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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

R.V. Balendran, T.M. Rana, T. Maqsood and W.C. Tang

This paper presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars as reinforcement in civil engineering structures. Following a…

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Abstract

This paper presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars as reinforcement in civil engineering structures. Following a discussion of the science underpinning their use, selected case studies where FRP reinforcement has been used are presented. The use of FRP reinforcement is rapidly gaining pace and may replace the traditional steel due to its enhanced properties and cost‐effectiveness. In addition, FRP reinforcement offers an effective solution to the problem of steel durability in aggressive environments and where the magnetic or electrical properties of steel are undesirable.

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Structural Survey, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Jiawei Wang, Jinliang Liu, Guanhua Zhang and Yanmin Jia

The calculation of the shear capacity of inclined section for prestressed reinforced concrete beams is an important topic in the design of concrete members. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The calculation of the shear capacity of inclined section for prestressed reinforced concrete beams is an important topic in the design of concrete members. The purpose of this paper, based on the truss-arch model, is to analyze the shear mechanism in prestressed reinforced concrete beams and establish the calculation formula for shear capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the effect of the prestressed reinforcement axial force on the angle of the diagonal struts and regression coefficient of softening cocalculation of shear capacity is established. According to the shape of the cracks of prestressed reinforced concrete beams under shear compression failure, the tie-arch model for the calculation of shear capacity is established. Shear-failure-test beam results are collected to verify the established formula for shear bearing capacity.

Findings

Through theoretical analysis and experimental beam verification, it is confirmed in this study that the truss-arch model can be used to analyze the shear mechanism of prestressed reinforced concrete members accurately. The calculation formula for the angle of the diagonal struts chosen by considering the effect of prestress is accurate. The relationship between the softening coefficient of concrete and strength of concrete that is established is correct. Considering the effect of the destruction of beam shear plasticity of the concrete on the surface crack shape, the tie-arch model, which is established where the arch axis is parabolic, is applicable.

Originality/value

The formula for shear capacity of prestressed reinforced concrete beams based on this theoretical model can guarantee the effectiveness of the calculation results when the structural properties vary significantly. Engineers can calculate the parameters of prestressed reinforced concrete beams by using the shear capacity calculation formula proposed in this paper.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2021

Bashar Ramzi Behnam and Mohammed M. Mahmood Al-Iessa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential design advantage in terms of resistance factors for normal weight concrete beams containing moderate-dose…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential design advantage in terms of resistance factors for normal weight concrete beams containing moderate-dose randomly dispersed short fibers and reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical model based on the current code specifications is used to calculate the moment capacity of over-reinforced sections. The vast majority of the considered beams are over-reinforced, compression-controlled. The data of the fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) reinforced with GFRP bars are collected from three published research studies which are based on experimentally tested results. Three different types of short fibers with four volume fractions are considered. Probabilistic model is established to conduct reliability-based calibration using Monte-Carlo Simulation. Limit state function, relevant load and resistance random variables are identified, and adequate statistical parameters are selected. Target reliability index consistent with the one used to develop current design code specifications is used.

Findings

Reliability analysis and calibration process are carried out with the intention of estimating the flexural resistance factors for FRC beams reinforced with GFRP bars.

Originality/value

The predicted flexural resistance factors ranged from 0.72 to 0.95, giving the resistance factors the potential to be increased above the currently specified value of 0.65 for compression-controlled members reinforced with FRP bars.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

ADNAN IBRAHIMBEGOVIĆ and FRANÇOIS FREY

An efficient implementation of a constitutive model for reinforced concrete plates is discussed in this work. The constitutive model is set directly in terms of stress…

Abstract

An efficient implementation of a constitutive model for reinforced concrete plates is discussed in this work. The constitutive model is set directly in terms of stress resultants and their energy conjugate strain measures, relating their total values. The latter simplification is justified by our primary goal being an evaluation of the limit load of a reinforced concrete plate. A concept of the ‘rotating crack model’ is utilized in proposing the constitutive model to relate the principal values of bending moments and the corresponding values of curvatures. Efficient implementation is provided by a very robust, but inexpensive plate element. The element is based on an assumed shear strain field and a set of incompatible bending modes, which provides that the non‐linear computations, pertinent to constitutive model, can be carried out locally, i.e. independently at each numerical integration point. Set of numerical examples is presented to demonstrate a very satisfying performance of the proposed model.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Pavao Marović, Željana Nikolić and Mirela Galić

To provide an insight in one relatively simple and efficient numerical model for analysing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, and to raise a discussion…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an insight in one relatively simple and efficient numerical model for analysing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, and to raise a discussion leading to the creation of one universal and robust 3D algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

A new numerical model for analysing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures is developed and main theoretical details are described to aid the understandings. The approach is clear, easily readable and the body of the text is divided into logical sections starting from theoretical explanations ending in the large number of different practical examples.

