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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Srikanth Beldona, Hemant V. Kher and Kunwei Lin

Regulatory focus theory proposes that people make decisions and engage in the pursuit of goals based on either promotional goals indicating sensitivity to gains/nongains…

Abstract

Purpose

Regulatory focus theory proposes that people make decisions and engage in the pursuit of goals based on either promotional goals indicating sensitivity to gains/nongains or preventional goals reflecting sensitivity to losses/nonlosses (Aaker and Lee, 2001). The purpose of this study is to examine the roles of regulatory foci and their impact on the perceived value and usage of location-based services (LBS) in travel experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Travel planning strategies are framed along promotional or preventional lines to evaluate regulatory focus orientation and respondents’ perceptions of value in location-based marketing (LBM) services are examined. Regression analysis evaluates the primary relationships, followed by analysis evaluating the mediating effects of “travel interest messages” (discount coupons, etc.) in the regulatory-focus-perceived value in LBM relationship.

Findings

The findings indicate that the effects of promotional focus are significantly greater than those of preventional regulatory focus. Additionally, the importance of travel interest messages (discount coupons, maps, etc.) was more significant with a promotional regulatory focus than preventional regulatory focus orientation.

Practical implications

The findings provide proof of regulatory focus as a differentiator in travel consumption behavior and demonstrate how it can be used to effectively target marketing messages to augment the travel experience. Destination marketing organizations can apply regulatory focus theory in organizational settings in the areas of leadership, decision-making and front-line employee creativity that can enhance the delivery of memorable travel experiences.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first to examine the relationship between gains-focused/risk-averse travel planning and their impact on perceptions of value in LBS programs in travel experiences.

对比以收益为中心与风险规避为中心的不同取向, 及其在旅游中对定位营销服务的影响

研究目的

调节焦点理论提出, 消费者决策以及目标达成行为可以基于对收益/非收益敏感的促进目标或反映对损失/非损失敏感度的保守目标(Aaker and Lee, 2001)。本研究的目的是研究调节焦点及其对定位营销在旅行体验中的感知价值和使用的影响。

研究设计/方法/方法

旅行计划策略是按照促进或保守路线制定来评估调节的取向, 并检查受访者对定位营销(LBM) 服务价值的看法。本研究运用回归分析评估主要关系, 然后分析评估“旅行兴趣信息”(折扣券等)在LBM关系中的调节焦点感知价值中的中介作用。

研究发现

调查结果表明, 促进型路线的效果明显大于保守型的效果。此外, 旅游兴趣信息的重要性(折扣券、地图等)在促进调节焦点(相比于保守型)中显得尤其重要。

实践意义

研究结果证明了调节焦点是旅游消费行为的差异化因素, 并展示了如何将其用于有效地定位营销信息以增强旅游体验。目的地营销组织可以在领导力、决策制定和一线员工创造力等领域的组织环境中应用调节焦点理论, 从而提供难忘的旅行体验。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首次研究以收益为中心/风险规避为中心的旅行计划, 以及其在旅行经历中对定位营销服务计划中价值感知的影响之间的关系的研究之一。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Yan Tu, Lixin Jiang, Lirong Long and Linlin Wang

Leader secure-base support, consisting of leader availability, noninterference and encouragement of growth, has important implications for stimulating employee…

Abstract

Purpose

Leader secure-base support, consisting of leader availability, noninterference and encouragement of growth, has important implications for stimulating employee proactivity. This study is aimed at examining whether, why and when leader secure-base support may motivate employees to engage in approach job crafting behavior. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory, we propose leader secure-base support is positively associated with employee approach job crafting via employee state promotion focus. Based on cue consistency theory, we further examine the moderating role of organizational learning culture in the associations of leader secure-base support with employee state promotion focus and subsequent approach job crafting.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave data were collected from 281 Chinese workers. Path analyses with Mplus 7 were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

As predicted, we found that leader secure-base support was positively related to employee state promotion focus and, in turn, facilitated employee approach job crafting. Moreover, organizational learning culture accentuated the impact of leader secure-base support on employee job crafting process.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the influence of leader secure-base support on employee job crafting. It also identifies a boundary condition for such an influence.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Jeremy A. Henson and Terry Beehr

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of subordinates’ individual differences or traits and their performance behavior on the formation of leaders’ LMX, based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of subordinates’ individual differences or traits and their performance behavior on the formation of leaders’ LMX, based on leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, thus proposing that both who subordinates are and what they do may affect supervisors’ LMX perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. The first was a non-experimental field study and the second was a laboratory experiment.

Findings

Study 1, a non-experimental field study, HLM, showed that subordinates’ self-reported characteristics predict their leaders’ LMX ratings; Study 2, a laboratory experiment, showed that subordinate performance causes leaders’ LMX perceptions while holding subordinate’s individual differences constant.

