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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Rowaida Yawar, Muhammad Aqeel, Maryam Rafiq, Saher Navid, Nabiha Taufiq, Areesha Touqir and Moazma Imran

Fear of rejection is a feeling experienced by every human, which influences everyday life. It impacts an individual’s physical and mental health. But still there is no…

Abstract

Purpose

Fear of rejection is a feeling experienced by every human, which influences everyday life. It impacts an individual’s physical and mental health. But still there is no valid and reliable measure to assess prevalence of fear of rejection because of interpersonal relationships and social factors. This paper aims to serve the purpose of the establishment of psychometric properties of a scale that measures the fear of rejection.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered from focus groups to establish item pool and construct the instrument. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the data collected by administering fear of rejection scale (FRS) and it uncovered the structure of the developed scale. Principal component analysis method was conducted by using direct oblimin rotation.

Findings

A two-factor structure, which includes interpersonal relationships and social factors, was obtained as a result of EFA. The internal consistency of the scale is highly acceptable with a = 0.93, which indicated that the scale is highly reliable. High reliability of subscales was attained as a = 0.90 and 0.86, respectively.

Originality/value

This research paper is original, which aims to assess the fear of rejection in terms of social and interpersonal rejection. The data collected is valid and authentic. The FRS is constructed with highly reliable results and is a psychometrically sound instrument.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

George Alba

Online dating facilitates both dater interactions and rejections. Given the vast offer of potential mates and daters' limited time, several rejections may occur. On online…

Abstract

Purpose

Online dating facilitates both dater interactions and rejections. Given the vast offer of potential mates and daters' limited time, several rejections may occur. On online dating platforms, most of these rejections are simply the absence of a reply (ignoring). The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of implicit rejection (ignoring) vs explicit rejection (declining) on the behavioral intentions of daters, considering self-esteem as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

Experiment 1 investigated the effect of the extent of rejection (implicit vs explicit vs control) on the behavioral intentions of online daters. Experiment 2 assessed observers' recommended actions to a male (vs female) online dater following rejection (implicit vs explicit vs control).

Findings

Implicit rejections generate greater behavioral intentions than explicit rejections. Both daters (study 1) and observers of the dating scenario (study 2) indicated greater intent to revise their profiles (study 1) or recommend a profile revision (study 2) when implicitly (vs explicitly) rejected by interaction partners. Self-esteem moderated the effect of the extent of rejection. Higher levels of self-esteem eliminate and lower levels of self-esteem intensify the effect of the extent of rejection on behavioral intentions. Additionally, observers' recommendations based on the extent of rejection depend on the rejected dater's gender.

Originality/value

Ignoring is a frequent practice among dating platform users, and this paper provides an original contribution to better understand the differences stemming from implicit or explicit rejection of online daters.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-06-2020-0207

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Anastasiia Popelnukha, Shamika Almeida, Asfia Obaid, Naukhez Sarwar, Cynthia Atamba, Hussain Tariq and Qingxiong (Derek) Weng

Although voice endorsement is essential for individuals, teams and organizational performance, leaders who consider followers' voice to be threatening are reluctant to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although voice endorsement is essential for individuals, teams and organizational performance, leaders who consider followers' voice to be threatening are reluctant to implement followers' ideas. The authors, taking note of this phenomenon, investigate why leaders who feel a threat from followers' voice exhibit voice rejection at the workplace and when this detrimental tendency can be diminished. Thus, based on the self-defense tendency as per self-affirmation theory, the authors argue that those leaders who experience threat triggered by followers' voice, justify voice rejection through the self-defense tactics: message derogation and source derogation. In addition, the authors also propose that a leader's positive (negative) affect experienced before voice exposure may decrease (increase) self-defense and voice rejection.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the authors’ moderated mediation model, they conducted two independent vignette studies (N = 269; N = 208). The purpose of the first vignette study was to test the simple mediation (i.e. the direct and indirect effects), whereas the second study aimed to test the moderated mediation model.

