Search results

1 – 10 of over 32000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 August 2011

Nai‐ming Xie and Si‐feng Liu

This paper aims to construct a novel grey relational model based on grey number sequences and to solve the problems which exist in traditional grey relational models, in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to construct a novel grey relational model based on grey number sequences and to solve the problems which exist in traditional grey relational models, in which the uncertain information cannot be described.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the definition of traditional grey relational models, considering the limited information and knowledge, the algorithm of grey numbers was combined with the grey relational model. A general formula of grey operations and grey distance is defined. A novel grey relational model based on grey number sequences, named grey geometrical relational model, is proposed according to the definition of grey distance. Finally, several properties including parallel, multiple and order‐keeping about the proposed model are discussed.

Findings

The results show that the novel grey relational model satisfies the properties properly. It is useful to calculate the relational degree of two different grey number sequences. And the process of calculating is easier than traditional grey relational models.

Practical implications

The method exposed in the paper can be used to calculate every two sequences. The method can also be used to rank sequences of more than two.

Originality/value

The paper succeeds in constructing a novel grey relational model. The properties of novel model are studied and it is a new development in grey systems theory undoubtedly.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Velitchka D. Kaltcheva, Anthony Patino, Michael V. Laric, Dennis A. Pitta and Nicholas Imparato

The authors apply Alan P. Fiske's relational models framework to customers' engagement with service firms – specifically, they propose that customers who hold different…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors apply Alan P. Fiske's relational models framework to customers' engagement with service firms – specifically, they propose that customers who hold different relational models for the service firm are likely to engage with the firm in dissimilar ways, thus generating different types of customer engagement value for the firm. Fiske's relational models framework is eminently suitable for studying customer-service firm engagement because it is widely adopted in the social sciences as a rigorously developed framework for conceptualizing social interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

The article bridges Fiske's relational models framework and Kumar et al.'s customer engagement value framework, and conceptually demonstrates that customers employing different relational models for the service firm are likely to generate different types of customer engagement value for the firm.

Findings

The article demonstrates conceptually that customers' relational models, schemata, and scripts influence how consumers engage with the firm and the type of customer engagement value accruing to the firm.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for service firms' relationship strategies. First, service marketers can determine the desired customer engagement value(s) and then craft their customer relationship strategy so that it maximizes those engagement value(s). The article suggests relationship strategies that service firms may implement for encouraging customers to adopt different relational models.

Originality/value

No research has bridged relational models theories and customer engagement value theories.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Yevgen Bogodistov and Anzhela Lizneva

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the employees’ identities shift in Ukraine based on the relational model theory. The paper concentrates on the role which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the employees’ identities shift in Ukraine based on the relational model theory. The paper concentrates on the role which culture and history play in the use of relational models in firms on different organizational levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed hypotheses were tested by multivariate analysis of variance and covariance tests with the data from 99 surveys of Ukrainian firms describing 219 intraorganizational relationships.

Findings

The results showed that culture and history play a significant role for the preference of a certain relational model. Position in the organization and gender influence the choice of the relational model.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of only Ukrainian employees restricts generalizability of the results. This study applies relational models theory in business domain and provides an alternative explanation of employees’ identities shift due to cultural differences and ideological past. Relational models are investigated on different organizational levels shedding light on models of relationships employees prefer in different settings.

Practical implications

Managers working in international settings should pay more attention to patterns of relationships in the target country since they are not freely chosen but partially predestined by the cultural background and the historical and ideological past. Relationships in firms are path dependent, whereby employees inherit models from their peers to apply them to their subordinates. Ukrainian female and male employees have different preferences concerning relational models.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it applies an anthropological theory to relationships on different organizational levels and tests it in a business domain of a country in an ideological transition.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Nikitas N. Karanikolas and Michael Vassilakopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to compare the use of two Object-Relational models against the use of a post-Relational model for a realistic application. Although real-world…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the use of two Object-Relational models against the use of a post-Relational model for a realistic application. Although real-world applications, in most cases, can be adequately modeled by the Entity-Relationship (ER) model, the transformation to the popular Relational model alters the representation of structures common in reality, like multi-valued and composite fields. Alternative database models have been developed to overcome these shortcomings.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the ER model of a medical application, this paper compares the information representation, manipulation and enforcement of integrity constraints through PostgreSQL and Oracle, against the use of a post-Relational model composed of the Conceptual Universal Database Language (CUDL) and the Conceptual Universal Database Language Abstraction Level (CAL).

