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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2016

Xiaolin Zhuo

This study aims to understand the role of technology in relationship maintenance among romantic partners.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the role of technology in relationship maintenance among romantic partners.

Methodology/approach

It takes a qualitative, inductive approach and collected data from in-depth interviews with 20 individuals who are married or in cohabiting relationships.

Findings

This study supports the extension of relationship maintenance typology derived from face-to-face relationship studies to technology-mediated communication, but highlights how technology use transforms the implementation of maintenance behaviors. Technology helps couples coordinate tasks and keep in touch with friends and families. Although technology-mediated communication cannot replace face-to-face interactions in relationship talk and sharing in-depth feelings, it plays an important role in redefining the ways in which couples interact positively, maintain mutual understanding, and secure the future of the relationship. Moreover, this study identifies a new maintenance behavior, communication coordination. These maintenance behaviors reflect a tension between maintaining connectivity and managing the boundary between work and home and between the public and private spheres.

Originality/value

This study builds on previous work on technology use and relationship maintenance, but takes a different qualitative, inductive approach to address the limitations in the survey research dominant in the literature. It helps us understand the advantages and challenges in maintaining relationships in the digital age and also explores the factors that influence the patterns of technology use in relationship maintenance.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-785-1

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Kayla Hales

The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the influences that computer‐mediated communication (CMC) has and could have on the maintenance of interpersonal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the influences that computer‐mediated communication (CMC) has and could have on the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. In doing this, ethical dilemmas and implications that arise from the technical affordances offered to CMC participants are discussed. Relational maintenance is integral to people's everyday lives. Yet, the ethical issues involve in using CMC to support this have not been explicitly explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of relational maintenance will be explored independently and as it relates to CMC and ethics. This paper will examine current literature and briefly discuss a pilot study relevant to these areas. The pilot study consisted of a survey distributed to undergraduate students in non‐platonic long distance and short distance relationships.

Findings

The exploration of prior literature and the findings of a pilot study support the notion that, with the increase of CMC use to maintain relationships follows the potential increase of unethical behavior in this medium. A number of ethical questions have risen that can be used to inform and direct future research.

Originality/value

This paper is original as it explores the concept of ethics from a relational maintenance perspective through electronic communication. It adds value by integrating these three areas and enhancing the understanding of this integration, while providing information of both theoretical and practical relevance.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2015

Bennett J. Tepper and Lauren S. Simon

For work organizations and their members, establishing and maintaining mutually satisfying employment relationships is a fundamental concern. The importance that scholars…

Abstract

For work organizations and their members, establishing and maintaining mutually satisfying employment relationships is a fundamental concern. The importance that scholars attach to employment relationships is reflected in research streams that explore the optimal design of strategic human resource management systems, the nature of psychological contract fulfillment and violation, and the factors associated with achieving person-environment fit, among others. Generally missing from theory and research pertaining to employment relationships is the perspective of individuals who reside at the employee-employer interface – managerial leaders. We argue that, for managerial leaders, a pervasive concern involves the tangible and intangible resource requirements of specific employees. We then provide the groundwork for study of the leader’s perspective on employment relationships by proposing a model that identifies how employees come to be perceived as low versus high maintenance and how these perceptions, in turn, influence leader cognition, affect, and behavior.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Maaren Ali-Marttila, Salla Marttonen-Arola, Timo Kärri, Olli Pekkarinen and Minna Saunila

The purpose of this paper is to identify what is currently valued in maintenance services. The study first conceptualizes the value construct through an examination of its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify what is currently valued in maintenance services. The study first conceptualizes the value construct through an examination of its elements, including both financial and non-financial elements, and second provides insight into its actors’ (i.e. customer companies, service providers, equipment providers) attitudes toward value creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data collected from maintenance service professionals by an online survey. First an explorative factor analysis is conducted to examine the value construct. After this cluster analysis is conducted to define the actors.

Findings

The empirical findings suggest seven main elements that capture maintenance service value: relationship synergies, reliability of the service partner, development, availability, service solutions and problem solving ability, environment, health, safety and quality, and adaptability to suit different situations. Further analysis reveals that the actors can be divided into three main strategy types: basic, quality- and collaboration-oriented partners.

