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Article

Tuvana Rua, Zeynep Aytug, Nastaran Simarasl and Lianlian Lin

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the association between traditional gender role (TGR) endorsement and objective and subjective negotiation outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental negotiation studies (n1 = 138, n2 = 128) were conducted at a US university.

Findings

This paper presents three original and noteworthy findings: One, in mixed-gender negotiations, as a dyad’s TGR endorsement increases, final agreements become significantly more likely to favor men than women. Two, in mixed-gender negotiations, TGR endorsement is significantly associated with a decreased ability to establish a pleasant, mutually satisfactory and successful business relationship, resulting in a possible future economic cost due to lost opportunity. Three, the heightened relationship conflict during the negotiation mediates the negative association between TGR endorsement and women’s economic outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical findings support social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory. The use of a distributive negotiation case and laboratory research methodology may limit the generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

Findings about the detrimental effects of TGR in mixed-gender negotiations magnify the importance of becoming aware of our TGR orientations and their potential negative consequences on our long-term collaborations. Also, it is necessary to provide negotiation trainings to both genders with regard to gender-driven conflicts and offer tools to prevent or tackle such conflicts.

Social implications

Negotiations are among the most consequential of social interactions as their results have a substantial impact on individuals’ careers and financial outcomes. Understanding the effect of TGRs is paramount to improve female representation, participation and effectiveness in management and leadership. Mixed-gender negotiations such as collective equality bargaining, workplace social interactions, work-life balance discourse are critical to establishing gender equality and fairness in organizations and societies.

Originality/value

Understanding how gender influences negotiation processes and outcomes and using the findings to improve both genders’ negotiation success are crucial to establishing fairness and equity in society and business. This research attempts to close a gap in the literature by focusing on the potential function of gender role orientation in explaining gender differences in negotiation.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Civilai Leckie, Robert E. Widing and Gregory J. Whitwell

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of manifest conflict on performance outcomes. In particular, this paper aims to examine the moderating effect of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of manifest conflict on performance outcomes. In particular, this paper aims to examine the moderating effect of the supplier’s customer orientation (CO) as perceived by the buyer on the conflict-performance outcomes relationships in international channel relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 162 Australian importers was conducted to elucidate the associations among manifest conflict, CO and performance outcomes.

Findings

Manifest conflict was found to be negatively related to the importer’s evaluation of the exporter’s overall performance, which is consistent with previous work. However, CO was found to moderate the negative direct effect of manifest conflict on two outcome measures, “satisfaction with business outcomes” and the “evaluation of the exporter’s overall performance”. Moreover, it actually changed the effect from dysfunctional to functional for “evaluation of the exporter’s overall performance”. That is, CO changes the nature of the manifest conflict–outcome relationship by turning it from negative to positive.

Research limitations/implications

This research helps answer the appeal for research on the conditions in which conflict causes dysfunctional and functional outcomes. From a practical standpoint, providing the importer views the exporter as being customer-oriented, conflict should not be avoided if it stems from disagreements that arise due to the exporter acting in the best interests of the importer. The power of CO in affecting the functionality of outcomes resulting from conflict should be highlighted.

Originality/value

Conflict is a fact of life in channel relationships, but little is known about its functional and dysfunctional effects (Frazier, 1999; Skarmeas, 2006). The empirical evidence largely points to conflict being dysfunctional; however, research also indicates that context can play an important role in moderating the functionality of conflict. In this paper the authors ask: what role does CO play as a determinant of the functionality of manifest conflict in channel relationships? They argue that the exporter’s CO changes the context in which the importer and the exporter interact and, thereby, changes the way in which the importer interprets the supplier’s actions.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part

Morina D. Rennie, Lori S. Kopp and W. Morley Lemon

Independence is the cornerstone of the auditing profession. Even so, it is often assumed that acquiescing to the audit client when a disagreement occurs is more beneficial…

Abstract

Independence is the cornerstone of the auditing profession. Even so, it is often assumed that acquiescing to the audit client when a disagreement occurs is more beneficial to the auditor-client relationship than asserting one’s independence (e.g., see Wang & Tuttle, 2009). We look more closely at the issue in the context of auditor-client management disagreements as recalled by experienced auditors.

