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Article

Silvana Chambers

Regression discontinuity (RD) design is a sophisticated quasi-experimental approach used for inferring causal relationships and estimating treatment effects. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Regression discontinuity (RD) design is a sophisticated quasi-experimental approach used for inferring causal relationships and estimating treatment effects. This paper aims to educate human resource development (HRD) researchers and practitioners on the implementation of RD design as an ethical alternative for making causal claims about training interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

To demonstrate the key features of RD designs, a simulated data set was generated from actual pre-test and post-test diversity training scores of 276 participants from three organizations in the USA. Parametric and non-parametric analyses were conducted, and graphical presentations were produced.

Findings

This study found that RD design can be used for evaluating training interventions. The results of the simulated data set yielded statistically significant results for the treatment effects, showing a positive causal effect of the training intervention. The analyses found support for the use of RD models with retrospective training intervention data, eliminating ethical concerns from random group assignment. The results of the non-parametric model provided evidence of the plausibility of finding the right balance between precision of estimates and generalizable results, making it an alternative to experimental designs.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the HRD field by explicating the implementation of a sophisticated, statistical tool to strengthen causal claims, contributing to an evidence-based HRD approach to practice and providing the R syntax for replicating the analyses contained herein.

Originality/value

Despite the growing number of scholarly articles being published in HRD journals, very few have used experimental or quasi-experimental design approaches. Therefore, a very limited amount of research has been devoted to uncovering causal relationships.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Book part

Otávio Bartalotti, Gray Calhoun and Yang He

This chapter develops a novel bootstrap procedure to obtain robust bias-corrected confidence intervals in regression discontinuity (RD) designs. The procedure uses a wild…

Abstract

This chapter develops a novel bootstrap procedure to obtain robust bias-corrected confidence intervals in regression discontinuity (RD) designs. The procedure uses a wild bootstrap from a second-order local polynomial to estimate the bias of the local linear RD estimator; the bias is then subtracted from the original estimator. The bias-corrected estimator is then bootstrapped itself to generate valid confidence intervals (CIs). The CIs generated by this procedure are valid under conditions similar to Calonico, Cattaneo, and Titiunik’s (2014) analytical correction – that is, when the bias of the naive RD estimator would otherwise prevent valid inference. This chapter also provides simulation evidence that our method is as accurate as the analytical corrections and we demonstrate its use through a reanalysis of Ludwig and Miller’s (2007) Head Start dataset.

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

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Book part

Giovanni Cerulli, Yingying Dong, Arthur Lewbel and Alexander Poulsen

Regression discontinuity (RD) models are commonly used to nonparametrically identify and estimate a local average treatment effect. Dong and Lewbel (2015) show how a…

Abstract

Regression discontinuity (RD) models are commonly used to nonparametrically identify and estimate a local average treatment effect. Dong and Lewbel (2015) show how a derivative of this effect, called treatment effect derivative (TED) can be estimated. We argue here that TED should be employed in most RD applications, as a way to assess the stability and hence external validity of RD estimates. Closely related to TED, we define the complier probability derivative (CPD). Just as TED measures stability of the treatment effect, the CPD measures stability of the complier population in fuzzy designs. TED and CPD are numerically trivial to estimate. We provide relevant Stata code, and apply it to some real datasets.

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Article

Anton Nivorozhkin, Laura Romeu Gordo and Julia Schneider

The goal of the paper is to investigate how reservation wages of older unemployed welfare recipients change once they are no longer subject to standard job search requirements.

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of the paper is to investigate how reservation wages of older unemployed welfare recipients change once they are no longer subject to standard job search requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a regression discontinuity design.

Findings

Consistent with theoretical predictions, the authors’ findings indicate that eliminating job search requirements will tend to increase reservation wages.

Practical implications

The results correspond to previous findings in the literature that monitoring leads to lower accepted wages and increased exits rates from unemployment, and that it may be a successful policy measure to keep older workers in the labor market.

Originality/value

Monitoring of job search effort has been shown to be an effective method of activating unemployed people, but little evidence has been found on the effect of activation measures on older workers.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Susana Yu, Gwendolyn Webb and Kishore Tandon

Prior research on additions to the S & P 500 and the smaller MidCap 400 and SmallCap 600 indexes reach different conclusions regarding the key variables that…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research on additions to the S & P 500 and the smaller MidCap 400 and SmallCap 600 indexes reach different conclusions regarding the key variables that explain the cross-section of announcement period abnormal returns. Most notable in this regard is that liquidity measures, long thought to be of importance, do not appear to explain abnormal returns of the S & P 500 when other factors are controlled for. By contrast, they do appear to matter for additions to the smaller stock indexes. To explore this difference, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the abnormal returns upon announcement that a stock will be added to the Nasdaq-100 Index in a cross-sectional manner, controlling for several possible alternative factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes abnormal returns upon announcement that a stock will be added to the Nasdaq-100 Index. The authors consider several possible sources of the positive price effects in a multivariate setting that controls simultaneously for measures of liquidity, arbitrage risk, operating performance and investor interest and awareness. The authors then analyze both trading volume and the bid-ask spreads. The authors finally examine analyst and investor interest, focussing on changes in analyst coverage.

