Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2012

Nirupama Prakash

Paper recycling is an environment friendly technology used worldwide. The process involves turning waste paper into new paper products. According to the Society for…

Abstract

Paper recycling is an environment friendly technology used worldwide. The process involves turning waste paper into new paper products. According to the Society for Technology and Action for Rural Advancement (TARA), the process includes shredding of waste paper, soaking the shredded paper in water overnight, feeding the shredded soaked paper inside the hydrapulper, transforming wet material into pulp, forming pulp into required and specified size of paper, squeezing out excess water from wet paper, drying the wet sheet on cloth, removing the paper from the cloth, cutting paper into definite size, and finally manufacturing the product. Handmade paper can be used for making different paper products. This simple technology can reduce environment degradation, produce cost-effective paper, inculcate skill development, and create livelihoods. This chapter highlights a specific activity initiated in 2007 by the author in the capacity of then director, UGC Centre for Women Studies, BITS, Pilani. The activity involved setting up the TARA Mini Paper Recycling Unit, sponsored by the UGC Centre for Women Studies, BITS, Pilani, training 10 rural women on the process of making paper from waste paper and making end products out of recycled paper. The outcome of this activity was economic empowerment and helping women acquire skills of making paper from waste paper.

Details

Linking Environment, Democracy and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-337-7

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Suhib AlHaj Ali, Lutfi Kawaf, Islam Masadeh, Zaineh Saffarini, Reem Abdullah and Hiba Barqawi

Sharjah is the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) third largest city and third highest waste producer (9.9% of ˜26 million in 2012). A total of about ˜$1bn has been invested into…

Abstract

Purpose

Sharjah is the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) third largest city and third highest waste producer (9.9% of ˜26 million in 2012). A total of about ˜$1bn has been invested into programs pursuing zero-landfill waste by 100% recycling. Besides infrastructure, assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) are needed for effective waste management. The purpose of this study is to examine recycling KAP in Sharjah.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study, using pilot-tested questionnaires, was conducted among public venues during March and April 2016. A total of 400 residents (18–55 years) were selected via convenience sampling. SPSS-22 was used for analysis.

Findings

Mean age [28 years (±9.4)] with 56.5% females. Knowledge level [51.8% (±18.1)]; students reported the highest (53.7%, p = 0.007, 95% CI [51.4–56.1]). 22.9% knew recycling benefits, 31.2% knew how to correctly prepare items. Attitude level 92.6% (±16.5); 51.1% and 46.8% would recycle more with a financial reward or penalty, respectively. 70.4% reported practicing recycling; 16.0% always recycle. Logistic regression model indicated knowledge (OR = 1.013, 95% CI [1.001–1.025]) and attitude (OR = 1.014, 95% CI [1.001–1.028]) as the only significant predictors of recycling practice.

Research limitations/implications

Convenience sampling led to a biased sample (54.4% < 25 years).

Practical implications

Awareness programs and innovative methods, such as a reward system, are needed to strengthen recycling knowledge and practices, respectively.

Originality/value

This is the first study measuring recycling KAP in the UAE. Results could be starting points for improved local waste management and subsequently reduced public health concerns.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Viju Subramoniapillai and G. Thilagavathi

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers…

Abstract

Purpose

The most widely recycled plastic in the world is recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET). To minimize the environmental related issues associated with synthetic fibers, several researchers have explored the potential use of recycled polyester fibers in developing various technical textile products. This study aims to develop needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers and investigate its suitability in oil spill cleanup process.

Design/methodology/approach

According to Box and Behnken factorial design, 15 different needle-punched nonwoven fabrics from recycled polyester fibers were prepared by changing the parameters, namely, needle punch density, needle penetration depth and fabric areal weight. Several featured parameters such as oil sorption, oil retention, oil sorption kinetics, wettability and reusability performance were systematically elucidated.

