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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Kyoungsik Na

This study explores the effects of cognitive load on the propensity to reformulate queries during information seeking on the web.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the effects of cognitive load on the propensity to reformulate queries during information seeking on the web.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs an experimental design to analyze the effect of manipulations of cognitive load on the propensity for query reformulation between experimental and control groups. In total, three affective components that contribute to cognitive load were manipulated: mental demand, temporal demand and frustration.

Findings

A significant difference in the propensity of query reformulation behavior was found between searchers exposed to cognitive load manipulations and searchers who were not exposed. Those exposed to cognitive load manipulations made half as many search query reformulations as searchers not exposed. Furthermore, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) cognitive load scores of searchers who were exposed to the three cognitive load manipulations were higher than those of searchers who were not exposed indicating that the manipulation was effective. Query reformulation behavior did not differ across task types.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that a dual-task method and NASA-TLX assessment serve as good indicators of cognitive load. Because the findings show that cognitive load hinders a searcher's interaction with information search tools, this study provides empirical support for reducing cognitive load when designing information systems or user interfaces.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Dan Wu and Renmin Bi

This paper discusses the differences in search pattern transitions for mobile phone, tablet and desktop devices by mining the transaction log data of a library online…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper discusses the differences in search pattern transitions for mobile phone, tablet and desktop devices by mining the transaction log data of a library online public access catalogue (OPAC). We aimed to analyze the impacts of different devices on user search behavior and provide constructive suggestions for the development of library OPACs on different devices.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on transaction logs which are 9 GB in size and contain 16,140,509 records of a university library OPAC, statistics and clustering were used to analyze the differences in search pattern transitions on different devices in terms of two aspects: search field transition patterns and query reformulation patterns.

Findings

Search field transition patterns are influenced by the input function and user interfaces of different devices. As reformulation times increase, the differences between query reformulation patterns among different devices decrease.

Practical implications

Mobile-side libraries need to optimize user interfaces, for example by setting web page labels and improving input capabilities. Desk-side libraries can add more suggestive content on the interface.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, which have analyzed web search, this paper focuses on library OPAC search. The search function of mobile phones, tablets and desktops were found to be asymptotic, which was a good illustration of how devices have a large impact on user search behavior.

Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Michael A. Carrier and Steve D. Shadowen

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies have engaged in a variety of business conduct that has increased price. One of these activities involves “product hopping,” or brand…

Abstract

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies have engaged in a variety of business conduct that has increased price. One of these activities involves “product hopping,” or brand switches from one version of a drug to another. The antitrust analysis of product hopping implicates antitrust law, patent law, the Hatch–Waxman Act, and state drug product selection laws, as well as uniquely complicated markets characterized by buyers different from decision makers. As a result, courts have offered inconsistent approaches to product hopping.

In this chapter, we offer a framework that courts and government enforcers can employ to analyze product hopping. The framework is the first to incorporate the characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry. It defines a “product hop” to include instances in which the manufacturer (1) reformulates the product to make the generic nonsubstitutable and (2) encourages doctors to write prescriptions for the reformulated rather than the original product.

When the conduct meets both requirements, our framework offers two stages of analysis. First, we propose two safe harbors to ensure that the vast majority of reformulations will not face antitrust review. Second, the framework examines whether the hop passes the “no-economic-sense” test, determining if the behavior would make economic sense if the hop did not have the effect of impairing generic competition. Showing just how far the courts have veered from justified economic analysis, the test would recommend a different analysis than that used in each of the five product-hopping cases that have been litigated to date, and a different outcome in two of them.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Jia Tina Du, Abu Shamim Mohammad Arif and Preben Hansen

Collaborative information search (CIS) is a growing and significant research area. Query formulation and reformulation is an important search strategy in information…

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborative information search (CIS) is a growing and significant research area. Query formulation and reformulation is an important search strategy in information search. However, limited research has investigated query behavior during CIS. The purpose of this paper is to characterize collaborative query reformulation (CQR) by exploring the sources of collaborative query (CQ) terms and the types and patterns of CQR in the context of tourism information search.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was designed to investigate search query reformulation as tourists performed CIS on a devised interface. A total of 36 participants (in 18 pairs) took part in the study; data were documented in pre- and post-search questionnaires, search logs and chat logs.