Originality/value

The current research was the first to demonstrate experimentally that LMX develops over multiple interactions. Additionally, it demonstrates that task-oriented behavior (i.e. job performance) and personality characteristics (i.e. internal locus of control and self-efficacy) are predictors of LMX.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Kelly Naletelich and Nancy Spears

New product development (NPD) is increasingly being delegated to consumers, yet little research has investigated consumer-centric factors that may influence this…

Abstract

Purpose

New product development (NPD) is increasingly being delegated to consumers, yet little research has investigated consumer-centric factors that may influence this delegation. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to uniquely combine regulatory focus and analogical reasoning to investigate new product ideation and downstream consumer-brand responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of experiments were undertaken.

Findings

Study 1 revealed that promotion-focused consumers (as opposed to prevention-focused consumers) have significantly greater purchase intentions if given an analogical reasoning task before engaging in new product ideation due to their cognitive flexibility. Study 2 tested the effects of near vs far analogies and found that promotion-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if primed with far analogies because regulatory fit is enhanced. However, analogical thinking and purchase intentions significantly drop if primed with near analogies. In contrast, prevention-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if shown near analogies, compared to far analogies, because of improved regulatory fit. Both studies confirm a serial mediation chain involving task engagement, self-brand connection, and brand sincerity.

Research limitations/implications

This research extends current understanding regarding the role of creative tasks within consumer NPD. It also uniquely links regulatory focus and consumer task engagement in NPD to increase favorable brand responses.

Practical implications

Findings offer managerial insights that can positively increase consumer-brand outcomes during NPD.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the importance of analogical thinking and consumer-centric factors (i.e., regulatory focus) during the NPD process. This avenue of research is important, as most studies have neglected ways in which to increase consumer NPD task engagement, leaving resources unutilized.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ci-Rong Li, Chun-Xuan Li and Chen-Ju Lin

The purpose of this paper is to test how team regulatory focus may relate to individual creativity and team innovation; and address the fit/misfit issue of team regulatory

1372

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test how team regulatory focus may relate to individual creativity and team innovation; and address the fit/misfit issue of team regulatory focus and team bureaucracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 377 members and their leaders within 56 R&D teams in two Taiwanese companies.

Findings

A team promotion focus was positively related, whereas a team prevention focus was negatively related, to both team innovation and member creativity through team perspective taking and employee information elaboration, respectively. Furthermore, team bureaucracy played a moderating role that suppressed the indirect relationship between team regulatory focus and creativity.

Originality/value

This is one of first studies to explore an underlying mechanism linking team regulatory focus and both team innovation and member creativity. The authors provide a more complete view of the creative and innovation implications of team-level self-regulation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Zizhen Geng, Caifeng Li, Kejia Bi, Haiping Zheng and Xia Yang

The purpose of this paper is to advance our understanding of the roles that service employees’ responses to high job demands play in service innovation, by examining the…

2122

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance our understanding of the roles that service employees’ responses to high job demands play in service innovation, by examining the effects that service employees’ motivational orientation in self-regulation (regulatory focus) and their emotional labour strategy have on their creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

By integrating regulatory focus theory and emotion regulation theory, the authors developed a theoretical model to propose the links between promotion and prevention regulatory foci, different emotional labour strategies and frontline employee creativity. The research hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear model based on data collected from 304 frontline employees and 72 supervisors in 51 restaurants.

Findings

The results showed that promotion focus was positively related to frontline employee creativity while prevention focus was negatively related to it. In addition, both emotional labour strategies (deep acting and surface acting) mediated the effect of promotion focus on frontline employee creativity. Surface acting mediated the effect of prevention focus on frontline employee creativity.

Originality/value

This is the first research conducted to explain, from a self-regulatory perspective, the influence that is exerted on service employees’ service innovation by their responses to high job demands. The findings identify the effects that service employees’ promotion focus or prevention focus in self-regulation have on their creativity, and the data unravel the role of emotional labour strategy as the mediating mechanism that explains the influence of regulatory focus on service employee creativity. On the basis of the findings, managerial directions are offered with regard to managing service employees’ regulatory focus and emotional labour, with a view to enhancing the creativity and innovation within a service organisation.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Denise Fischer, René Mauer and Malte Brettel

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of regulatory focus in sustainable entrepreneurship processes to answer questions on how sustainable entrepreneurs pursue…

2579

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of regulatory focus in sustainable entrepreneurship processes to answer questions on how sustainable entrepreneurs pursue their goals and what motivates them. Knowledge about an entrepreneur’s motivational attribute is essential when trying to understand new venture creation processes. To determine an entrepreneur’s affiliation with one of the two self-regulatory systems, promotion focus and prevention focus, it is helpful to establish whether he or she is motivated by growth and development goals (promotion) or rather by responsibility and security goals (prevention).

Design/methodology/approach

In a qualitative study of seven sustainable ventures, two semi-structured interview rounds with 14 founders were conducted. Archival data from internal and external sources were gathered, resulting in more than 80 text documents.