Findings

The authors find that only liquidity variables are significant, but that factors representing feedback effects on the firm’s operations and level of managerial effort are not. The authors find that the average bid/ask spreads of stocks added to the Nasdaq-100 index are lower after the addition. The authors also find that the number of analysts following a stock increases significantly after addition, verifying increased analyst interest. Both forms of evidence are consistent with the hypothesis that the additions are associated with enhanced liquidity for the stocks.

Originality/value

The authors conclude that what does happen to a Nasdaq stock when it is announced that it will be added to the Nasdaq-100 Index is that more analysts are drawn to it, and its market liquidity is enhanced. The authors conclude that what does not happen is that there is no evidence of significant effects of enhanced managerial effort or operating performance associated with the inclusion. This difference is noteworthy because it suggests that a certification effect of additions to the S & P indexes associated with S & P’s selection process are unique to it and do not apply to the Nasdaq-100 Index additions based on market cap alone. The results provide indirect evidence on the existence and significance of the certification effect associated with additions to the S & P indexes.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Linda Bendikson, John Hattie and Viviane Robinson

One of the features of the New Zealand secondary schools system is that achievement closely reflects the taught curriculum. The National Certificate of Educational…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the features of the New Zealand secondary schools system is that achievement closely reflects the taught curriculum. The National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) directly assesses student achievement on the secondary school curriculum through a combination of criterion‐based internal and external assessments. The nature of NCEA means school‐level results not only reflect student achievement but also the ability of leaders to organise, deliver, and monitor a relevant curriculum for students. This paper aims to describe how NCEA data were used to develop a simple but fair system to assess the relative performance of secondary schools.

Design/methodology/approach

No standardised measures of performance prior to Year 11 are available in New Zealand. Nor are student‐level data available. In the absence of these, multiple indicators of gross performance, added value and improvement over time were analysed using a schools‐of‐similar‐type methodology.

Findings

Results indicated that schools in the low and middle SES communities were more likely to be improving than others, but these improving schools were also more likely to be already high‐ or mid‐performing. Low‐performing schools were least likely to be improving.

Originality/value

Some advantages of this methodology are its ability to be utilised with any publicly available standards‐based achievement data, its validity as an indicator of leadership and organisational performance, and its ability to track school performance trends over time.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Health Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-541-2

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Abstract

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

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Book part

Hugo Jales and Zhengfei Yu

This chapter reviews recent developments in the density discontinuity approach. It is well known that agents having perfect control of the forcing variable will invalidate…

Abstract

This chapter reviews recent developments in the density discontinuity approach. It is well known that agents having perfect control of the forcing variable will invalidate the popular regression discontinuity designs (RDDs). To detect the manipulation of the forcing variable, McCrary (2008) developed a test based on the discontinuity in the density around the threshold. Recent papers have noted that the sorting patterns around the threshold are often either the researcher’s object of interest or may relate to structural parameters such as tax elasticities through known functions. This, in turn, implies that the behavior of the distribution around the threshold is not only informative of the validity of a standard RDD; it can also be used to recover policy-relevant parameters and perform counterfactual exercises.

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

Keywords

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Book part

Zhuan Pei and Yi Shen

Identification in a regression discontinuity (RD) design hinges on the discontinuity in the probability of treatment when a covariate (assignment variable) exceeds a known…

Abstract

Identification in a regression discontinuity (RD) design hinges on the discontinuity in the probability of treatment when a covariate (assignment variable) exceeds a known threshold. If the assignment variable is measured with error, however, the discontinuity in the relationship between the probability of treatment and the observed mismeasured assignment variable may disappear. Therefore, the presence of measurement error in the assignment variable poses a challenge to treatment effect identification. This chapter provides sufficient conditions to identify the RD treatment effect using the mismeasured assignment variable, the treatment status and the outcome variable. We prove identification separately for discrete and continuous assignment variables and study the properties of various estimation procedures. We illustrate the proposed methods in an empirical application, where we estimate Medicaid takeup and its crowdout effect on private health insurance coverage.

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

Keywords

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