Findings

The findings show that participants intermixed individual search and collaborative search during CIS. Participants constructed CQ terms mainly by selecting terms from individual search queries and discussion chat logs. Eight types of CQR were identified, with specialization (82 percent) accounting for the most used search tactics. At most times, participants were found to add terms to the previous query. Findings demonstrated 27 specific CQR patterns; in excess of two-third participants (69 percent) took only one move to reformulate CQ by adding terms, or replacing/using new words.

Practical implications

The results of this research can be used to inform the design of search systems supporting collaborative querying in CIS.

Originality/value

This study is highlighting an important research direction of CQ reformulation in collaborative search while previous studies of the topic are limited, comparing to the vast body of work on query reformulation in individual information search using regular search systems.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2007

Bernard J. Jansen, Mimi Zhang and Amanda Spink

To investigate and identify the patterns of interaction between searchers and search engine during web searching.

508

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate and identify the patterns of interaction between searchers and search engine during web searching.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined 2,465,145 interactions from 534,507 users of Dogpile.com submitted on May 6, 2005, and compared query reformulation patterns. They investigated the type of query modifications and query modification transitions within sessions.

Findings

The paper identifies three strong query reformulation transition patterns: between specialization and generalization; between video and audio, and between content change and system assistance. In addition, the findings show that web and images content were the most popular media collections.

Originality/value

This research sheds light on the more complex aspects of web searching involving query modifications.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Faraja Ndumbaro

Users' search logs are implicit feedbacks on how searchers interact with online information retrieval (IR) systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze search query…

Abstract

Purpose

Users' search logs are implicit feedbacks on how searchers interact with online information retrieval (IR) systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze search query reformulation (SQR) patterns of University of Dar es Salaam remote OPAC users.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of transaction logs were employed to ascertain the characteristics of search queries and the patterns in which remote OPAC users reformulate their search queries. The study covered a period of six months, commencing from January to June 2019.

Findings

A total of 30,474 search hits were submitted by remote OPAC users during the period under study. Individuals from academic and research institutions, computing consortia, and telecommunication companies are the main users of the system. Most of the searches originated from North America and Europe, with few searches coming from China and India. Besides improving search results, SQRs are linked with the existence of multiple information demands as manifested by the use of heterogeneous headwords within individual search episodes.

Research limitations/implications

Data collected covered only six months. Similarly, it was however not possible to analyze users' search query formulation within specific contexts such as task-based information searching.

Practical implications

A query recommendation system should be integrated into the OPAC functionalities to improve users' search experiences. Alternatively, there should be a migration to a new system that offers more advanced search features and functionalities.

Originality/value

The study has contributed new insights in SQR studies particularly on how non-institutional affiliated users translate their information needs into search queries during information searching processes.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-09-2020-0389

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2022

Rowena B. Russell, Kate Theodore and Julie Lloyd

This study aims to explore how care staff working with people with learning disabilities experienced psychologist-facilitated team formulation sessions in a cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how care staff working with people with learning disabilities experienced psychologist-facilitated team formulation sessions in a cognitive analytic style (contextual reformulation).

Design/methodology/approach

Eleven participants attended at least one contextual reformulation session regarding a client their team referred because of challenging behaviour. Post-intervention semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative inductive thematic analysis.

Findings

Five themes were developed: multiple roles and functions of sessions and clinicians; challenging behaviour in relationship; making links – understanding can be enlightening, containing and practical; the process of developing a shared understanding and approach; and caught between two perspectives. Findings suggested contextual reformulation helped staff see challenging behaviour as relational, provided them with the space to reflect on their emotions and relate compassionately to themselves and others, and ultimately helped them to focus their interventions on understanding and relationally managing rather than acting to reduce behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Qualitative methodology allows no causal inferences to be made. Ten of 11 participants were female.

