resources used by the business owner, such as financial consultations or professional assistance, as well as distinguishing between strong and weak ties, which reflect the intensity of the contact for better use of the social network by the entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This study examined social networks’ contribution to the acquisition of resources, as well as the part they play in the success of ultra-orthodox women micro-entrepreneurs and perhaps other religious and minorities groups.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part

Bruno Barreto de Góes, Masaaki Kotabe and José Mauricio Galli Geleilate

This study examines the diffusion process of corporate sustainability (CS) in the global automotive industry. It discusses the different roles played by the automakers, as…

Abstract

This study examines the diffusion process of corporate sustainability (CS) in the global automotive industry. It discusses the different roles played by the automakers, as the industry’s focal firms, in diffusing CS strategies throughout their respective supply networks. Studies have explained this phenomenon as being the result of the higher levels of stakeholder exposure faced by focal firms, which generate higher levels of supplier sustainability risk. In this context, the authors examine the effects of three network-related firm characteristics – resource dominance, resource substitutability, and network centrality – in determining the effectiveness of a firm in diffusing CS in its network. For that purpose, we present a theoretical framework from which we derive a set of hypotheses and test them on a sample of the global automotive supply network containing 10,726 firms linked by 45,044 inter-firm relationships. The results lend significant support to the argument that these network-related firm attributes are crucial mechanisms to the process of diffusion of CS strategies in a supply network, thus contributing to extant literatures in strategic management, international business, and sustainable supply chain management.

Details

The Multiple Dimensions of Institutional Complexity in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-245-1

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Book part

Kathryn A. Sweeney

This chapter explores how power obtained from societal hierarchies of gender, race, and economic status is covertly used by individuals within relationships, further…

Abstract

This chapter explores how power obtained from societal hierarchies of gender, race, and economic status is covertly used by individuals within relationships, further maintaining systems of stratification. The case of marriage is used to examine how social stratification translates into and is reinforced within even the most intimate relationships in terms of control over decision making. Analysis of in-depth interviews with black and white wives in same-race and interracial marriages illustrates how economic inequality affects who makes what decisions within marriage and how race affects what decisions are made. In the midst of income and racial inequality, socialized gender roles dictate which spouse controls certain arenas versus others. Gender norms operate covertly to affect decision making dynamics through mechanisms of availability, areas of knowledge, and preference.

Details

Advancing Gender Research from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Centuries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-027-8

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Article

March L. To and E.W.T. Ngai

Using the literature on innovation research, this paper proposes to establish and empirically test a prediction model which consists of four major factors in the adoption…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the literature on innovation research, this paper proposes to establish and empirically test a prediction model which consists of four major factors in the adoption of online retailing by organisations, namely relative advantage, competitive pressure, channel conflict and technical resource competence.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 140 different companies indicate strong empirical support for the model. Relevant hypotheses were derived and tested by logistic regression analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that relative advantage, competitive pressure and technical resource competence have positive effects on the adoption of online retailing.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted in Hong Kong, which may limit the generalisability of the findings.

Practical implications

While many studies contribute to an understanding of behaviours of the online market from a consumer perspective, there are few concrete investigations of the organisational viewpoint. With data obtained from practitioners in 140 companies, the major factors of online retailing adoption are addressed, providing strategic directions for managers to evaluate its adoption.

Originality/value

Although many conceptual papers and case studies have identified different potential factors affecting the adoption of online retailing, there are few empirical studies which establish prediction models for its adoption. In fact, during the past decade, in spite of growing interest in B2C transactions, organisations have not necessarily rushed towards adopting online sales. It is critical to have more empirical evidence of the factors affecting the adoption of online sales to help managers further access the benefits of its continuous and potential development. This study attempts to fill the research gap.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 106 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part

Jema K. Turk

Purpose – The current literature of housework division consistently finds positive consequences of an equitable division of housework (particularly for working women)…

Abstract

Purpose – The current literature of housework division consistently finds positive consequences of an equitable division of housework (particularly for working women). This study looks to more fully explore the characteristics that predict an egalitarian division of housework.

Methodology – This study integrates three theoretical perspectives – relative resource theory, life course theory, and gender studies – and uses data from a nationally representative data set to investigate couples who divide household labor more evenly and compares them to more traditional couples where the woman performs most of the housework using multivariate and logistic regression.

Findings – This study finds that the more resources a spouse possesses, the more likely that spouse is to engage in housework equitably. From a life course perspective, findings show that the longer a woman waits to marry, the more likely she is to have an egalitarian marriage; and length of marriage is a positive predictor of an inegalitarian marriage. Stronger than any other factor in predicting an egalitarian relationship are men's and women's progressive gender ideologies.

Originality of paper – Past research on the division of housework has focused on how chores are sex-typed and divided between men and women, but little investigation has focused on those couples who practice a more egalitarian housework division. This study uniquely finds a clear and irrefutable link between progressive ideologies and egalitarianism, as well as a link between conservative ideologies and “inegalitarianism.”

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Article

Yao-Ping Peng and Ku-Ho Lin

Based on a dynamic capability (DC) view, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether market orientation (MO) (external) and learning orientation (LO) (internal…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a dynamic capability (DC) view, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether market orientation (MO) (external) and learning orientation (LO) (internal) facilitate internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises’ (ISMEs) global dynamic capabilities (GDCs) – i.e., their global marketing and product-design capabilities – and promote firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data are randomly selected from Taiwanese ISMEs, yielding 206 valid responses. Informants’ (CEOs, vice presidents, senior managers) knowledge about and shouldering of firm responsibilities are explored.

Findings

A significant increase in global marketing and product-design capabilities is found to affect firm performance. MO and LO positively influence GDCs, which increase firm performance. Furthermore, LO and MO support GDCs’ development.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is reasonably diverse in terms of demographics including firm location, size, industry, and market type. Disaggregation results are generally robust regarding model parameters. However, future research should target different countries to assess result generalizability.

Practical implications

The findings reveal two practical implications for managers. First, successful GDCs help firms spread the costs of designing products or components across many contexts and to offer appealing products to consumers worldwide. Second, it is important that managers foster development of MOs and LOs.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature in two ways. First, by conceptualizing GDCs of ISMEs, DC literature is expanded based on a global context. Second, the complexity of extending DC literature into ISMEs may arise from the fact that ISMEs, as separate and living entities, devise their own organizational culture, which significantly affects their GDC development.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Book part

Robert E Hoskisson, Heechun Kim, Robert E White and Laszlo Tihanyi

Prior research on international diversification has focused primarily on multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed economies, such as the U.S. and other developed…

Abstract

Prior research on international diversification has focused primarily on multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed economies, such as the U.S. and other developed nations. As an increasing number of MNEs are now located in emerging economies, new theoretical frameworks are needed to better understand the motivations of these MNEs to diversify internationally. This paper contributes to the theory development of MNEs by examining the characteristics of international diversification by business groups from emerging economies. Using the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm and organizational learning theory, we suggest that the international diversification motives of business groups from emerging economies vary by host country context. Business groups from emerging economies are more likely to enter developed economies (rather than other emerging economies) when their primary aim is exploring new resources and capabilities, and more likely to enter other emerging economies (rather than developed economies) when their primary aim is to exploit existing group resources and capabilities. We also suggest that these motives influence business-group performance. We identify two important moderators of these relationships: product diversification and social capital. Because of the importance of the business-group organizational form in emerging economies, understanding business-group international diversification may lead to improved MNE theory.

Details

"Theories of the Multinational Enterprise: Diversity, Complexity and Relevance"
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-285-6

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