Findings

The CAL/CUDL pair, although more periphrastic for data definition, is simpler for data insertions, does not require the use of procedural code for data updates, produces clearer output for retrieval of attributes, can accomplish retrieval of rows based on conditions that address composite data with declarative statements and supports data validation for relationships between composite data without the need for procedural code.

Research limitations/implications

To verify, in practice, the conclusions of the paper, complete implementation of a CAL/CUDL system is needed.

Practical implications

The use of the CAL/CUDL pair would advance the productivity of database application development.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the properties of realistic database-applications modelling and management that are desirable by developers and shows that these properties are better satisfied by the CAL/CUDL pair.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Baohua Yang, Junming Jiang and Jinshuai Zhao

The purpose of this study is to construct a gray relational model based on information diffusion to avoid rank reversal when the available decision information is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to construct a gray relational model based on information diffusion to avoid rank reversal when the available decision information is insufficient, or the decision objects vary.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering that the sample dependence of the ideal sequence selection in gray relational decision-making is based on case sampling, which causes the phenomenon of rank reversal, this study designs an ideal point diffusion method based on the development trend and distribution skewness of the sample information. In this method, a gray relational model for sample classification is constructed using a virtual-ideal sequence. Subsequently, an optimization model is established to obtain the criteria weights and classification radius values that minimize the deviation between the comprehensive relational degree of the classification object and the critical value.

Findings

The rank-reversal problem in gray relational models could drive decision-makers away from using this method. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed gray relational model based on information diffusion and virtual-ideal sequencing can effectively avoid rank reversal. The method is applied to classify 31 brownfield redevelopment projects based on available interval gray information. The case analysis verifies the rationality and feasibility of the model.

Originality/value

This study proposes a robust method for ideal point choice when the decision information is limited or dynamic. This method can reduce the influence of ideal sequence changes in gray relational models on decision-making results considerably better than other approaches.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Breda Kenny and John Fahy

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of…

Abstract

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of network capability on performance in international trade and has three research objectives.

The first objective of the study relates to providing new insights into the international market development activities through the application of a network perspective. The chapter reviews the international business literature to ascertain the development of thought, the research gaps, and the shortcomings. This review shows that the network perspective is a useful and popular theoretical domain that researchers can use to understand international activities, particularly of small, high technology, resource-constrained firms.

The second research objective is to gain a deeper understanding of network capability. This chapter presents a model for the impact of network capability on international performance by building on the emerging literature on the dynamic capabilities view of the firm. The model conceptualizes network capability in terms of network characteristics, network operation, and network resources. Network characteristics comprise strong and weak ties (operationalized as foreign-market entry modes), relational capability, and the level of trust between partners. Network operation focuses on network initiation, network coordination, and network learning capabilities. Network resources comprise network human-capital resources, synergy-sensitive resources (resource combinations within the network), and information sharing within the network.

The third research objective is to determine the impact of networking capability on the international performance of SMEs. The study analyzes 11 hypotheses through structural equations modeling using LISREL. The hypotheses relate to strong and weak ties, the relative strength of strong ties over weak ties, and each of the eight remaining constructs of networking capability in the study. The research conducts a cross-sectional study by using a sample of SMEs drawn from the telecommunications industry in Ireland.

The study supports the hypothesis that strong ties are more influential on international performance than weak ties. Similarly, network coordination and human-capital resources have a positive and significant association with international performance. Strong ties, weak ties, trust, network initiation, synergy-sensitive resources, relational capability, network learning, and information sharing do not have a significant association with international performance. The results of this study are strong (R2=0.63 for performance as the outcome) and provide a number of interesting insights into the relations between collaboration or networking capability and performance.

This study provides managers and policy makers with an improved understanding of the contingent effects of networks to highlight situations where networks might have limited, zero, or even negative effects on business outcomes. The study cautions against the tendency to interpret networks as universally beneficial to business development and performance outcomes.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Xuemei Li, Ya Zhang and Kedong Yin

The traditional grey relational models directly describe the behavioural characteristics of the systems based on the sample point connections. Few grey relational models

Abstract

Purpose

The traditional grey relational models directly describe the behavioural characteristics of the systems based on the sample point connections. Few grey relational models can measure the dynamic periodic fluctuation rules of the objects, and most of these models do not have affinities, which results in instabilities of the relational results because of sequence translation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Fourier transform functions are used to fit the system behaviour curves, redefine the area difference between the curves and construct a grey relational model based on discrete Fourier transform (DFTGRA).

Findings

To verify its validity, feasibility and superiority, DFTGRA is applied to research on the correlation between macroeconomic growth and marine economic growth in China coastal areas. It is proved that DFTGRA has the superior properties of affinity, symmetry, uniqueness, etc., and wide applicability.

