Search results

1 – 10 of 37
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Ana María Lucia‐Casademunt, J. Antonio Ariza‐Montes and Alfonso Carlos Morales‐Gutiérrez†

Employee well‐being (WB) is a strategic reference of prime importance due to its impact on human capital, employee health and quality in working life, factors that are key…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee well‐being (WB) is a strategic reference of prime importance due to its impact on human capital, employee health and quality in working life, factors that are key to achieving successful organisations. The purpose of the current study is to assess the WB of female managers in the European workplace. The research analyses three dimensions (job satisfaction, comfort and enthusiasm) and the effect of job‐related factors on each one of these.

Design/methodology/approach

The Mental Health and Vitamin models (Warr, 1987) were taken as the starting‐point of the research. An alternative econometric method – an artificial neural network known as extreme learning machine was applied to a sample of 99 female managers collected from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey‐2010

Findings

The results obtained confirm that this methodology is valid to efficiently classify European female managers into those who feel satisfied with their jobs, calm and relaxed, and cheerful and in good spirits, and those who do not. Furthermore, the resulting model identifies the strongest factors important in determining the varied dimensions of occupational WB achieved.

Originality/value

Even today, despite the important contribution women managers make to the management of organisations, they have to face many challenges and overcome serious barriers in achieving and staying in positions of leaderships when compared to their male counterparts.

Propósito

El bienestar laboral constituye un referente estratégico de primer orden por su impacto sobre el capital humano – salud y calidad de vida laboral de los empleados –, en aras de alcanzar organizaciones exitosas. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el bienestar laboral a partir de sus tres dimensiones (satisfacción, confort y entusiasmo) de las mujeres que ocupan puestos de dirección en Europa y el efecto de ciertos factores laborales.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se adopta como punto de partida los modelos teóricos de salud mental y vitamínico (Warr, 1987), aplicando un método econométrico novedoso – redes neuronales artificiales –, a una muestra de 99 mujeres directivas extraída de la V Encuesta Europea de Condiciones de Trabajo (2010).

Resultados

Los resultados obtenidos confirman la validez de esta novedosa metodología para clasificar eficazmente a las mujeres directivas que presentan un elevado grado de bienestar laboral. Por otra parte, con el modelo resultante se identifican los factores más determinantes para el logro de cada una de las dimensiones que constituyen el bienestar laboral.

Originalidad

Las mujeres directivas, quienes a pesar de lo mucho que tienen que aportar en la gestión de las organizaciones, aún hoy encuentran que su acceso y permanencia en los puestos de dirección está colmado de desafíos y barreras difíciles de superar en comparación con sus homólogos masculinos.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Ángel García-Baños

This paper aims to contribute to the formulation of a theory of consciousness based only on computational processes. In this manner, sound computational explanations of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the formulation of a theory of consciousness based only on computational processes. In this manner, sound computational explanations of qualia and the “hard problem” of consciousness are provided in response to a lack of physical, chemical and psychological explanations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyses the little that can be objectively known about qualia, and proposes a process that imitates the same effects. Then it applies the process to a robot (using a thought experiment) to understand whether this would produce the same sensations as humans experience.

Findings

A computational explanation of qualia and the “hard problem” of consciousness is possible through computational processes.

Research limitations/implications

This is a proposal, subject to argumentation and proof. It is a falsifiable theory, meaning that it is possible to test or reject it, as its computational basis allows for a future implementation.

Practical implications

Subjective feeling emerges as an evolutionary by-product when there are no strong evolutionary pressures on the brain. Qualia do not involve magic. These aspects of consciousness in robots and in organisations are capable of being manufactured; one can choose whether to build robots and organisations with qualia and subjective experience.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, no other computational interpretation of these aspects of consciousness exists. However, it is compatible with the multiple draft model of Dennett (1991) and the attention schema theory of Webb and Graziano (2015).

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Babar Khan, Fang Han, Zhijie Wang and Rana J. Masood

This paper aims to propose a biologically inspired processing architecture to recognize and classify fabrics with respect to the weave pattern (fabric texture) and yarn…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a biologically inspired processing architecture to recognize and classify fabrics with respect to the weave pattern (fabric texture) and yarn color (fabric color).

