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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Ming‐Long Lee and R. Kelley Pace

The purpose of this paper is to provide additional evidence that housing prices significantly impact aggregate refinancing and thus directly influence mortgage termination.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide additional evidence that housing prices significantly impact aggregate refinancing and thus directly influence mortgage termination.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis is applied to examine refinancing activity in US cities.

Findings

The evidence shows that positive appreciation in housing prices provides the borrower with positive incentives to refinance in response to the associated increased borrowing capacity when mortgage rates have declined. On the other hand, depreciation in housing prices may depress refinancing.

Research limitations/implications

Housing price movements, not only collateral constraints on refinancing but also the disincentive to engage in cash‐out refinancing caused by depreciation as well as the incentive for cash‐out refinancing brought by appreciation, should be included in modeling total termination risks of mortgage‐backed securities.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies, this paper provides empirical support for both the incentive and the disincentive to engage in cash‐out refinancing produced by housing price changes, in addition to support for the traditional collateral constraint effect of housing prices on refinancing.

Details

Property Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Wenhua Hou and Lun Wang

With the majority of highway projects in China having entered their operational phases, the maintenance and repair of the pavement is receiving increasing attention. One…

275

Abstract

Purpose

With the majority of highway projects in China having entered their operational phases, the maintenance and repair of the pavement is receiving increasing attention. One problem that needs to be addressed urgently is that of how to raise the proper funds for highway maintenance to ensure the sustainable operation of the project. To this end, the aim of this study is to investigate the capital demand for operation and maintenance of a project by means of a refinancing scheme, in order to reduce the possibility of project bankruptcy and to enhance the economic value of the project.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an analysis of the dynamic complexity of the highway pavement maintenance system, a Markov model is used to predict pavement performance, and an optimal capital structure decision model is proposed for highway public–private partnership (PPP) project refinancing, using the method of system dynamics (SD). The proposed model is then applied to a real case study.

Findings

Results show that the proposed model can be used to predict accurately the dynamic changes in the demand for road maintenance funds and refinancing during the period of operation, before making the optimal decision for the refinancing capital structure.

Originality/value

Although many scholars have studied the optimal refinancing capital structure of PPP projects, the dynamic changes inherent in the demand for maintenance funds for highway PPP projects are seldom considered. Therefore, in the approach used here the influence of the dynamic change of road maintenance capital demand on refinancing is investigated, and SD is used for the optimal capital structure decision-making model of highway PPP project refinancing, to make the decision-making process more reasonable and scientific.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Martin J. Luby

The esoteric area of financial derivatives has become quite salient in light of the financial crisis of the last few years. In the public sector, state and local…

Abstract

The esoteric area of financial derivatives has become quite salient in light of the financial crisis of the last few years. In the public sector, state and local governments have increasingly employed derivatives in their bond financings. This paper analyzes state and local governments’ use of a specific type of municipal derivative instrument (a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap) in a specific type of transaction (bond refinancing). The paper provides a case study of an executed bond refinancing transaction that employed a floating-to-fixed interest rate swap quantifying the substantial long-term costs financial derivatives can impart on state and local governments. The paper concludes with some specific lessons learned about debt-related derivative usage for public financial managers and offers some suggestions for further empirical and theoretical research in this area of public financial management.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Richard A. Graff

The problem in alleviating homeowner mortgage distress through refinance is how to achieve meaningful alleviation without prospectively harming the financier. The problem…

Abstract

Purpose

The problem in alleviating homeowner mortgage distress through refinance is how to achieve meaningful alleviation without prospectively harming the financier. The problem revolves around two parameters from real estate finance – the probability that the distress leads to foreclosure and resulting foreclosure loss severity for the financier if foreclosure does occur. Previous analysis focuses on reducing the probability that homeowner distress leads to foreclosure. By contrast, the purpose of this paper is to focus on reducing foreclosure loss severity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops a new intuitive formula for foreclosure loss severity to quantify its dependence on transaction costs. The study shows that foreclosure loss severity reduction is feasible by introducing a new refinancing instrument that lowers foreclosure transaction costs and applying property law to derive the structure of the refinancing instrument.

Findings

Foreclosure loss severity reduction can subsidize concessions on scheduled payments for homeowners with arbitrarily poor credit without prospective harm to the financier.

Research limitations/implications

Quantification of mortgage distress relief is limited to distressed mortgages described by representative parameter values from various government studies.

Practical implications

For most distressed homeowners, payment and principal reductions could exceed those available from the recent government programs.

Social implications

Implementation should significantly enlarge the pool of homeowners eligible for mortgage distress relief.