We find that for most disagreements in which the auditor did not make any concession at all, the auditor-client relationship was either unaffected or strengthened. We find that a client’s use of pressure tactics did not appear to influence whether or not the auditor made a concession, but that a client’s use of pressure tactics, was associated with damage to the auditor-client relationship. The importance of the issue causing a disagreement was positively associated with the likelihood of the auditor staying with his/her initial position.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-163-3

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Book part

Lillian T. Eby, Melissa M. Robertson and David B. Facteau

Interest in employee mindfulness has increased dramatically in recent years, fueled by several important conceptual articles, numerous studies documenting the benefits of…

Abstract

Interest in employee mindfulness has increased dramatically in recent years, fueled by several important conceptual articles, numerous studies documenting the benefits of mindfulness for employee outcomes, and the adoption of mindfulness-based practices in many Fortune 500 organizations. Despite this growing interest, the vast majority of research on employee mindfulness has taken an intrapersonal focus, failing to appreciate the ways in which mindfulness may enhance work-related relational processes and outcomes. The authors explore possible associations between mindfulness and relationally oriented workplace phenomena, drawing from interdisciplinary scholarship examining mindfulness in romantic relationships, child–parent relationships, patient–healthcare provider relationships, and student–teacher relationships. A framework is proposed that links mindfulness to three distinct relationally oriented processes, which are expected to have downstream effects on work-related relational outcomes. The authors then take the proposed framework and discuss possible extensions to a variety of unique workplace relationships and discuss critical next steps in advancing the relational science of mindfulness.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article

Stephanie Thomas, Jacqueline Eastman, C. David Shepherd and Luther Trey Denton

The purpose of this paper is to study the relational impact of using win-win or win-lose negotiation strategies within different types of buyer-supplier relationships.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the relational impact of using win-win or win-lose negotiation strategies within different types of buyer-supplier relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-method approach is used. Qualitative interviews with supply chain managers reveal that relationship-specific assets and cooperation are important relational factors in buyer-supplier negotiations. Framing interview insights within the social exchange theory (SET), hypotheses are tested using a scenario-based behavioral experiment.

Findings

Experimental results suggest that win-lose negotiators decrease their negotiating partner’s commitment of relationship-specific assets and levels of cooperation. In addition, the use of a win-lose negotiation strategy reduces levels of relationship-specific assets and cooperation more in highly interdependent buyer-supplier relationships than relationships that are not as close.

Research limitations/implications

Buyer-supplier relationships are complex interactions. Negotiation strategy choice decisions can have long-term effects on the overall relationship. As demonstrated in this study, previous research focusing on one side “winning” a negotiation as a measure of success has oversimplified this complex phenomenon.

Practical implications

The use of a win-lose negotiation strategy can have a negative impact on relational outcomes like cooperation and relationship-specific assets. For companies interested in developing strong supply chain relationships, buyer and suppliers should choose their negotiation strategy carefully as the relational impact extends beyond the single negotiation encounter.

Originality/value

Previous research predominantly advocates for the use of a win-win negotiation strategy within interdependent relationships. This research offers evidence that the use of a win-lose strategy does have a long-term relational impact.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article

Tamara Oukes and Ariane Raesfeld von

Start-ups are companies that are not yet embedded in a pre-existing network of relationships. Studies that researched how start-ups act in their relationships focused on…

Abstract

Purpose

Start-ups are companies that are not yet embedded in a pre-existing network of relationships. Studies that researched how start-ups act in their relationships focused on just one type of action and assumed that start-ups are autonomous in how they choose to act. However, organisational action in relationships is both interactive and dynamic. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a start-up interacts with its partners over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The research aim is addressed through a longitudinal case study of a start-up in the medical device business. It was analysed how this start-up and its six key partners acted and reacted during 18 interactions episodes, what triggered these actions and what the outcomes of their actions were. In addition, the researchers explored if and how the subsequent episodes were related.

Findings

First, the case shows that the past and the future affect current episodes. Second, it shows that action was triggered by both internal and external events which could expand or constrain opportunities for future interactions. Third, the findings show that there was a pattern in the interaction modes used during the relationship. Fourth, the findings show that the initial mode of interaction was often imitated by the counterparty. Finally, it is shown that there are clear links between the trigger, interaction process and outcome in an interaction episode.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that besides the focal firm, partners should always be actively and directly involved in any research into organisational action. Moreover, action in relationships should be characterised as a dynamic process that is in a state of continual change.

Practical implications

Managers of start-ups: can influence the outcomes of their relationships through their actions; have to react to both opportunities and conflicts in their relationships; can rely on their network to solve conflicts; and should closely consider their own actions and their counterparty’s actions.

Originality/value

The research is valuable because it studies the interactive and dynamic nature of start-ups’ action in relationships.