Design/methodology/approach

By using the fabric weave patterns image identification system, this study analyzed the fabric image based on the Hierarchical-MAX (HMAX) model of computer vision, to extract feature values related to texture of fabric. Red Green Blue (RGB) color descriptor based on opponent color channels simulating the single opponent and double opponent neuronal function of the brain is incorporated in to the texture descriptor to extract yarn color feature values. Finally, support vector machine classifier is used to train and test the algorithm.

Findings

This two-stage processing architecture can be used to construct a system based on computer vision to recognize fabric texture and to increase the system reliability and accuracy. Using this method, the stability and fault tolerance (invariance) was improved.

Originality/value

Traditionally, fabric texture recognition is performed manually by visual inspection. Recent studies have proposed automatic fabric texture identification based on computer vision. In the identification process, the fabric weave patterns are recognized by the warp and weft floats. However, due to the optical environments and the appearance differences of fabric and yarn, the stability and fault tolerance (invariance) of the computer vision method are yet to be improved. By using our method, the stability and fault tolerance (invariance) was improved.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Karel Diéguez-Santana, Giselle Rodríguez Rudi, Ana Julia Acevedo Urquiaga, Emanuel Muñoz and Neyfe Sablón-Cossio

In this paper, the authors adopt the theory of the circular economy to study the transitions that take place in three case studies in Mexico and Ecuador. The work is aimed…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors adopt the theory of the circular economy to study the transitions that take place in three case studies in Mexico and Ecuador. The work is aimed to systematize a circular economy assessment tool that fosters opportunities for improvement in business practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on a descriptive quantitative analysis, where a checklist is made with 91 items and nine study variables. This is from the study of the bibliography and business practice. Furthermore, the neural network method is used in a case study to predict the level of circular economy and the importance of each variable according to the sensitivity by the Lek’s profile method.

Findings

It is based on a descriptive quantitative analysis, where a checklist with 91 items and nine study variables is made, defined from a bibliographic study and business practice. Furthermore, the neural network method is used in a case study to predict the level of circular economy and the importance of each variable based on sensitivity.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the tool requires prior knowledge of the circular economy approach, which is why specialized personnel are needed for its application. This makes research more expensive in time and human resources.

Practical implications

The practical and methodological contribution of this work lies in the feasibility of the tool that favors the definition of improvement actions for the implementation contribution to the circular economy in business practices.

Social implications

The social contribution is framed in the gradual transition to circular economy approaches in underdeveloped countries.

Originality/value

The use of the neural network method to predict the level of circular economy in a case study allows making decisions in a predictive way. This encourages the development of the circular economy according to the context needs.

Objetivo

En este trabajo adoptamos la teoría de la economía circular para estudiar las transiciones que ocurren en tres casos de estudio en México y Ecuador. El trabajo tiene como objetivo sistematizar una herramienta de evaluación de la economía circular que fomente oportunidades de mejora en las prácticas empresariales.

Diseño / metodología / enfoque

La metodología se basa en un análisis cuantitativo descriptivo, donde se elabora un checklist con 91 ítems y nueve variables de estudio. Esto a partir del estudio de la bibliografía y la práctica empresarial. Además, el método de la red neuronal se utiliza en un estudio de caso para predecir el nivel de economía circular y la importancia de cada variable según la sensibilidad utilizando el método Lekprofile.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que la herramienta es aplicable a diferentes contextos y simultáneamente permite la evaluación de la economía circular de forma holística. Además, la herramienta se puede vincular a técnicas predictivas, como el método de red neuronal. Esto se demostró en un estudio de caso.

Originalidad

en el uso del método de redes neuronales para predecir el nivel de economía circular en un caso de estudio. Esto permite la capacidad de tomar decisiones de forma predictiva y esto incentiva el desarrollo de la economía circular según la necesidad del contexto.

Limitaciones / implicaciones de la investigación

Las limitaciones se centran en la necesidad de conocer el tema de la economía circular para la aplicación de la herramienta. Por lo tanto, se necesita capacitación antes de comenzar un nuevo estudio. Esto encarece la investigación en tiempo y recursos humanos.