Findings

Provides information about developing new and relatively simple numerical model for analysing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, indicating what can be improved. Recognises the lack of knowing real behaviour of 3D concrete and starts a discussion on it.

Research limitations/implications

The knowledge of the 2D and especially 3D concrete behaviour is still poor and the concrete model developers use many simplifications. So, many new experiments should be performed and better numerical models should be developed. There is large area for researchers but having in mind that experiments are very expensive.

Practical implications

Obtained results of the 3D analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures can stand as a benchmark for future researches in this field especially to the young researchers and concrete model developers.

Originality/value

This paper presents new and very simple numerical model for analysing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Paper could be very valuable to the researchers in this field as a benchmark for their analyses.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

H.Y. Leung and R.V. Balendran

Use of fibre‐reinforced polymer (FRP) composite rods, in lieu of steel rebars, as the main flexural reinforcements in reinforced concrete (RC) beams have recently been…

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Abstract

Use of fibre‐reinforced polymer (FRP) composite rods, in lieu of steel rebars, as the main flexural reinforcements in reinforced concrete (RC) beams have recently been suggested by many researchers. However, the development of FRP RC beam design is still stagnant in the construction industry and this may be attributed to a number of reasons such as the high cost of FRP rods compared to steel rebars and the reduced member ductility due to the brittleness of FRP rods. To resolve these problems, one of the possible methods is to adopt both FRP rods and steel rebars to internally reinforce the concrete members. The effectiveness of this new reinforcing system remains problematic and continued research in this area is needed. An experimental study on the load‐deflection behaviour of concrete beams internally reinforced with glass fibre‐reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and steel rebars was therefore conducted and some important findings are summarized in this paper.

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Structural Survey, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Nikolina Zivaljic, Hrvoje Smoljanovic and Zeljana Nikolic

The purpose of this paper is to present a new numerical model based on a combined finite-discrete element method, capable of predicting the behaviour of reinforced concrete

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new numerical model based on a combined finite-discrete element method, capable of predicting the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures under dynamic load up to failure.

Design/methodology/approach

An embedded model of reinforcing bars is implemented in combined finite-discrete element code. Cracking of the structure was enabled by a combined single and smeared crack model. The model for reinforcing bars was based on an approximation of the experimental curves for the bar strain in the crack. The developed numerical model includes interaction effects between reinforcement and concrete and cyclic behaviour of concrete and steel during dynamic loading.

Findings

The findings provide a realistic description of cracking in the concrete structure, where all non-linear effects are realized in joint elements of the concrete and reinforcing bars. This leads to a robust and precise model for non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures under dynamic load.

Originality/value

This paper presents new robust finite-discrete element numerical model for analysis and prediction of the collapse of reinforced concrete structures. The model is capable of including the effects of dynamic loading on the structures, both in the linear-elastic range, as well as in the non-linear range including crack initiation and propagation, energy dissipation due to non-linear effects, inertial effects due to motion, contact impact, and the state of rest, which is a consequence of energy dissipation in the system.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Peerzada Mudasir and Javed Ahmed Naqash

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days. Concrete is the largest manufactured building material in world in which cement, sand aggregates and water cement ratio plays governing role. Water–Cement ratio decides it strength, usage, serviceability and durability. As strength of concrete depends on formation of crystalline hydrates; therefore, water–cement ratio can alter formation of hydrates also. Unfortunately, concrete is the most brittle material and to overcome brittleness of conventional concrete is tailored with some fibers. Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tubes are the most tensile and strongest materials discovered. Addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes changes basic properties of conventional concrete. Therefore, it is important to evaluate formation of crystalline hydrates in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete by micro structure analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete has not been analyzed at micro structure level. To accomplish the objective, four concrete mixes with 0.45, 0.48, 0.50 and 0.55 water–cement ratio having 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes incorporated by weight of cement, respectively. For hardening property analysis, compressive strength was obtained by crushing cubes; flexural strength was obtained by three-point loading; and split tensile strength was obtained by splitting cylindrical specimens. For analyzing role and formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 hydrates, X-ray diffraction test was conducted on 75-µ dust of each mix. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed on fractured samples of crushed cubes of multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete samples to check aggloremation.