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Article

Murali Sambasivan, Loke Siew‐Phaik, Zainal Abidin Mohamed and Yee Choy Leong

The aims of this paper are: to argue the role of Kelley's personal relationship theory (PRT) in explaining the maintenance and success of alliance outcomes; to argue the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are: to argue the role of Kelley's personal relationship theory (PRT) in explaining the maintenance and success of alliance outcomes; to argue the inclusion of communication between supply chain partners as a major component of relationship capital in addition to trust and commitment; to test the impact of interdependence between supply chain partners on strategic alliance outcomes; and to test the role of relationship capital as a mediating construct between interdependence.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was constructed and sent to 2,156 supply chain managers in Malaysia. The questionnaire captured three constructs: interdependence – task, goal and reward; relationship capital – trust, commitment, and communication; and strategic alliance outcomes – goal, value‐creation, and re‐evaluation. The companies were selected randomly from the Federation of Malaysian Manaufacturers (FMM) directory. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The major findings are: communication must be included as a major component of relationship capital in addition to trust and commitment; Kelley's PRT plays a prominent role in explaining the maintenance and success of strategic alliance outcomes; interdependence has a significant relationship with relationship capital; relationship capital has a significant relationship with strategic alliance outcomes; and relationship capital acts as a pure mediator between interdependence and strategic alliance outcomes.

Originality/value

This research contributes significantly to the theoretical and empirical developments that enrich the strategic alliance literature.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Zikai Zhou and Pilar Pazos

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the previous empirical studies on transactive memory systems (TMS) through a meta-analytical approach and test the proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the previous empirical studies on transactive memory systems (TMS) through a meta-analytical approach and test the proposed model for the relationships between TMS and different types of team outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

TMS refers to shared memory systems developed among a group of people for encoding, storage and retrieval of their different knowledge domains. They have been widely used in group or organization settings to describe the cumulative knowledge in a group of multi-disciplinary experts. Previous literature suggests TMS as a critical concept for explaining group performance, but few studies were conducted to integrate the literature findings to identify the relationships between TMS and team outcomes.

Findings

The findings suggest that TMS is more strongly linked to affective outcomes than behavioral or performance outcomes. In addition, the authors find that the specific operationalization of TMS does not affect the relationship between TMS and team outcomes. There was not enough support for significant effects of group size and research setting on the relationships between TMS and team outcomes, which indicates that both laboratory and field studies have similar potential to generate valuable results for the research of TMS.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the body of knowledge on team effectiveness by investigating the links between TMS and team effectiveness through a broad definition of outcomes that include tangible constructs, such as performance, as well as behavioral and affective outcomes. By exploring the relationships through this broad conceptualization of team effectiveness, the authors can better understand the particular effects of TMS on different key aspects used to determine success in teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article

Sung‐Un Yang and James E. Grunig

The purpose of this study is to decompose common reputation measurement systems into behavioural organisation–public relationship outcomes, cognitive representations of an…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to decompose common reputation measurement systems into behavioural organisation–public relationship outcomes, cognitive representations of an organisation in the minds of publics and evaluations of organisational performance. In the proposed model, propensity for active communication behaviour and familiarity are suggested as correlated precursors of organisation–public relationship outcomes (eg trust, satisfaction, commitment and control mutuality) and organisation–public relationship outcomes are hypothesised to have a direct effect on evaluations of organisational performance as well as an indirect effect via the mediation of cognitive representations of the organisation. The authors investigated different types of five Korean‐based organisations )two domestic corporations in different industries, a multinational corporation, a sports association and a non‐profit organisation) to validate the model across different types of organisations. The findings of this study suggest that relationship outcomes lead to favourable representations of an organisation and positive evaluations of performance of the organisation.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article

Ngoc Luu, Le Nguyen Hau, Liem Viet Ngo, Tania Bucic and Pham Hung Cuong

This study is embedded in social exchange and transaction cost theories. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative importance of process value and outcome value…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is embedded in social exchange and transaction cost theories. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative importance of process value and outcome value in building affective and cognitive relationship strength and to compare the relative effects of each type of relationship strength on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study features a quantitative approach. The sample comprises 167 business-to-business (B2B) customers of a large transportation and logistics company in Vietnam.

Findings

Process value and outcome value have different effects on affective relationship strength. The effect of process value is greater than that of outcome value. In addition, cognitive strength has a stronger impact on both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty than affective strength.

Research limitations/implications

These insights extend extant literature regarding the process and outcome components of the service assessment. Further studies also should use a cross-industry, cross-country sample to examine the potential moderating effects of country- or industry-specific factors. These findings show B2B managers how to make appropriate resource allocation and investment decisions to enhance relationship strength and resulting customer loyalty.

Originality/value

To clarify the links among customer value, relationship strength and customer loyalty, this study examines the relative importance of rational and non-rational factors (i.e. process value vs outcome value and affective strength vs cognitive strength) for relationship performance. Unlike most prior research, this study is set in the B2B context of a developing country.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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