Implicaciones prácticas

El aporte práctico y metodológico de este trabajo radica en la viabilidad de la herramienta que favorece la definición de acciones de mejora para la contribución de la implementación a la economía circular en las prácticas empresariales.

Implicaciones sociales

La contribución social es parte de la transición gradual a enfoques de economía circular en países subdesarrollados.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Recently Dr Erik Arnold, a consultant with Booz, Allen and Hamilton International produced an Evaluation Report which reviewed the UK Alvey Intelligent Knowledge‐Based…

Abstract

Recently Dr Erik Arnold, a consultant with Booz, Allen and Hamilton International produced an Evaluation Report which reviewed the UK Alvey Intelligent Knowledge‐Based Systems (IKBS) programme. The report gives a history of the programme and indicates its main aims and strategies. Its recommendations and evaluation are based on a comprehensive discussion of the programme's achievements as well as its weaknesses. The evaluation report says that the programme has been a big success in reviving the fortunes of Artificial Intelligence in the UK. For various reasons AI lost its initial impetus in the UK in the early 1970s and there were very few scientists and probably only one university department that could undertake research and development when the Japanese announcements brought the field to the fore. Indeed there was very little interest and support from UK industry and commerce at that time.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Letizia Alvino, Rob van der Lubbe, Reinoud A.M. Joosten and Efthymios Constantinides

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether or not electroencephalography (EEG) provides a valuable and substantial contribution to the prediction of consumer behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether or not electroencephalography (EEG) provides a valuable and substantial contribution to the prediction of consumer behaviour and their preferences during product consumption. In this study, the authors especially focus on individual preferences during a wine tasting experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A consumer neuroscience experiment was carried out with 26 participants that evaluated different red wines while their brain activity was recorded with EEG. A within-subjects design was employed and the experiment was carried out in two sessions. All participants took part in a blind taste session (no label session), in which information about the wine was not disclosed, and a normal taste session (label session), during which the bottle and its label were visible.

Findings

The findings suggest that EEG is a useful tool to study brain activity during product experience. EEG has high temporal resolution, low costs, small dimensions and superior manoeuvrability compared to other consumer neuroscience tools. However, it is noticed that there is a lack of solid theoretical background regarding brain areas (e.g. frontal cortex) and brain activity (e.g. brain waves) related to consumer preferences during product experience. This lack of knowledge causes several difficulties in replicating and validating the findings of other consumer neuroscience experiments for studying consumer behaviour.

Originality/value

The experiment presented in this paper is an exploratory study. It provides insights into the possible contribution of EEG data to the prediction of consumer behaviour during product experience.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

During the last two years the many conferences and congresses involving cybernetics have focused on particular research and development themes. Whether the venue was at…

Abstract

During the last two years the many conferences and congresses involving cybernetics have focused on particular research and development themes. Whether the venue was at Vienna (The Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies), at Namur (The Association Internationale de Cybernétique), at Barcelona (The World Association of Cybernetics, Computer Science and System Theory, TAKIS) or in London, where the World Organisation of General Systems and Cybernetics held its Seventh International Congress of Cybernetics and Systems, the profile of the research and development contributions follows a common set of themes. The London Seventh Congress will be reviewed in some detail in Kybernetes and it will be seen that its aims were similar to those voiced at the six previous events in London, Oxford, Bucharest, Amsterdam, Mexico and Paris. The organisers identified these as being the development of the interdisciplinary sciences of cybernetics and systems without spurious accretions and exotic notions. Whatever the aims of the other cybernetics meetings they too form an international forum for the exchange of up‐to‐date information and the enhancement of contacts between scientists. At London the two hundred or so papers accepted for presentation reflected current work in fields ranging from artificial intelligence and automation to medical cybernetics and sociocybernetics.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Dong Zhu, Liping Hou, Mo Chen and Bocheng Bao

The purpose of this paper is to develop an field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based neuron circuit to mimic dynamical behaviors of tabu learning neuron model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based neuron circuit to mimic dynamical behaviors of tabu learning neuron model.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical investigations for the tabu learning neuron model show the coexisting behaviors of bi-stability. To reproduce the numerical results by hardware experiments, a digitally FPGA-based neuron circuit is constructed by pure floating-point operations to guarantee high computational accuracy. Based on the common floating-point operators provided by Xilinx Vivado software, the specific functions used in the neuron model are designed in hardware description language programs. Thus, by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm and loading the specific functions orderly, the tabu learning neuron model is implemented on the Xilinx FPGA board.