Originality/value

In previous studies the comprehensive nature of maintenance service value has received less attention, and the literature has focused on the technical and financial aspects. This paper provides a new conceptualization of the value creating elements, including also non-financial elements, and offers an integrated measure for the actors to identify the comprehensive value construct around maintenance services. In addition, the findings show that the actors in the field still have varying strategies when considering value creation. Communication and mutual understanding of the value creating elements are important so that right services are carried out and developed with the right partners.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Eyun‐Jung Ki and Linda Childers Hon

The purpose of this paper is to examine how organizations enact positivity, openness, access, sharing of tasks, and networking through their web sites. The paper also aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how organizations enact positivity, openness, access, sharing of tasks, and networking through their web sites. The paper also aims to investigate whether, different types of industries display different levels of relationship strategy.

Designs/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 286 web sites was conducted to determine how corporations use their site as a communication medium for building and nurturing relationships with publics. Company web sites were selected from the Fortune 500 list according to industry type. The sites were analyzed for the presence and quality of variables identified in the public relations literature as measures of relationship maintenance strategies.

Findings

The study's first research question addressed how the sampled organizations display use of relationship maintenance strategies through their web sites. The results revealed that openness was the strategy used most frequently. The quality of the openness dimension also was rated more highly than it was for any of the other strategies. The second research question explored whether industry type made a difference in organizations' use of the relationship maintenance strategies. A statistically significant difference among industry type was found for three of the strategies – positivity, openness, and access.

Originality/value

This study gives guidelines as to how companies can use their web sites more proactively to build and maintain relationships with their publics. The study also provides some insights into why some types of organizations might be more likely than others to use web sites for relationship maintenance. This study's primary contribution to public relations theory is its original focus on strategies for organization‐public relationship maintenance and this study also sought to identify and measure the quality of maintenance strategies.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Jacquelyn Benson, Steffany Kerr and Ashley Ermer

Research on relational maintenance of long-distance or cross-residential romantic relationships is limited. Moreover, relatively little is known about relational…

Abstract

Research on relational maintenance of long-distance or cross-residential romantic relationships is limited. Moreover, relatively little is known about relational maintenance among non-marital intimate partners in later life, many of whom prefer to live-apart-together (LAT) rather than cohabit. This research paper examines how older adults from the United States maintain their romantic relationships across residences. The authors conducted a grounded theory study drawing on interviews collected from 22 older adults in LAT relationships. The data revealed that older LAT partners engage in a process of safeguarding autonomy to maintain their partnerships and relationship satisfaction. Two broad strategies were identified: upholding separateness and reshaping expectations. While safeguarding autonomy was paramount, participants also emphasized the importance of having a flexible mindset about the physical copresence of their relationships. The findings have implications for practice, suggesting that creating an interdependent couple-identity may undermine, or at least have little bearing on, the relationship stability of older LAT couples. Future research is needed to determine how LAT experiences among racially/ethnically or socioeconomically diverse samples might differ.

Details

Intimate Relationships and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-610-5

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

June Yung Kim, Jung Min Park and Jin Sook Im

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current US senators utilize their Facebook pages to promote positive relationships with their public in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current US senators utilize their Facebook pages to promote positive relationships with their public in terms of relationship maintenance strategies: positivity, openness, access, assurance, sharing of tasks, and networking. Interactivity of their Facebook pages is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis was conducted for 89 Facebook pages of the US senators of the 112th Congress. Levels of six relationship maintenance strategies and interactivity of the Facebook pages were examined.

Findings

Among six relationship maintenance strategies, positivity and openness are the most frequently used strategies while access and assurance are the least observed. In total, 70 percent of the senators’ Facebook pages show a low level of interactivity.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the samples of the current US senators.

Practical implications

This study provides a useful insight for political public relations practitioners that features associated with relationship management strategies can be employed to develop better social network sites for political actors, in order to build or enhance relationships with public.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of relationship management among political actors/organizations and public, and potential to establish relationships via social networking sites, only a few studies have tried to explore the relationship maintenance strategies on social network sites in the political arena.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Zongchao Li

The purpose of this paper is to look into Twitter usage as represented by top US retail corporations in a quantitative manner. This study aimed to determine the dominant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look into Twitter usage as represented by top US retail corporations in a quantitative manner. This study aimed to determine the dominant purpose of Twitter usage by major US retail companies and to what extent the relationship maintenance strategies were incorporated in Twitter. In addition, the study tested a proposed model that delineates relationship as a precursor of brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis was conducted comparing two groups of retail corporations – one came from the “top 100 customer loyalty brand leaders” identified by Brand Keys (2011a), and the other came from the Fortune 500 retailers, but excluded those from the top 100 loyalty leaders list.