Findings

In Study 1, the authors found that the leader's perceived threat to competence provoked by followers' voice was positively related to voice rejection, and the relationship was partially mediated by message derogation and source derogation. In line with this, in Study 2, the authors tested the moderated mediation model and replicated the findings of Study 1. They found that the effects of leader's perceived threat to competence on voice rejection through self-defense tactics are weaker (stronger) at the high (low) values of a leader's positive affect. In contrast, the effects of a leader's perceived threat to competence on voice rejection through self-defense tactics are stronger (weaker) at the high (low) values of a leader's negative affect.

Originality/value

This study suggests that leaders who experience a threat to competence instigated by employee voice are more likely to think that ideas proposed by employees are non-constructive and employees who suggest those ideas are not credible, and these appraisals have a direct influence on voice rejection. However, if leaders are in a good mood vs. bad mood, they will be less likely to think negatively about employees and their ideas even when they experience psychological threats. The findings highlight several avenues for future researchers to extend the literature on employee voice management and leadership coaching by providing theoretical and managerial implications.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Eugene Chan and Yitong Wang

Literature on choice has predominantly focused on selection decisions rather than rejection decisions. Research on rejection decisions has also only studied rejecting one…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature on choice has predominantly focused on selection decisions rather than rejection decisions. Research on rejection decisions has also only studied rejecting one option from two alternatives. This research aims to study the differences in decision confidence and satisfaction in rejection decisions between choice sets of small and large sizes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three behavioral experiments in which they first tested the overall effect (Experiment 1) and then found out whether regulatory focus (Experiment 2) and the attractiveness of options (Experiment 3) moderated it.

Findings

The authors observed that decision satisfaction increased when rejecting larger (vs smaller) choice sets. Decision confidence mediated it (Experiment 1). The effect was strongest when participants had a prevention focus (Experiment 2) and when they were rejecting relatively unattractive options (Experiment 3).

Research limitations/implications

This research expands the understanding of how individuals make rejection-based decisions and in particular how individuals make choices for one option out of many as in the selection-based choice overload literature.

Practical implications

The authors show how choice sets of varying sizes affect rejection decisions commonly faced by managers and consumers. This research provides implications for improving confidence and satisfaction, both of which are important elements of everyday decision-making, by suggesting that choice outcomes may differ depending on whether one is making a selection or a rejection decision and whether the choice set size is small or large.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine rejection decisions with more than two alternatives. The findings complement the large body of work on the choice overload effect that focuses on selection decisions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Matthias Woeckener, Danielle L. Boisvert, Eric M. Cooke, Nicholas Kavish, Richard H. Lewis, Jessica Wells, Todd A. Armstrong, Eric J. Connolly and James M. Harper

Research reports a positive relationship between parental rejection and antisocial behavior in adolescents and young adults. Studies also report a positive association…

Abstract

Purpose

Research reports a positive relationship between parental rejection and antisocial behavior in adolescents and young adults. Studies also report a positive association between testosterone and antisocial behavior. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether testosterone moderates the influence of parental rejection on antisocial behavior in a sample of young adults.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study analyzed a sample of undergraduate students (N=322) to examine the interaction between testosterone and parental rejection in the prediction of antisocial behavior. Multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to explore this association.

Findings

Results from OLS regression models revealed that parental rejection and testosterone were independently associated with antisocial behavior and that the effect of parental rejection on antisocial behavior was stronger at higher levels of testosterone.

Originality/value

This current study is the first to examine how testosterone conditions the influence of parental rejection on antisocial behavior in young adults. Findings from the study add to the growing body of literature examining the interplay between biological and environmental factors.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Divya Pandey, Makarand S. Kulkarni and Prem Vrat

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that incorporates the effect of rejection cost on optimal maintenance planning decisions. Such a model will help in further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that incorporates the effect of rejection cost on optimal maintenance planning decisions. Such a model will help in further modelling the interrelationships between preventive maintenance and quality control policy.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper a model is developed for obtaining optimal preventive maintenance interval based on block replacement policy to incorporate the effect of rejection cost. An illustrative example is presented to compare economic performance of the proposed model (M2) and the conventional model (M1). Model M1 stands for optimal preventive maintenance interval without considering the rejection cost and model M2 stands for optimal preventive maintenance interval considering the rejection cost. The comparison is done for different production rates, costs of rejection and cost of lost production. The impact of control chart parameters on preventive maintenance decision is also studied.