Originality/value

The mortgage refinance is qualitatively different from that available under existing government refinance programs because it is based on an arms-length exchange of property rights that makes market sense regardless of whether the refinancing results in subsequent homeowner default.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Tingli Liu, Ying Jiang and Lizhong Hao

Although short selling has been legalized in China for nearly 10 years, due to the existence of short-sale constraints, its impact on corporate governance of listed…

Abstract

Purpose

Although short selling has been legalized in China for nearly 10 years, due to the existence of short-sale constraints, its impact on corporate governance of listed companies remains unclear. This paper aims to examine the impact of short-sale refinancing on earnings quality after the short-selling constraints have been released. The authors further explore whether this impact is subject to the nature of property rights and shareholding structures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a sample of A-share firms in China for the period 2014–2016. The authors use earnings response coefficients (ERC) as a proxy for earnings quality. To empirically examine this issue, a matching sample is generated by using propensity score matching method (PSM) to reduce sample selection bias.

Findings

This study provides evidence that deregulation of short selling has positive external effect on corporate governance. The results indicate that the potential short-selling opportunities can effectively suppress earnings manipulation and improve earnings quality. However, the impact of short selling on earnings quality varies for companies with different nature of property rights and shareholding structure.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between short selling and earnings quality in the unique setting of short-sale refinancing. This study provides new evidence on the impact of short selling at the micro level and calls for further deregulation of short selling. In addition, this study contributes to existing studies on short-sale refinancing by examining an emerging market.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

Halit Gonenc, Floris Schorer and Willem P.F. Appel

Credit default swap (CDS) spreads may not represent the accurate credit risk levels (asymmetric spread behavior) of assets with the initiation of corporate events, such as…

1246

Abstract

Purpose

Credit default swap (CDS) spreads may not represent the accurate credit risk levels (asymmetric spread behavior) of assets with the initiation of corporate events, such as merger, spin‐off or other similar events in which one entity succeeds to the obligations of another entity. The International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) succession language for the definition of succession events misleads the CDS market participants to determine CDS spreads. The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the relationship between the ISDA succession language and CDS spreads in order to clarify the factors behind the asymmetric spread behavior around several corporate activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual driver model to establish a link between company characteristics and succession issues. Then, a succession model to evaluate the risk levels occurring with succession issues is designed.

Findings

The ISDA succession language has an influence on CDS spreads around corporate events. The explanatory approach provides the foundation for the understanding of the relationships between succession issues caused by several corporate events, involving particularly restructuring, refinancing and/or guarantee risk, and CDS spreads. Combination of the driver model and the succession model helps to assess the potential influence of succession events on CDS spreads.

Research limitations/implications

Market participants should take into consideration the effects of the ISDA succession language on CDS spreads around succession of CDS.

Originality/value

Prior research related to the CDS has always focused on the economic determinants of CDS spreads. This paper is the first attempt to explain the relationship between the ISDA succession language and CDS spreads.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Mejda Bahlous-Boldi

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the conventional mortgage system is not appropriate for household finance because it encourages equity extraction and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the conventional mortgage system is not appropriate for household finance because it encourages equity extraction and excessive leverage during housing boom and leads to negative equity during a housing bust, a situation that translates into mortgage defaults and foreclosures. Home financing could alternatively be structured as a diminishing partnership preventing the homeowner from ever having negative equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Johansen’s cointegration test, the authors provide evidence of a long-run relationship between the delinquency rates, volume of refinancing and the change in house price index (HPI) during the 1994–2019 period. To unravel the short run dynamics between these variables, the authors used a Granger causality test that concludes that the volume of refinancing and the change in the HPI Granger cause default rates.

Findings

The authors provide evidence that under the current conventional mortgage system, excessive refinancing opportunities and equity extraction that are the main factors determining delinquency rates leading to a non-sustainable homeownership.

Practical implications

If mortgages were such that they do not incentivize defaults and foreclosures during a housing downturn, the recovery of the housing market always leads to capital gains. Therefore, disincentivizing refinancing and equity extraction would lead to a more sustainable homeownership.

Social implications

Households would be encouraged to pursue sustainable homeownership through a partnership-based model with long-term wealth accumulation for themselves and their heirs rather than short-term home ownership through the conventional mortgage system, leading to negative equity and defaults when the housing market slumps.

Originality/value

Policymakers ought to rethink the mortgage design by promoting partnership-based finance to protect the equity a household accumulates over a lifetime and thereby enhancing stable and sustainable homeownership.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Amarjit Gill, Afshin Amiraslany, John Obradovich and Neil Mathur

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of efficient working capital management (WCM) on a firm’s bond quality ratings (BQR) and debt refinancing risk (RFR).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of efficient working capital management (WCM) on a firm’s bond quality ratings (BQR) and debt refinancing risk (RFR).