Findings

It was observed multiwalled carbon nano tubes successfully enhanced compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength by 8.89, 5.33 and 28.90%, respectively, in comparison to reference concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement. When its content was increased from 0.5 to 1% by weight of cement compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength diminished by 2.04, 0.32 and 1.18%, respectively, at 0.45 water–cement ratio. With the increment of water–cement ratio, overall strength decreased in all mixes, but in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mixes, strength was more than reference mixes. In reference, concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals are of nano metre size, but in carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mix having 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, its size is much smaller than reference mix, thereby enhancing mechanical strength. In reference, concrete at 0.55 water–cement ratio size of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals is large, but with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes, their size reduced, thereby enhancing mechanical strength of carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete having 0.55 water–cement ratio and 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, respectively. Also at 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, agglomeration and reduction in formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals were observed. Multiwalled carbon nano tubes effectively refine pores and restrict propagation of micro cracks and act as nucleation sites for Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate phase. Geometry of crystalline axis of fracture for portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals is altered with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes. Crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals and bridging effect of multiwalled carbon nano tubes is governing factor for enhancing strength of multiwalled carbon nano tube reinforced concrete.

Practical implications

Multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete can be used to make strain sensing concrete.

Originality/value

Change in geometry and size of axis of fracture of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Toqa AL-Kasasbeh and Rabab Allouzi

This research is part of a project that aims to investigate using foamed concrete structurally in houses. Foamed concrete has a porous structure that makes it light in…

Abstract

Purpose

This research is part of a project that aims to investigate using foamed concrete structurally in houses. Foamed concrete has a porous structure that makes it light in weight, good in thermal insulation, good in sound insulation and workable.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the behavior of polypropylene fiber reinforced foam concrete beams laterally reinforced with/without glass fiber grid.

Findings

The results proved the effectiveness and efficiency of using glass fiber grid as lateral reinforcements on the shear strength of reinforced foam concrete ribs, in reducing the cracks width and increasing its shear capacity, contrary to using glass fiber grid of reinforced foam concrete beams since glass fiber grid did not play good role in beams.

Originality/value

Limited literature is available regarding the structural use of foam concrete. However, work has been done in many countries concerning its use as insulation material, while limited work was done on structural type of foam concrete.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Malika Belhocine, Youcef Bouafia, Mohand Said Kachi and Karim Benyahi

The calculation and design of the structures are carried out with the aim of obtaining a sufficiently ductile behavior to allow the structure to undergo displacements…

Abstract

Purpose

The calculation and design of the structures are carried out with the aim of obtaining a sufficiently ductile behavior to allow the structure to undergo displacements, without risk of sudden breaks or loss of stability. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a computer program (Thin beam2), allowing the modeling and simulation of the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete elements, on the other part, it is estimating the local and global ductility of the sections or elements constituting these structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present two nonlinear analysis methods to carry out a parametric study of the factors influencing the local and global ductility of reinforced concrete structures. The first consists in evaluating the nonlinear behavior at the level of the cross-section of the reinforced concrete elements used in the elaborate Sectenol 1 program, it allows us to have the local ductility. The second, allows us to evaluate the nonlinear behavior of the element used in the modified thin beam 2 program, it allows us to estimate the overall ductility of the element.

Findings

The validation results of the Thin beam2 program are very satisfactory, by conferring the analytic and experimental results obtained by various researchers and the parametric study shows that each factor such as the compressive strength of the concrete has a favorable effect on ductility. Conversely, the normal compression force and the high resistance of tensioned reinforcements adversely affect ductility.

Originality/value

The reliability of the two programs lies in obtaining the local and global ductility of reinforced concrete structures because the calculation and design of the structures are carried out with the aim of obtaining ductile behavior without risk of breakage and instability.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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