Originality/value

DFTGRA can not only be applied to equidistant and equal time sequences but also be adopted for non-equidistant and unequal time sequences. DFTGRA can measure both the global relational degree and the dynamic correlation of the variable cyclical fluctuation between sequences.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Li Xuemei, Yun Cao, Junjie Wang, Yaoguo Dang and Yin Kedong

Research on grey systems is becoming more sophisticated, and grey relational and prediction analyses are receiving close review worldwide. Particularly, the application of…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on grey systems is becoming more sophisticated, and grey relational and prediction analyses are receiving close review worldwide. Particularly, the application of grey systems in marine economics is gaining importance. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and review literature on grey models, providing new directions in their application in the marine economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper organized seminal studies on grey systems published by Chinese core journal database – CNKI, Web of Science and Elsevier from 1982 to 2018. After searching the aforementioned database for the said duration, the authors used the CiteSpace visualization tools to analyze them.

Findings

The authors sorted the studies according to their countries/regions, institutions, keywords and categories using the CiteSpace tool; analyzed current research characteristics on grey models; and discussed their possible applications in marine businesses, economy, scientific research and education, marine environment and disasters. Finally, the authors pointed out the development trend of grey models.

Originality/value

Although researches are combining grey theory with fractals, neural networks, fuzzy theory and other methods, the applications, in terms of scope, have still not met the demand. With the increasingly in-depth research in marine economics and management, international marine economic research has entered a new period of development. Grey theory will certainly attract scholars’ attention, and its role in marine economy and management will gain considerable significance.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Atle Midttun

This article aims to explore the character of an emerging model of corporate social responsibility (CSR)‐oriented societal governance in an exchange theoretical

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore the character of an emerging model of corporate social responsibility (CSR)‐oriented societal governance in an exchange theoretical perspective and to examine the distinctive characteristics of the relations between civil society, business and government in the new model and the drivers behind it.

Design/methodology/approach

By analyzing typical roles and role‐sets in political, commercial and regulatory exchange, the article pin‐points characteristics of the embedded relational governance/CSR model contrasted against liberal governance and the Keynesian welfare state. The analysis is stylized and conceptually based, in line with the Weberian ideal type concept and brings out stylized juxtapositions of the three governance models based on previous studies.

Findings

An emerging model of corporate social responsibility (CSR) or embedded relational governance seems to share the basic market orientation of the liberal model, yet, at the same time, sharing many of the social and collective goals of the welfare state. This combination is apparently achieved by embedding the social dimension into civil society and self‐regulatory market processes. Finally, the paper reflects on the drivers behind the new governance approach, in the context of a globalizing economy. The paper argues that NGO‐driven communicative intermediation interfacing with an increasing CSR and corporate governance focus in financial evaluation may serve to retain some of the social agenda from the welfare state, under the CSR‐ or embedded‐relational model, an agenda that seemed to be gradually losing out with the global competitive exposure of the welfare state.

Research limitations/implications

The article presents a stylized analytical framework of CSR/embedded relational governance that lays a basis for further exploration and systematic testing through comparative empirical studies.

Practical implications

The paper brings out the interplay between political, regulatory and commercial processes and gives a broader understanding of the societal implications of CSR.

Originality/value

Original contributions of this paper: first, the analytical formulation of the societal governance implications of CSR; second, the exchange theoretical conceptualization of this mode of societal governance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Juho Ylimäki and Jukka Vesalainen

The purpose of this study is to build a generic model for relational development of a value proposition for a service concept. The study seeks to answer two questions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to build a generic model for relational development of a value proposition for a service concept. The study seeks to answer two questions: First, what kind of process is practical for joint development of a service concept in customer–service provider collaboration? Second, what are the functional principles for such collaboration?

Design/methodology/approach

A participative, design science approach was used to develop the model for a joint-development process. Researchers developed and analyzed joint activities between a provider of industrial maintenance service solutions and its customer during the process of co-developing a service concept for factory maintenance.

Findings

The study suggests that a co-development process has to integrate service blueprinting, a stage-gate philosophy, dialogical interaction principles and elements of joint learning to meet the requirement for both efficiency and relationality.

Research limitations/implications

The study develops a generic model for collaborative development of value propositions that integrates the aforementioned elements of separate streams of research. Applying the developed model to different contexts would further verify and enhance it.

Practical implications

The model can be applied to the development of a value proposition in different collaborative development situations to enhance interplay between efficiency and relationality.

Originality/value

The study illustrates a generic model for joint service concept development and proposes a solution balancing contradictory requirements in such a collaboration.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 32000