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In response to a number of highly publicized sexually-oriented and violent crimes against children, the federal government enacted legislation aimed at monitoring sex…
In response to a number of highly publicized sexually-oriented and violent crimes against children, the federal government enacted legislation aimed at monitoring sex offenders in the community. Sex offender registration and notification laws are intended to prevent sexual victimization by informing the general public about would-be danger, providing the police with additional investigative tools, and deterring offenders from engaging in further criminal behavior. Despite public support for these laws, it is not clear they effectively reduce sex offending. This essay reviews the development of these laws, their application, and the impact of registration and notification.
In the USA, sex offender policy research has focussed on demographic characteristics of registrants, recidivism rates of registrants, accuracy and completeness of listed…
In the USA, sex offender policy research has focussed on demographic characteristics of registrants, recidivism rates of registrants, accuracy and completeness of listed information, and the collateral consequences experienced by registrants. This growing body of research demonstrates the need to explore offender perceptions of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) laws. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether registration related variables influenced sex offenders’ opinions about the registry, compliance with the registry, self-worth, and deterrence perceptions.
This paper utilized a sample of 286 male registered sex offenders (RSO) in Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin. Four multivariate regression models were run to examine registration related variables impact on sex offender opinions of the registry, registry compliance, feelings of self-worth, and perceptions of deterrence.
The multivariate regression results suggest registration related variables have a significant impact on RSO opinion of the registry, compliance with the registry, and opinions of self. Specifically, the number of collateral consequences that one experienced, police contacts that RSOs had, and being recognized as a sex offender were significantly related to the dependent variables in the regression models.
This study adds to the body of research that indicates sex offenders experience a myriad of consequences that are outside the scope of the registered sex offender laws. Policy implications and societal consequences of these findings are discussed, as well as a future research agenda.
Sex offenders and the laws concerning them represent a highly controversial and emotionally charged issue. Current efforts of legislation in the United States to manage…
Sex offenders and the laws concerning them represent a highly controversial and emotionally charged issue. Current efforts of legislation in the United States to manage the increasing number of sex offenders being arrested and eventually released back into communities are inadequate to manage such a large population of offenders, and the effects of registration and notification laws are more detrimental than beneficial to the communities they intend to protect. This paper discusses the notion that a significant cause of the problem relates to the overly broad standards that are used to define who is to be charged as a sex offender. The term “sex offender” needs to be reserved for those individuals who best represent the meaning of the term, and the resources available for this issue should be directed towards the effective management of those offenders instead of being spread so thin amongst so many offenders who do not pose a serious threat to society that none of them are sufficiently supervised after release from incarceration. Furthermore, laws and federal guidelines regarding sex offender legislation needs to be based on empirical research findings instead of uniformed public pressure.
To explain the persistent abhorrent perspective society holds of sex offenders, the concept of sex offenders, the evolution of salient sex offender legislation, and the…
To explain the persistent abhorrent perspective society holds of sex offenders, the concept of sex offenders, the evolution of salient sex offender legislation, and the relationships between sex offenders and social control with a focus on the current and emerging socio-legal issues are discussed. As one of the most vilified criminal offenders, sex offenders are inextricably related to social control as demonstrated by the disproportionately imposed legal restrictions they have experienced compared to offenders without a history of sex crimes. Public support of excessive punishments toward sex offenders has been bolstered by societal depictions that have induced perceptions of sex offenders as monstrous beings.
Aversions toward sex offenders unfold when it is perceived that the solidarity of society is dissolute and volatile. During these periods of perceived social disintegration, mass media emerges as a source that can contextualize the depraved actions of sex offenders, though the media have arguably perverted their role as an educator and contributed to misinformation. Education and revised evaluative assessments of sexual recidivism are suggested as approaches to redefine how sex offenders should be portrayed, as a heterogeneous group of individuals that vary in their amenability to rehabilitative treatment.
Collateral consequences (CCs) of criminal convictions such as disenfranchisement, occupational restrictions, exclusions from public housing, and loss of welfare benefits…
Collateral consequences (CCs) of criminal convictions such as disenfranchisement, occupational restrictions, exclusions from public housing, and loss of welfare benefits represent one of the salient yet hidden features of the contemporary American penal state. This chapter explores, from a comparative and historical perspective, the rise of the many indirect “regulatory” sanctions flowing from a conviction and discusses some of the unique challenges they pose for legal and policy reform. US jurisprudence and policies are contrasted with the more stringent approach adopted by European legal systems and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in safeguarding the often blurred line between criminal punishments and formally civil sanctions. The aim of this chapter is twofold: (1) to contribute to a better understanding of the overreliance of the US criminal justice systems on CCs as a device of social exclusion and control, and (2) to put forward constructive and viable reform proposals aimed at reinventing the role and operation of collateral restrictions flowing from criminal convictions.
The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:
Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…
Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.
This paper aims to facilitate and accelerate the enforcement of binding banking documents and to decrease the enforcement burden of the registration offices, courts and…
This paper aims to facilitate and accelerate the enforcement of binding banking documents and to decrease the enforcement burden of the registration offices, courts and judicial authorities and to transfer it to the banks.
A new mechanism for “enforcement of the purports of binding banking documents in Rastin Banking” is proposed. In the proposed regulations, a part of the executive path for enforcement of the purports of binding banking documents is transferred into a newly established unit located in every bank. The method considers all financial, legal and executive issues.
Promotion of practical justice is a main factor to promote social and economic circumstances; the proposed model can prepare a way to improve the social and economic well-being.
Codifying the law and regulations is a highly sophisticated task, and the art of codification can be examined after scrutinizing and executing the full text of the law.
Though this paper presents the concept, the detailed proposed regulations are presented in two drafts of the bill and bylaw for enforcement of the purports of binding banking documents and handling complaints against executive operations in Rastin Banking.
This procedure is a model that can be adapted for other countries, especially those countries that have a large number of legal disputes and where the process of dispute settlement is very lengthy and cumbersome.
It fulfils an identified need to solve the practical legal problem in vindication of rights that can lead to positive and important effects towards creating public trust in financial obligations and increasing the speed of collecting demands.
On 21st July 1994 the Trade Marks Act 1994 received the Royal Assent. It introduces the most radical overhaul of British trade mark law for over 50 years and replaces the current regime set out in the Trade Marks Act 1938 as amended. The reforms reflect the increased significance of trade marks in modern commerce and the concerns of business that the current law was increasingly anachronistic.