Findings

Study results indicated Twitter as an important channel for corporate communication and relationship maintenance. For the retail industry, Twitter was mainly used for consumer relations. Access was the most widely used strategy followed by assurance and positivity. In addition, the brand loyalty leader group retailers were discovered more inclined to use Twitter in a two-way communication manner than the Fortune 500 group. Furthermore, two relationship maintenance strategies were found significantly more frequent in use in the brand loyalty leader group than the Fortune 500 group – positivity and assurance.

Originality/value

As one of the initial efforts to study relationship maintenance strategies using Twitter, this study contributes to the current literature of relationship management theory on social media by adapting the six relationship strategies to the Twitter context and testing them.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Hsin Hsin Chang, Chen Su Fu, Po Wen Fang and Yu-Cheng Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to extend the utilitarian value of the dedication-based relationship maintenance mechanism of social exchange theory and customer perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the utilitarian value of the dedication-based relationship maintenance mechanism of social exchange theory and customer perceived relationship investment to investigate the relationship performance of a retailer launching a self-service technology (SST). Computer anxiety and time consciousness are hypothesized to moderate the effects among these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The results of the structural equation model, with in-store kiosk use experience data collected for 211 respondents, supported the research model. Multiple regression analysis was used for testing the moderating effects.

Findings

The utilitarian value of dedication-based relationship maintenance is related to perceived relationship investment. Higher levels of customer-perceived relationship investment impact relationship performance. Computer anxiety and time consciousness act separately as both partial and full moderators.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study did not consider different kinds of products/services to have different effects with regard to customer cognition. Second, most of the respondents were students, and this is a limitation in business research, because of such factors as lower incomes and higher information technology ability as compared to individuals with other occupations. Third, it is difficult to distinguish whether the level of perceived convenience is due to the convenience stores per se or the in-store kiosks that they have. Future research may thus consider analyzing in more detail how perceived convenience is evoked. Finally, future research can consider constraint-based relationship maintenance mechanisms with regard to operating in-store kiosk businesses.

Practical implications

Retailers who are willing to continually launch SSTs should tie such efforts to their relationship marketing strategies. Moreover, retailers who are willing to launch e-businesses should establish strategies designed to enhance customer experience with regard to the use of technology. Finally, launching SSTs should involve the continual development of an effective purchasing process and functional relationship marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This paper can help managers organize relationship maintenance mechanisms, especially with regard to the development of user utilitarian value, in order to obtain improved relationship performance.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Soyoen Cho and Jisu Huh

The purpose of this paper is to examine how major corporations in the USA utilize corporate blogs for building and maintaining relationships with various publics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how major corporations in the USA utilize corporate blogs for building and maintaining relationships with various publics.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying the relationship management framework, a longitudinal content analysis of corporate blogs is conducted in 2006 and 2008. The blogs are identified by a thorough search of blogs operated by corporations listed on Fortune 500 companies or Interbrand Top 100 global brands. A systematic coding scheme is developed based on the existing research on relationship maintenance strategies and corporate communication.

Findings

A growing number of major corporations in the USA have adopted blogs as a corporate communication tool and the popularity of topic‐oriented blogs appears to have increased over time. While corporate blogs tend to apply various relationship maintenance strategies, the application of such strategies tends to be concentrated on a certain type of strategies.

Practical implications

Despite the increasing adoption of the corporate blogging practice, many corporations still do not seem to harness the unique potential of a blog to the fullest extent. To maximize the relationship management efforts, practitioners should consider expanding the scope and level of relationship management strategies. For researchers, this paper proposes a new approach for examining corporate blogs as a public relations tool by applying the relationship maintenance strategy framework.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to provide a longitudinal overview of the state of corporate blogs and strategies. In addition to offering descriptive information about the corporate blogging practice, this paper proposes a new research framework for studying corporate blogs.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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