Findings

In this paper it is found that model M2 gives better results as compared to model M1. The improvements are more significant at higher production rate, lower cost of lost production and higher rejection cost. The impact of control chart parameters on preventive maintenance planning decision becomes significant as the cost of rejection increases.

Research limitations/implications

Conventionally only the down time cost and the cost of repair/replacement are considered for optimal maintenance interval determination. However in the case of machine tools, failure may not always bring the system immediately under complete breakdown but may lead to the functioning of system with degraded performance like process shift from in‐control state to out‐of‐control state. It results into poor quality and thus may lead to higher rejection cost. The cost of rejections may be significantly high in some production systems and, if not incorporated properly during maintenance planning decision may adversely affect the effectiveness of the maintenance planning. Hence the approach presented in this paper gives a better way of maintenance planning. Though the work presented here is illustrated through a simple example considering a single component operating as a part of machine, the approach can be extended to multi‐component system.

Originality/value

The outcome is of significant value as it opens up a new perspective into the development of integrated model for maintenance planning and quality control decisions for reducing the operating costs associated with the manufacturing processes.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Lili Wang and Ying Ding

Focusing on firm-initiated brand communities, the purpose of this paper is to systematically examine the influence of brand community rejection on consumer evaluations and…

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2151

Abstract

Purpose

Focusing on firm-initiated brand communities, the purpose of this paper is to systematically examine the influence of brand community rejection on consumer evaluations and document the underlying mechanism involved.

Design/methodology/approach

Four empirical studies were conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. Using a similar 2 × 2 study design, different subject samples and different product categories, Studies 1-3 investigated whether a brand community rejection strategy impacted strong brands differently than weak brands. Furthermore, Study 3 measured reactance as a moderator to explore the underlying process of the impact of a brand community rejection strategy on brand evaluations for different types of brands (i.e. strong vs weak). Study 4 used a 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects design to examine whether justification would eliminate the negative impact of brand community rejection on subsequent brand evaluations for a weak brand.

Findings

Across the four studies, the findings consistently suggest that rejection from firm-initiated brand communities harms weak brands but not strong brands. In addition, by incorporating psychological reactance as a moderator of this effect, the authors uncover the process underlying the interaction between brand community rejection and brand strength. Furthermore, the paper examines the reasons that justify rejection to find a solution that eliminates the negative impact of brand community rejection on brand evaluations for weak brands.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research provides the first investigation of the effects of a brand community rejection strategy for different brands. The findings could advance the social exclusion literature and shed new light on brand community research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Shih Yung Chou and Tree Chang

This paper aims to develop a theoretical model describing how newcomers’ team-member exchange (TMX), team identification and workplace loneliness may be affected by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a theoretical model describing how newcomers’ team-member exchange (TMX), team identification and workplace loneliness may be affected by existing team members’ rejections to the newcomers’ interpersonal helping behavior (IHB).

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical analysis was performed.

Findings

The authors propose the following propositions. First, higher levels of IHB rejections result in lower levels of TMX and team identification and higher levels of workplace loneliness experienced by a newcomer. Second, a newcomer’s TMX mediates the relationship between IHB rejections and the newcomer’s workplace loneliness and team identification. Finally, a newcomer’s team identification mediates the relationship between IHB rejections and the newcomer’s workplace loneliness.

Practical implications

This theoretical study provides the following managerial implications. First, managers need to proactively implement tactics that help satisfy newcomers’ affiliation needs through the development of strong formal work relationships with existing members. Second, managers are advised to consider the use of tactics that facilitate the development of effective informal relationships between newcomers and existing team members upon the entry of the team. Third, managers need to implement informal social events where newcomers have the opportunity to exhibit their helpful behaviors. Fourth, managers should periodically inform existing team members of some common anxieties and fears of newcomers that are triggered by entering new interpersonal environments. Finally, managers may utilize mentoring programs that help facilitate newcomers’ accurate interpretations of phenomena occurring around them.

