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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Ho Kwan Cheung, Eden King, Alex Lindsey, Ashley Membere, Hannah M. Markell and Molly Kilcullen

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace…

Abstract

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace discrimination remains a persistent problem in organizations. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of contemporary theory and evidence on the nature, causes, and consequences of discrimination before synthesizing potential methods for its reduction. We note the strengths and weaknesses of this scholarship and highlight meaningful future directions. In so doing, we hope to both inform and inspire organizational and scholarly efforts to understand and eliminate workplace discrimination.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-263-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Michelle Hebl, Laura Barron, Cody Brent Cox and Abigail R. Corrington

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the limited body of research that focuses on the efficacy of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in reducing

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the limited body of research that focuses on the efficacy of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in reducing discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews past research that documents overt and subtle forms of workplace discrimination against gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals and describes how legislation plays an important role in changing social norms and underlying attitudes.

Findings

Empirically demonstrates that legislation effectively can reduce discrimination.

Originality/value

Informs legislative debate and promotes the expansion and adoption of national, state, and local legislation on sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Mohammad Shahin Alam and DuckJung Shin

This study developed and tested a moderated mediation model on workplace diversity management. The analysis examined whether diversity management affects job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

This study developed and tested a moderated mediation model on workplace diversity management. The analysis examined whether diversity management affects job satisfaction via perceived discrimination, depending on employees' openness to experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the assumptions of social identity theory, social cognitive theory and Big-Five theory, this study proposed and tested a model that analyzes the process through which diversity management influences perceived visible diversity discrimination and job satisfaction, depending on employees' openness to experience.

Findings

This study found support for the proposed moderated mediation model, which suggests that diversity management interacts with employees' openness to experience personality to influence their job satisfaction through perceived visible diversity discrimination. The results indicated that diversity management increased employees' job satisfaction in the workplace and that the relationship between diversity management and job satisfaction was further mediated by employees' perceptions of being discriminated against because of their age, gender and racial identities. The effect of diversity management on job satisfaction through perceived visible diversity discrimination was stronger when employees had high levels of openness to experience.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that the diversity management is an important organizational intervention to improve job satisfaction by providing a scientific explanation of its underlying psychological process and identifying the factors associated with the process, such as personality and perception of being discriminated.

Originality/value

This study contributes to extend the diversity management literature by applying the assumptions of social identity theory, social cognitive theory and Big-Five theory together to identify the relationship between diversity management and job satisfaction and the effect of perceived discrimination and openness to experience in the relationship.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Jacqueline Agesa, Richard U. Agesa and Carlos Lopes

The purpose of this paper is to extend recent literature regarding the effects of competition on racial earnings by examining the effects of global competition on racial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend recent literature regarding the effects of competition on racial earnings by examining the effects of global competition on racial wages of union and non‐union workers of different skill levels. Additionally, it is intended that inference be drawn regarding whether global competition is a viable means to eliminate racial wage discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes quantile regression to examine the effect of global competition on the racial wage gap of workers in high‐ and low‐concentration industries at different points along the earnings distribution. Additionally, the analysis utilizes the highest level of import penetration in each industry over the sample period to examine whether global competition is a viable means to eliminate racial wage discrimination.

Findings

In concentrated industries, non‐union whites at most skill levels receive a substantial wage premium compared with their black counterparts. Further, imports reduce racial earnings inequality by significantly decreasing the wages of low‐ and medium‐skill non‐union whites. However, imports cannot mitigate racial earnings discrimination for non‐union workers at most skill levels.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that, if market forces cannot alleviate racial wage discrimination, government anti‐discriminatory policies may be a necessary measure.

Originality/value

No previous study has examined the effect of global competition on the racial wage gap of workers of different skill levels. Further, no study has empirically tested whether international competition is a viable means to eliminate racial wage discrimination.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Günther Schmid

We are undergoing a “subtle revolution” (Smith 1979) in the traditional relationship of women to work and family. One indicator of this change is the massive increase in…

Abstract

We are undergoing a “subtle revolution” (Smith 1979) in the traditional relationship of women to work and family. One indicator of this change is the massive increase in women's economic activity, especially among married women with children. The total labour force of OECD countries increased by around 30 million in the 1950s and 1960s, and by 43 million in the 1970s. In the first two decades women's contribution to the increase was slightly more than half, whereas in the last decade it amounted to 63.8 per cent. In the European OECD countries women's share of labour force change in the 1970s was even higher and amounted to 96.4 per cent (OECD 1984:10, 11).

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Orhan Kara

The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender based wage differences by schooling and occupations and to estimate the occupational gender wage discrimination in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender based wage differences by schooling and occupations and to estimate the occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey where strenuous attempts are underway to modernize and negotiate its culturally (Islamic)‐based gender differences.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs an extension of Blinder and Oaxaca's approach to measure the effect of wage discrimination. In order to correct a possible sample selection problem, Heckman's two step procedure is used to estimate the earning equations for males and females by using Turkish Household Expenditure and Income Survey.

Findings

Among the paper's central findings is that gender wage gap decreases with education, is less in the public sector, and varies across occupations. The overall discriminatory wage gap is estimated at 30 percent after controlling for education, experience, occupation, region, and selection effects.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study are mostly related to the nature of the data set used in the analysis. Future research should be replicated on time series data with more variables if they are available.

