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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Koraljka Golub and Marianne Lykke

The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate whether it is meaningful to use the Engineering Index (Ei) classification scheme for browsing, and then, if proven…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate whether it is meaningful to use the Engineering Index (Ei) classification scheme for browsing, and then, if proven useful, to investigate the performance of an automated classification algorithm based on the Ei classification scheme.

Design/methodology/approach

A user study was conducted in which users solved four controlled searching tasks. The users browsed the Ei classification scheme in order to examine the suitability of the classification systems for browsing. The classification algorithm was evaluated by the users who judged the correctness of the automatically assigned classes.

Findings

The study showed that the Ei classification scheme is suited for browsing. Automatically assigned classes were on average partly correct, with some classes working better than others. Success of browsing showed to be correlated and dependent on classification correctness.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should address problems of disparate evaluations of one and the same web page. Additional reasons behind browsing failures in the Ei classification scheme also need further investigation.

Practical implications

Improvements for browsing were identified: describing class captions and/or listing their subclasses from start; allowing for searching for words from class captions with synonym search (easily provided for Ei since the classes are mapped to thesauri terms); when searching for class captions, returning the hierarchical tree expanded around the class in which caption the search term is found. The need for improvements of classification schemes was also indicated.

Originality/value

A user‐based evaluation of automated subject classification in the context of browsing has not been conducted before; hence the study also presents new findings concerning methodology.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2017

James Prater, Konstantinos Kirytopoulos and Tony Ma

One of the major challenges for any project is to prepare and develop an achievable baseline schedule and thus set the project up for success, rather than failure. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

One of the major challenges for any project is to prepare and develop an achievable baseline schedule and thus set the project up for success, rather than failure. The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate research outputs in one of the major causes, optimism bias, to identify problems with developing baseline schedules and analyse mitigation techniques and their effectiveness recommended by research to minimise the impact of this bias.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic quantitative literature review was followed, examining Project Management Journals, documenting the mitigation approaches recommended and then reviewing whether these approaches were validated by research.

Findings

Optimism bias proved to be widely accepted as a major cause of unrealistic scheduling for projects, and there is a common understanding as to what it is and the effects that it has on original baseline schedules. Based upon this review, the most recommended mitigation method is Flyvbjerg’s “Reference class,” which has been developed based upon Kahneman’s “Outside View”. Both of these mitigation techniques are based upon using an independent third party to review the estimate. However, within the papers reviewed, apart from the engineering projects, there has been no experimental and statistically validated research into the effectiveness of this method. The majority of authors who have published on this topic are based in Europe.

Research limitations/implications

The short-listed papers for this review referred mainly to non-engineering projects which included information technology focussed ones. Thus, on one hand, empirical research is needed for engineering projects, while on the other hand, the lack of tangible evidence for the effectiveness of methods related to the alleviation of optimism bias issues calls for greater research into the effectiveness of mitigation techniques for not only engineering projects, but for all projects.

Originality/value

This paper documents the growth within the project management research literature over time on the topic of optimism bias. Specifically, it documents the various methods recommended to mitigate the phenomenon and highlights quantitatively the research undertaken on the subject. Moreover, it introduces paths for further research.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Michael Roland, Josef Langer and Rene Mayrhofer

The purpose of this paper is to address the design, implementation, performance and limitations of an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the design, implementation, performance and limitations of an environment that emulates a secure element for rapid prototyping and debugging. Today, it is difficult for developers to get access to a near field communication (NFC)-secure element in current smartphones. Moreover, the security constraints of smartcards make in-circuit emulation and debugging of applications impractical. Therefore, an environment that emulates a secure element brings significant advantages for developers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' approach to such an environment is the emulation of Java Card applets on top of non-Java Card virtual machines (e.g. Android Dalvik VM), as this would facilitate the use of existing debugging tools. As the operation principle of the Java Card VM is based on persistent memory technology, the VM and applications running on top of it have a significantly different life cycle compared to other Java VMs. The authors evaluate these differences and their impact on Java VM-based Java Card emulation. They compare possible strategies to overcome the problems caused by these differences, propose a possible solution and create a prototypical implementation to verify the practical feasibility of such an emulation environment.

Findings

While the authors found that the Java Card inbuilt persistent memory management is not available on other Java VMs, they present a strategy to model this persistence mechanism on other VMs to build a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of a non-Java Card VM. Their analysis of the performance degradation in a prototypical implementation caused by additional effort put into maintaining persistent application state revealed that the implementation of such an emulation environment is practically feasible.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the problem of emulating a complete Java Card run-time environment on top of non-Java Card virtual machines which could open and significantly ease the development of NFC secure element applications.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1952

E.M. BENNETT

It has been a great pleasure to have listened to Mr. Mathys' most interesting paper on the patent specification as a source of information, and I have the added pleasure…

Abstract

It has been a great pleasure to have listened to Mr. Mathys' most interesting paper on the patent specification as a source of information, and I have the added pleasure of having been asked by Mr. Mathys to explain how a seeker after information contained in English patent specifications can track down the specifications he wishes to read. Mr. Mathys suggested that I should explain some of the principles of the Patent Office classification and some of the practical results obtained. However, I propose to alter to some extent this logical order of presentation. After reviewing three lines of attack for locating a specification, I shall briefly review the historical development of the Classification key, that is the book in which the scheme of classification is disclosed, then I will show how a hypothetical Mr. X can locate specifications that disclose inventions relating to frying‐pans, and finally I will give a short resume of the principles underlying the scheme of and method of classifying patent specifications. I have adopted this inverted form of presentation because more people wish to use a classification system to find some specific item, than wish to study such a system as an abstract entity. No difficulty arises for a person who knows the patent number of a particular specification he wishes to read. He merely enters the Patent Office Library or one of the several provincial libraries that are supplied with copies of specifications, and quickly finds what he wants amidst an orderly numbered sequence. Alternatively, he can send 2s. 8d. to the Sale Branch of the Patent Office and obtain a copy by post.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1968