Findings

With the variation of the activation gradient, the initial-related coexisting attractors with bi-stability are found in the tabu learning neuron model, which are experimentally demonstrated by a digitally FPGA-based neuron circuit.

Originality/value

Without any piecewise linear approximations, a digitally FPGA-based neuron circuit is implemented using pure floating-point operations, from which the initial conditions-related coexisting behaviors are experimentally demonstrated in the tabu learning neuron model.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

Diet therapy or nutritional therapy has become a real challenge in the fight against the increasing number of modern illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular…

Abstract

Diet therapy or nutritional therapy has become a real challenge in the fight against the increasing number of modern illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The scientific community has recognized the importance of studies that will support or rebut the association of certain nutrition/energy inputs with the prevention and/or improvement of certain diseases. Patient counseling is offered by medical doctors, nutritionists and dieticians, but patients often seek additional sources of information from popular media that may not be adequately scientifically supported. Whose responsibility is it when the Diet Therapy is not an effective treatment and where does the consequent ethical and moral responsibility lie?

This chapter argues for the importance of a nutritionally educated scientist evaluating the diets that are seen to be related with the health improvement also excluding diets that are mostly related to the patients’ well-being as the Mediterranean, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Ketogenic and Vegetarian diet. Diet guidelines are often explained with linguistic variables (as “reduce the input of” etc.) which can be differently perceived by the end user. The interpretation if a linguistic variable is presented using the body mass index categories using a bell-shaped curve. The preferable area fits to the linguistic variable “acceptable BMI.” But also are indicated those areas which are less preferable. Those examples of information interpretations show the necessity of knowledge transfer. The quantity of information presented in diet guidelines can be experienced as a great muddle for patients; leaving them not knowing where and how to start. So, remains the ethical and moral responsibility of all links in the chain of nutritional and diet research and recommendations. Only objective and open-minded recommendations based on the latest scientific facts can gain confidence of the social, economical, and political subjects which must put the well-being of the population uppermost in their mind.

Details

Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-572-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Weibao Li, Weiwei Wu, Bo Yu and Check-Teck Foo

This paper aims to argue for a China transmuting to fast overtake USA in innovation based on the extrapolation of past statistical trend. Case studies in self and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue for a China transmuting to fast overtake USA in innovation based on the extrapolation of past statistical trend. Case studies in self and co-innovation are provided so that the documentation of the dynamics of knowledge flows and a brain-linguistic explanation is given as to why, in the future, the Chinese are likely to lead in innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper illustrates a multi-method approach in research for Chinese Management Studies. First, the sociological background of China is highlighted (Mao Zedong’s aphorism). Second, insights from OECD patent database are utilized. Third, the use of comparative research and development case-studies: self-innovation (Chinese) and co-innovation (contrasting Japanese versus French cooperation with Chinese). Fourth, is the inter-disciplinarily approach wherein the assimilating of knowledge is related to recent advances in brain research. Fifth, emphasizing the different levels in organizing for innovation: national (China), organizational (SOE), group processes and person-to-person, synapses within individual brains.

Findings

Statistical trend suggests that China is transforming and is on the path toward overtaking the USA in innovation. When will this happen? Using extrapolation as an indication, China may surpass the USA by the 50 per cent mark within the next decade. Insights into the processes of self-innovation and co-innovation are provided. Authors argue for a brain-linguistic explanation (Hebb, 1949) for further understanding why China will eventually lead ceteris paribus innovation, a function of the human brain.

Originality/value

This paper highlights on the basis of statistical trends (using OECD database) a rising, innovative China that is poised to overtake the USA in the near future. A major contribution is in providing insights of interactional processes required to foster innovation: self and co-innovation (comparing Japanese and French). The critical brain-linguistic role as the rationale as to why the Chinese are given a greater, more developed brain power that will eventually surpass the West in innovation.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 37