Practical implications

Policy makers should promote education of women since education reduces inequalities among genders as revealed from the decreasing gap of wage differentials for higher levels of education. They should implement measures aimed at reducing inequalities in women's pay and improving women's status in the labor market in line with the European Union policies.

Originality/value

By using micro data, this study estimates the gender wage discrimination at occupational levels in Turkey by correcting the possible sample selection bias in the analysis, usually omitted in other studies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Őrn B. Bodvarsson and John G. Sessions

When immigrants experience “nationality discrimination” in the labor market, ceteris paribus their earnings are lower than native-born workers because they were born…

Abstract

When immigrants experience “nationality discrimination” in the labor market, ceteris paribus their earnings are lower than native-born workers because they were born abroad. The challenge to testing for nationality discrimination is that the native/immigrant earnings gap will very likely also be influenced by productivity differences driven by incomplete assimilation of immigrants, as well as the possibility of racial or gender discrimination. There is relatively little empirical literature, and virtually no theoretical literature, on this type of discrimination. In this study, a model of nationality discrimination where customer prejudice and native/immigrant productivity differences jointly influence the earnings gap is presented. We derive an extension of Becker's market discrimination coefficient (MDC), applied to the case of nationality discrimination when there are productivity differences. A number of novel implications are obtained. We find, for example, that the MDC depends upon relative immigrant productivity and relative immigrant labor supply. We test the model on data for hitters and pitchers in Major League Baseball, an industry with a history of immigration, potential for customer discrimination, and clean detailed microdata on worker productivities and race. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and decomposition methods are used to estimate the extent of discrimination. We find no compelling evidence of discrimination in the hitter group, but evidence of ceteris paribus underpayment of immigrant pitchers. While our test case is for a particular industry, our theoretical model, empirical specifications, and general research design are quite generalizable to many other labor markets.

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Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Nick Drydakis

Economic pluralism proposes that economists and social planners should consider alternative theories to establish a range of policy actions. Neoclassical, Feminist and…

Abstract

Purpose

Economic pluralism proposes that economists and social planners should consider alternative theories to establish a range of policy actions. Neoclassical, Feminist and Marxian theories evaluate well-grounded causes of wage discrimination. However, a reluctance to consider less-dominant theories among different schools of economic thought restricts analysis and proposed policies, resulting in a monism method. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide a brief review of the theoretical literature on wage discrimination. The significance of a pluralistic analysis is demonstrated by addressing correspondence test patterns of wage discrimination.

Findings

In considering Neoclassical, Feminist and Marxian theories, racist attitudes, uncertainties regarding minority workers’ productivity and power relations in lower-status sectors might generate discriminatory wages. Each cause deserves corresponding policy action.

Research limitations/implications

Time is needed to provide a pluralistic evaluation of wage discrimination. In addition, pluralism requires rigorous investigations to avoid incoherencies. Pluralism might be jeopardised if there is a limited desire to engage with less-dominant theoretical frameworks. Also, pluralism might be misled with rejection of dominant theories.

Practical implications

Given pluralism, wage discrimination might be reduced by implementing equality campaigns, creating low-cost tests to predict workers’ productivity and abolishing power relations towards minority workers.

Originality/value

Little work has been on economic pluralism in the study of wage discrimination. The current study addresses the gap in the literature.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1977

W.S. Siebert and J.T. Addison

In this article we consider the question of discrimination against black workers and female workers. We do not discuss the issue of discrimination as it applies within the…

Abstract

In this article we consider the question of discrimination against black workers and female workers. We do not discuss the issue of discrimination as it applies within the ranks of white males. Analysis of the relationship between earnings and schooling would suggest that discrimination against this latter group mainly takes the form of unequal opportunity in the acquisition of schooling—that is, it occurs prior to labour market entry rather than within the market. Our focus upon blacks and female workers may be justified on the grounds that discrimination against such groups is said to be considerably more widespread. Our analysis is also restricted, for reasons of space, to a consideration of differences in earnings and occupations, omitting questions of unemployment.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Arief Banindro Kartolo and Catherine T. Kwantes

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring the perceived societal discrimination as an antecedent of perceived organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring the perceived societal discrimination as an antecedent of perceived organizational discrimination, and investigating the impact of organizational culture (i.e. constructive, passive-defensive and aggressive-defensive culture norms) on perceptions of discrimination in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 176 American employees completed three surveys assessing perceived societal discrimination, perceived organizational discrimination and organizational culture online through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression method.

Findings

Results suggest individuals’ perceptions of discrimination in the workplace are influenced by both perceived discrimination in society and perceptions of behavioral norms related to organizational culture. Findings in the current study indicated individuals’ attitudes and beliefs manifested in the societal context were carried into, and reflected in, the workplace. Additionally, beliefs related to organizational discrimination were found to be amplified or minimized depending on organizational culture; specifically, organizations dominated by culture norms reflecting behaviors related to individual security needs predicted higher levels, and culture norms reflecting behaviors related to meeting employee satisfaction needs predicted lower levels of perceived organizational discrimination.

Originality/value

This paper tested theoretical frameworks debated in the literature by exploring beyond institutional boundaries in the study of perceived discrimination by exploring perceived societal discrimination as an antecedent to perceived organizational discrimination. This project also is the first study (to authors’ knowledge) to investigate the impact of organizational culture on perceived organizational discrimination.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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