MANFRED KOCHEN and RENATA TAGLIACOZZO

The problem of determining the optimal cross‐reference structure for a given index and for a given community of users is discussed. A cross‐reference structure is…

Abstract

The problem of determining the optimal cross‐reference structure for a given index and for a given community of users is discussed. A cross‐reference structure is represented as a graph in which the nodes are index terms and the links are relations between index terms. In order to clarify the concept of ‘level of cross‐referencing’ the characteristics of cross‐reference structures are studied. Some measures of cross‐reference distributions are suggested as a means of comparing the cross‐referencing levels of subject indexes. Types of relations linking the terms of cross‐references in existing indexes and thesauri are examined. The implications of the study for the construction and testing of indexes and thesauri are discussed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Abir Boujelben and Ikram Amous

One key issue of maintaining Web information systems is to guarantee the consistency of their knowledge base, in particular, the rules governing them. There are currently…

Abstract

Purpose

One key issue of maintaining Web information systems is to guarantee the consistency of their knowledge base, in particular, the rules governing them. There are currently few methods that can ensure that rule bases management can scale to the amount of knowledge in these systems environment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors propose a method to detect correct dependencies between rules. This work represents a preliminary step for a proposal to eliminate rule base anomalies. The authors previously developed a method that aimed to ameliorate the extraction of rules dependency relationships using a new technique. In this paper, they extend the proposal with other techniques to increase the number of extracted rules dependency relationships. The authors also add some modules to filter and represent them.

Findings

The authors evaluated their own method against other semantic methods. The results show that this work succeeded in extracting better numbers of correct rules dependency relationships. They also noticed that the rule groups deduced from this method’s results are very close to those provided by the rule bases developers.

Originality/value

This work can be applied to knowledge bases that include a fact base and a rule base. In addition, it is independent of the field of application.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

JASON UNDERWOOD, MUSTAFA A. ALSHAWI, GHASSAN AOUAD, TERRY CHILD and IHSAN Z. FARAJ

The AIC Research Group at the University of Salford has been involved in a government‐funded project that has resulted in the development of an integrated multi‐user…

Abstract

The AIC Research Group at the University of Salford has been involved in a government‐funded project that has resulted in the development of an integrated multi‐user distributed construction project database through the implementation of next‐generation Internet technology together with Product Data Technology ‐ WISPER. The objective of the project was to develop a working system capable of demonstrating the future direction of information integration with the project partners' businesses. This paper presents the development of the specification application that aims to demonstrate the potential for such technologies to enhance the specification process, enabling design elements to be specified directly from a building product database Web site.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Sonia Shagufta, Daniel Boduszek, Katie Dhingra and Derrol Kola-Palmer

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the number and nature of latent classes of delinquency that exist among male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the number and nature of latent classes of delinquency that exist among male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 415 young male offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. Latent class analysis was employed to determine the number and nature of delinquency latent classes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between latent classes and the three factors of criminal social identity (cognitive centrality, in-group affect, and in-group ties) whilst controlling for criminal friends, period of confinement, addiction, age, and location.

Findings

The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution. The classes were labelled: “minor delinquents” (the baseline/normative class; Class 3), “major delinquents” (Class 1), and “moderate delinquents” (Class 2). Class membership was predicted by differing external variables. Specifically, Class 1 membership was related to having more criminal friends; while Class 2 membership was related to lower levels of in-group affect and higher levels of in-group ties.

Practical implications

Findings are discussed in relation to refining current taxonomic arguments regarding the structure of delinquency and implications for prevention of juvenile delinquent behaviour.

Originality/value

First, most previous studies have focused on school children, whereas, this paper focuses on incarcerated juvenile offenders. Second, this research includes delinquents from Pakistan, whereas, most previous research has examined delinquent behaviour in western cultures.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 December 2000

Cassia Spohn and Miriam DeLone

Abstract

Details

Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-889-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Xiaohui Zhao, Chengfei Liu and Tao Lin

The emergence of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology promises enormous opportunities to shift business process automation up to the wire level. The purpose of…

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1614

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology promises enormous opportunities to shift business process automation up to the wire level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the methodology of incorporating business logics into RFID edge systems, and thereby facilitate the business process automation in the RFID‐applied environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the object‐oriented modelling perspective, concepts of classes, instances are deployed to characterise the runtime context of RFID business scenarios; event patterns are used to aggregate RFID tag read events into business meaningful events; and business rules are established to automate business transactions according to the elicited events.

Findings

The paper has emphasised the synergy between business process automation and automatic data acquisition, and has identified the inter‐relations between RFID tag read events, application‐level events, business rules, and business operations. The reported research has demonstrated a feasible scheme of incorporating business process control and automation into RFID‐enabled applications.

Originality/value

The paper analyses the characteristics of RFID data and event handling in relation to business rule modelling and process automation. The features of event‐relied awareness, context containment and overlapping, etc. are all captured and described by the proposed object‐oriented business model. The given data‐driven RFID middleware architecture can serve as one reference architecture for system design and development. Hence, the paper plays an important role in connecting automatic data acquisition and existing business processes, and thereby bridges the physical world and the digital world.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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