Originality/value

This qualitative study adds to the limited research base on team formulation in learning disabilities settings and specifically that using a cognitive analytic approach.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Amanda Spink, Bernard J. Jansen and H. Cenk Ozmultu

Examines the use of query reformulation, and particularly the use of relevance feedback by users of the Excite Web search engine. A total of 985 user search sessions from…

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Abstract

Examines the use of query reformulation, and particularly the use of relevance feedback by users of the Excite Web search engine. A total of 985 user search sessions from a data set of 18,113 user search sessions containing 51,473 queries were examined. Includes a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 191 user sessions including more than one query, to examine patterns of user query reformulation; and second, all 804 user sessions including relevance feedback were examined. Results show limited use of query reformulation and relevance feedback by Excite users – only one in five users reformulated queries. Most relevance feedback sessions were successful. Identifies the most common pattern of searching and discusses implications for Web search system design.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Liran Christine Shan, Áine Regan, Frank J. Monahan, Chenguang Li, Fiona Lalor, Celine Murrin, Patrick G. Wall and Áine McConnon

In response to increasing public health concerns about processed meat consumption, many innovations in meat technology focus on health-oriented product reformulations

Abstract

Purpose

In response to increasing public health concerns about processed meat consumption, many innovations in meat technology focus on health-oriented product reformulations. Processed meat is not a homogeneous food category. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer perception of the “healthier” reformulation of different processed meat products using two approaches: salt and fat reduction; and enrichment with healthy ingredients.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven focus group interviews were carried out with 40 Irish regular meat consumers (30 female, ten male) who were solely or jointly responsible for food shopping. Two rounds of card sorting procedures were employed to reveal perceptions on reformulation of 20 different processed meat products. Thematic analysis was used for analysing transcripts.

Findings

Health and flavour concerns and product popularity were the main factors influencing participants’ perceptions. Some participants were unsure or had misconceptions about the healthiness of certain meat products. Participants suggested reducing salt and fat content in processed meat products they perceived as the least healthy ones (theme 1) and improving the healthiness of products which were favoured by children (theme 2) and those meat products which people consumed regularly as a source of protein (theme 3). Participants were not in favour of any reformulation of speciality-type products (theme 4).

Originality/value

Consumer insights identified in this study can inform future approaches to making processed meats healthier.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Yijin Chen, Yiming Zhao and Ziyun Wang

This study considers online searching by health information consumers as a learning process. We focus on search sequences, query reformulation, and conceptual changes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study considers online searching by health information consumers as a learning process. We focus on search sequences, query reformulation, and conceptual changes.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative user study (30 participants; three health information seeking tasks) investigated mobile searching behavior. Recorded screen activity, questionnaires, and in-depth personal interview data were collected and analyzed.

Findings

(1) Search platform sequences of health information consumers in search as a learning process were exacted and their features were highlighted. (2) Query sequence and reformulation pattern of health information consumers were exacted and discussed. (3) The types and degree of conceptual changes of health consumers were reflected by their query reformulation behavior and differ from different health information search tasks. (4) Characteristics of health consumers' search as learning process were revealed.

Research limitations/implications

(1) A novel perspective of consumer health information studies was proposed by exacting search platform sequence, query sequence and linking them with conceptual changes during the search as learning process. (2) Conceptual changes in the searching as a learning process are regarded as a measure of search outcome in this study, in which terms extracted from queries were used to reflect conceptual changes in consumers' mind. (3) Our findings provide evidences that types of health information seeking tasks do have significant influences on the search as a learning process.

Practical Implications

The findings of this study can lead to the fit-to-needs of the search platforms, provide advice for information architecture of search list of search platforms, and guide the design of knowledge graph of health information systems.

Originality/value

Potential relationships between information-seeking behavior and conceptual changes in search as a learning process relative to health information were revealed.

1 – 10 of over 2000