Design/methodology/approach

To fulfill its purpose, this study adopted a co-relational research design. Additionally, the COMPUSTAT of Wharton Research Data Services was used to collect data from American production firms for a period of five years (from 2013 to 2017).

Findings

The results of this study suggest that efficient WCM does, in fact, play a role in improving BQR of American production firms. Furthermore, the findings go on to suggest that efficient WCM plays a very little role in reducing RFR for American production firms.

Research limitations/implications

This is a correlational study that investigated the presence of an association between efficient WCM and firms’ BQR and between efficient WCM and RFR. However, the two do not necessarily share a causal relationship. Moreover, the findings of this study may only be generalized to firms that are similar to those that were included in this research.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on financial factors that improve a firm’s BQR. Firms should consider maintaining an optimal net working capital as it improves BQR. Moreover, the findings of this study may prove useful for financial managers, investors, financial management consultants and other stakeholders.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Hamdi Khalfaoui and Abdelkader Derbali

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between money creation process and banking performance for Tunisian listed banks, particularly in the context of increased…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between money creation process and banking performance for Tunisian listed banks, particularly in the context of increased economic policy uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

In the relevant literature, there are two theories of money creation. The theory of money creation out of nothing, by using the central bank for refinancing and the theory of financial intermediation, from which money creation is made from preexisting savings. In this paper, the authors utilize a panel data for a sample composed of 11 Tunisian banks during the period of study from 1999 to 2019.

Findings

The study’s empirical analysis show that both forms of money creation have a positive impact on bank profitability as measured by the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) ratios. However, the same analysis shows that the channel of money creation out of nothing is the most profitable for banks. Also, the authors show that economic policy uncertainty negatively influences the relationship between money creation and banking profitability only when credit creation is derived from savings.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by explaining the nexus between money creation and Tunisian banking performance which depends on the implementation of stable and conducive economic and political environment. Also, this link requires the implementation of monetary measures to encourage savings and develop an efficient capital market and judicious monetary policy enabling the central bank to inject more liquidity into the economy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Alejandro Hazera, Carmen Quirvan and Salvador Marin-Hernandez

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the basic binomial option pricing model (BOPM) might be used by regulators to help formulate rules, prior to financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the basic binomial option pricing model (BOPM) might be used by regulators to help formulate rules, prior to financial crisis, that help prevent loan overstatement by banks in emerging market economies undergoing financial crises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the theory of soft budget constraints (SBC) to construct a simple model in which banks overstate loans to minimize losses. The model is used to illustrate how guarantees of bailout assistance (BA) (to banks) by crisis stricken countries’ financial authorities may encourage banks to overstate loans and delay the implementation of IFRS for loan valuation. However, the model also illustrates how promises of BA may be depicted as binomial put options which provide banks with the option of either: reporting loan values on poor projects accurately and receiving the loans’ liquidation values; or, overstating loans and receiving the guaranteed BA. An illustration is also provided of how authorities may use this representation to help minimize bank loan overstatement in periods of financial crisis. In order to provide an illustration of how the option value of binomial assistance may evolve during a financial crisis, the model is generalized to the Mexican financial crisis of the late 1990s. During this period, Mexican authorities’ guarantees of BA to the nation’s largest banks encouraged those institutions to overstate loans and delay the implementation of (previously adopted) international “best practices” based loan valuation standards.

Findings

Application of the model to the Mexican financial crisis provides evidence that, in spite of Mexico’s “official” 1997 adoption of international “best accounting practices” for banks, “iron clad” guarantees of BA by the country’s financial authorities to Mexico’s largest banks provided those institutions with an incentive to knowingly overstate loans in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Research limitations/implications

The model is compared against only one country in which the BA was directly infused into banks’ loan portfolios. Thus, as conceived, it is directly applicable to crisis countries in which the bailout took this form. However, the many quantitative variations of SBC models as well as recent studies which have applied the binomial model to other forms of bailout (e.g. direct purchases of bank shares by authorities) suggest that the model could be modified to accommodate different bailout scenarios.

Practical implications

The model and application show that guaranteed BA can be viewed as a put option and that ex-ante regulatory policies based on the correct valuation of the BA as a binomial option might prevent banks from overstating loans.

Social implications

Use of the binomial or similar approaches to valuing BA may help regulators to determine the level of BA that will not encourage banks to overstate the value of their loans.

Originality/value

Recent research has used the BOPM to value, on an ex-post basis, the BA which appears on the balance sheet of institutions which have been rescued. However, little research has advocated the use of this type of model to help prevent, on an ex-ante basis, the overstatement of loans on poor projects.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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