Originality/value

This theoretical study is the first study that examines consequences of IHB rejections in organizations.

Details

Team Performance Management, vol. 22 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Flavio Cesar Faria Fernandes, Moacir Godinho Filho and Maurice Bonney

The purpose of this paper is to present a practical proposal for integrating production control (PC) and quality control (QC) at the shop floor level.

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2272

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a practical proposal for integrating production control (PC) and quality control (QC) at the shop floor level.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is based on three principles which relate PC and QC at the shop floor level. The proposal is applied successfully at the world's largest pencil factory.

Findings

The results show that the proposed method contributes to improve four performance indicators related to PC and QC at the company studied: increase the average throughput in about 28.9 per cent; reduce the average value of work in process (WIP) in about 35.6 per cent, reduce the average lead time by about 45.4 per cent, and reduce the average defect rate by about 71.4 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

The proposal (mainly because of principle III) is developed to be applied in repetitive production (RP) systems, i.e. environments characterized by low production volume and low product variety.

Practical implications

Some practical implications for industrial managers arises from this study: managers must consider the importance of integrated PC and QC functions in order to get better results concerning performance indicators such as throughput, WIP, lead time, and rejection rate; the materials flow simplification is a prerequisite for a lot of improvement initiatives at the shop floor level; the adequate choice of the production control system (PCS) is vital in order to get positive results regarding the performance indicators related to PC; the determination of the production pace (or rate) for a RP system must take account capacity restrictions and the influence of defect rate on production rate.

Originality/value

The paper is original in that it shows that the performance of the shop floor level can be improved by means of integrating PC and QC, by discussing and implementing a method which simplifies the material flow in the shop floor level, chooses the most adequate PCS and shows how the production rate influence on the rejection rate. Therefore, the paper is important for those which practice industrial management, more specifically on PC and QC functions.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Tochukwu Victor Nwankwo, Rosemary Anwuli Odiachi and Ifeanyi A. Anene

The purpose of this paper is to explore relative deprivation and implicit bias in library and information science research publications of Africa and other continents.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore relative deprivation and implicit bias in library and information science research publications of Africa and other continents.

Design/methodology/approach

Research design used for this study is descriptive survey research. Specifically, the study will adopt both web content analysis and survey to collect data. The content analysis covers the whole continents of the world: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East, Northern America, Pacific Region and Western Europe; using the Webometrics World Ranking of Universities and the SCImago/Scopus Journal Ranking. Library and information science was used as the search and control parameter. The scopes covered by the research are: 1. Ascertaining the visible publishing and assessment standards of top library and information science (LIS) journals, which was evaluated using Kleinert and Wager (2010)'s study.

Findings

It was found out among others that editors making fair and unbiased decisions as policy is seen in 33% of the journals, which is very poor. All the structural disparities, such as presence ranking, impact ranking, excellence ranking, etc. were favouring Europe and the Americas mainly. As much as rejection is getting to these respondents, research generally is also suffering by missing out on some untapped knowledge and ideas from these deprived populations. Many authors are losing faith in their capabilities and are now afraid of venturing into tedious research exercises because it will most likely be rejected either ways.

Research limitations/implications

It is an established fact that social media gains research impact and attracts international collaborations. In support, studies such as Hassan et al. (2019) reported the fact that tweet mentions of articles with positive sentiment to more visibility and citations. They claim that cited articles in either positive or neutral tweets have a more significant impact than those not cited at all or cited in negative tweets. In addition, Hassan et al. (2020) equally highlighted tweet coupling as a social media methodology useful for clustering scientific publications. Despite the fact that social media have these influences on research and publications visibility and presence, the context of the present research did cover this scope of study. The study focused mainly on sources from Scopus as well as results from responses. Further studies can be carried out on this area.

Originality/value

Research studies linking “Black Articles Matter” to relative deprivation and implicit bias in research publications, especially in library and information discipline, are very rare. Also, the scope of approach of the study is quite different and interesting.

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