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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Pooja R. Singhania and Kasturi Senray

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon…

Abstract

Purpose

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon various other factors in food such as the amylose:amylopectin ratio, co‐ingredients, methods of cooking, etc. which also impact its metabolic response. During days of fast, in India, potato and sago are the most commonly used food to provide quick source of energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the functional and nutritional quality of fasting foods such as potato and sago, having higher amylopectin content, with respect to their relative glycemic and insulin response in normal healthy volunteers.

Design/methodology/approach

The postprandial glycemic response to boiled potato and sago khichdi in relation to equal quantity of bread (reference) was compared using Relative Glycemic Potency (RGP) represented as the Glycemic Bread Equivalent (GBE) of foods. Five clinically healthy subjects were fed 100 g of test foods and standard, and their blood glucose and insulin response was recorded at fasting (0 min) and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.

Findings

It was found that both potato and sago khichdi produced peak glucose response at 30 min and levels returned to baseline within 60 min. The higher amylopectin content which facilitates faster absorption from the gastro‐intestinal tract and into the cell results in the total area under the curve (AUC) glycemic response to potato and sago khichdi to be significantly lower than that of bread (p < 0.05). The total AUC insulin response to potato (p <0.05) and sago khichdi was also lower than that of bread.

Practical implications

Therefore, starch‐based foods rich in amylopectin lead to quicker absorption of sugar to supply the energy to the energy‐deprived cells common in fasting condition.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the starch present in these fasting foods is typically characterized by a higher amylopectin:amylose ratio.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Pooja R. Singhania and Kasturi Sen Ray

Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing…

Abstract

Purpose

Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing technique, starch composition, and amount of food consumed. The purpose of this paper is to observe the relative glycemic impact (RGI) of foods based on postprandial glycemic response to equal quantities of test foods and standard‐bread expressed as glycemic bread equivalent (GBE), using rice and its products.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, five clinically healthy adult volunteers were fed 50 g test foods and bread on different days after an overnight fast. Blood sugar and insulin levels at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after consuming food were recorded and corresponding area under the curve was calculated.

Findings

The GBE was highest for puffed rice at 107 g, whereas same amount of rice kheer and plain boiled rice induced glycemic response equivalent to 19.5 g and 11 g of bread, respectively. RGI of puffed rice was found to be significantly higher than that of rice kheer and boiled rice (p<0.01). Similarly, the total insulinemic effect of puffed rice (71 g) was found to be significantly higher than that of rice (6 g, p<0.01) and rice kheer (19 g, p<0.05).

Practical implications

Despite being prepared from common raw ingredient, all the three test foods produced varied glycemic and insulin responses. This can be attributed to the different processing conditions, change in nutrient composition and total quantity consumed.

Originality/value

The GBE values may constitute a simple and easy‐to‐use tool for consumers to select food in terms of their predicted glycemic and insulin responses, especially in the diabetic or insulin‐resistant group.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Fatima Bensalah, Nour el Imane Harrat, Fouad Affane, Hadjera Chekkal and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Design/methodology/approach

T2DM was induced by feeding male rats with an HFD for 10 weeks, followed by a low dose of streptozotocin. T2DM rats were then divided into four homogeneous groups. Three groups consumed an HFD containing 45 per cent (g/100 g diet) whole oat, oat bran or refined oat. The fourth untreated group (control) received the HFD.

Findings

The results showed that whole oat and oat bran, compared with refined oat and control, effectively reduced food intake (p < 0.007), arterial blood pressure (p = 0.0001), glycemia (p < 0.001), insulinemia (p < 0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.001) as well as homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001). They also improved blood lipid levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0001), triacylglycerols (p < 0.05), very-low- (p = 0.0001) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol contents (p < 0.02) increasing lipids (p < 0.002) and cholesterol excretion (p = 0.0001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL2-CE) concentrations (p = 0.0001) and stimulating lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (p = 0.0001). Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) atheroprotective activity (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

In T2DM rats, whole oat and particularly, its bran incorporated into an HFD improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic balance and lipid metabolic pathway by reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and increasing atheroprotective activities of LCAT and PON-1. In contrast, refined oat accentuates the risk factors associated with diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

Shweta Suri, Deepika Kathuria, Anusha Mishra and Rajan Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the biological activities of low-calorie natural sweetener, i.e. monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), which are associated with its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the biological activities of low-calorie natural sweetener, i.e. monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), which are associated with its bioactive constituents.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent investigations focused on biochemical characterization and nutraceutical potential of monk fruit (traditional Chinese perennial vine) have been critically reviewed. Also, the safety and influence of monk fruit on organoleptic characteristics of prepared food products have been documented.

Findings

Biochemistry of monk fruit revealed that mogrosides are the principal compounds responsible for the high-intensity sweetness in the monk fruit. The fruit induces several biological activities including anti-oxidative effect, hypoglycemic response, anti-allergic properties, anti-carcinogenic and anti-tissue damage activities. Attributing to great potential as a bio-functional sweetener in food products, monk fruit extract has been approved as Generally Regarded as Safe.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the biological potential of monk fruit opening the doors to future investigations for its utilization in products of commercial importance including food and pharmaceutical preparations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2022

Rio Jati Kusuma, Desty Ervira Puspaningtyas and Puspita Mardika Sari

The downstream insulin signaling, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, is an important step for skeletal glucose disposal through…

Abstract

Purpose

The downstream insulin signaling, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, is an important step for skeletal glucose disposal through the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT)-4. In addition, the master of energy regulator adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) is also involved in GLUT-4 translocation, independent from the PI3K/Akt pathway. Fermented cassava tuber or gatot is a traditional food from Indonesia with antihyperglycemic properties. However, the molecular mechanism leading to this effect is unclear. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate whether the antidiabetic activity of gatot is through PI3K/Akt dependent or AMPK pathway.

Design/methodology/approach

Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and 230 mg/kg body weight nicotinamide. Diabetic rats were randomly allocated into four groups; negative control, positive control (metformin 100 mg/kg body weight), fermented cassava diet replacing 50% of carbohydrate (FC-50) and 100% of carbohydrate (FC-100) in the diet. Serum glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analyzed before and after four weeks of intervention. Genes expression of PI3K subunit alpha, PI3K subunit beta, PI3K regulatory subunit, Akt and AMPK were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GLUT-4 protein expression was performed using immunohistochemistry.

Findings

There is a significant difference (p = 0.000) in serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol between groups. Skeletal AMPK gene expression was higher and significantly different between FC-100 (p = 0.006) and healthy control groups. No significant difference was observed in the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of the PI3K/Akt pathway among groups. GLUT-4 expression was highly expressed in a positive control group followed by FC-100.

Research limitations/implications

This paper did not characterize the bioactive component that is responsible for increasing mRNA expression of AMPK. This paper also did not analyze the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and AMPK that are important in activating the protein.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that showed the antidiabetic activity of traditional fermented food is through AMPK-dependent activity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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