Findings

Findings reveal that the self-regulatory focus of sustainable entrepreneurs changes during the entrepreneurial process with regard to the temporal dynamics of motivation. While conceiving ideas, sustainable entrepreneurs engage in a prevention-focused self-regulatory process because social or ecological problems induce them to direct their attention toward sustainable development goals. During rollout, in contrast, they increasingly engage in a promotion-focused self-regulatory process and concentrate more on venture growth goals.

Practical implications

The results highlight the important role of a regulatory fit between key self-regulatory entrepreneurial behaviors and entrepreneurs’ regulatory orientation toward increased motivation and enjoyment when pursuing goals.

Originality/value

This study’s contributions extend and combine the theories of regulatory focus, entrepreneurial motivation, and entrepreneurial processes in the field of sustainable entrepreneurship. They are valuable for understanding the determinants of sustainable entrepreneurial action.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Zhiqiang Liu, Xi Ouyang and Xiaoqing Pan

This study aims to explore how employees respond to tensions in groups and whether experiencing tensions could spur on their creativity (including radical and incremental…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how employees respond to tensions in groups and whether experiencing tensions could spur on their creativity (including radical and incremental creativity). Through integrating the literature on tension and regulatory focus theory, this study develops a model depicting the process from experiencing tensions to creativity via regulatory foci. This study further investigates the moderating effect of employees’ hierarchical level on these processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-wave survey was conducted with a sample of 375 employees in China. MPLUS was used to examine the moderated mediation model.

Findings

The results show that experiencing tensions can simultaneously activate employees’ prevention focus and promotion focus, both of which in turn influence radical and incremental creativity. Specifically, prevention focus mediates the negative relationship between experiencing tensions and the two aforementioned types of creativity, and promotion focus mediates the positive relationship between experiencing tensions and radical creativity. Employees’ hierarchical level significantly buffers the link between experiencing tensions and prevention focus.

Practical implications

Organizations should optimize their work design to simplify the role demand of employees in the early stages of their careers. Top-tier employees should be encouraged and empowered to think and act with a paradoxical approach, which can drive them to generate more creative outcomes. Besides, when aiming to discover radical ideas, managers should emphatically cultivate employees’ promotion focus.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on tension through revealing and testing the dual paths resulted by employees’ experiencing tensions. It also advances current research by contrasting the effects of experiencing tensions on different types of creativity.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2019

Hean Tat Keh, Nicole Hartley and Di Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of service separation on perceived value and intention to enroll in the higher education context, as mediated by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of service separation on perceived value and intention to enroll in the higher education context, as mediated by perceived performance risk and moderated by an individual’s regulatory focus.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experimental studies were conducted, a pilot study and three main studies. Participants evaluated higher education courses offered in either the unseparated (on-campus) or separated (online) mode.

Findings

Results show that: service separation influences perceived value; this effect is mediated by performance risk; and moderated by regulatory focus. Specifically, participants perceive higher education courses offered in the separated mode to have greater performance risk, which lowers their perceived value. This effect is enhanced for prevention-focused participants and mitigated for promotion-focused participants. Finally, service separation is found to influence intention to enroll in a course via performance risk and perceived value.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that higher education providers need to better understand students’ regulatory focus. In particular, online education providers should target potential students who are promotion-focused and implement strategies to reduce performance risk, which would give students greater assurance that the online course will be delivered as promised.

Originality/value

The present research is the first to examine the effects of service separation in the context of higher education, which has received relatively little attention in the services marketing literature. In particular, the findings shed new insights on the mechanisms underlying consumer perceptions of separated vs unseparated service offerings, which contribute to research on services marketing and higher education.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Feng Xu and Xiaohong Wang

The mechanism of leadership’s impact on dynamic capabilities has aroused widespread interest, but few studies focus on transactional leadership, especially empirical…

2517

Abstract

Purpose

The mechanism of leadership’s impact on dynamic capabilities has aroused widespread interest, but few studies focus on transactional leadership, especially empirical research by micro foundations in the R&D departments from collaborative innovation alliances. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the mechanism of transactional leadership affects dynamic capabilities based on the mediating effect of regulatory focus.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to better illustrate the role of transactional leadership on dynamic capabilities, the authors introduced regulatory focus as a mediator based on previous research. A sample of 245 dyads comprised of full-time employees and their immediate supervisors was collected from the innovation teams of industry-university alliances through questionnaires in China and analyzed via hierarchical regression method. Non-response bias and endogeneity testing were also conducted to confirm the validity of the findings.

Findings

Contingency-reward behavior promotes the development of employee sensing and seizing capability. Management-by-exception promotes the development of employee reconfiguration capability. Promotion focus positively mediates the relationship between contingency-reward and sensing-seizing capability. Prevention focus positively mediates the relationship between management-by-exception and sensing-seizing capability. In addition, management-by-exception is also positively related to sensing capability and promotion focus is positively related to reconfiguration capability.

Originality/value

This paper confirmed different dimensions of transactional leadership favor different dimensions of dynamic capabilities based on different dimensions of regulatory focus, which enriches the theory of strategic leadership and dynamic capabilities, and is conducive to the management of collaborative innovation in technological innovation alliances.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000