Findings

The maximum oil sorption of recycled nonwoven polyester is found to be 24.85 g/g and 20.58 g/g for crude oil and vegetable oil, respectively. The oil retention is about 93%–96% in case of crude oil, whereas 87%–91% in case of vegetable oil. Recycled polyester nonwoven possesses good hydrophobic–oleophilic properties with static contact angle of 138° against water, whereas 0° against crude oil and vegetable oil. The reusability test results indicate that recycled polyester nonwoven fabric can be used several times because of its reusability features.

Originality/value

There is no detailed study on the oil sorption features of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics developed from recycled polyester fibers. This study is expected to help in developing fabrics for oil spill cleanups.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 12 January 2022

Ufuk Yılmaz

In this present study, electrophotographic printing is made on papers which are subjected to different recycling numbers, and this paper aims to examine the colour changes…

Abstract

Purpose

In this present study, electrophotographic printing is made on papers which are subjected to different recycling numbers, and this paper aims to examine the colour changes of this printing type.

Design/methodology/approach

Four-colour electrophotographic printing is carried out on adhering to the INGEDE 11p standard recycled papers four times under the same conditions. Colour measurements are made by means of electrophotographic printed colour scales printed on these recycled papers. Colour measurements are made with the X-Rite eXact spectrophotometer according to the ISO 13655:2017 standard. As a result of colour measurements, colour differences (ΔL′, ΔH′, ΔC′, ΔE00) of recycled papers are determined using some formulas.

Findings

According to the values obtained after four recycling, the highest ΔL′ value is found to be 4.80 yellow and the lowest 1.92 black. Again, according to the measurement results, it is determined that the highest ΔE00 is yellow colour with a value of 5.66, and lowest ΔE00 is black colour with a value of 1.98. In ΔH′, black colour is the highest value of 12.61, the lowest value with −2.05 is obtained in magenta colour. It was observed that the highest ΔC′ value is 2.98 in yellow, and the lowest value is −0.28 in black.

Originality/value

In the printing industry, sometimes customers want to monitor the colour differences in the printing by taking the L′a′b′ obtained values as a result of printing from the printing houses. If the colour differences exceed the tolerance values, then they can interfere with the printing. As a result of the calculations, colour changes in electrophotographic printing are observed with many parameters. This study can be a pioneer for the studies that can be done on this subject.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Peter Lindsell and Mike Mulheron

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched…

Abstract

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched upon the possibility of recycling the debris from this process. This reflects the growing awareness among the general public, local authorities and central Government that the recycling of waste materials, from all sources, is both necessary and desirable. Indeed, according to a recently published report from the Trade and Industry Committee of the House of Commons: ‘The benefits of recycling are obvious: rarely do environ‐mental and economic factors so unambiguously support the same goal’.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Alan Richardson, Pierre Allain and Maxime Veuille

A current trend is to use waste and by‐products in concrete to replace binders and aggregates. This trend reduces the impact on the environment and the use of finite…

Downloads
1618

Abstract

Purpose

A current trend is to use waste and by‐products in concrete to replace binders and aggregates. This trend reduces the impact on the environment and the use of finite natural resources. This paper aims to investigate whether concrete which includes crushed, graded and washed recycled construction demolition waste, used as a coarse aggregate, can be manufactured to a comparable strength as concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates.

Design/methodology/approach

Laboratory testing investigated the strength development of concrete manufactured with varying degrees of coarse aggregate replacement. All of the concrete samples were tested at five, seven, 14 and 21 days and the concrete with the recycled aggregate was compared to a plain control sample manufactured with virgin aggregates. The mixes tested against the control sample were: 100 per cent gravel replacement with recycled aggregate, and the same mix with a viscosity modifying agent. A 50 per cent partial coarse aggregate replacement was used in one batch to compare against the control and the 100 per cent recycled aggregate concrete. Compressive strength was used to compare the different concrete batch performance. Density was used to indicate the degree of particle packing and void content which was measured across the range of samples to evaluate the relationship between the different concrete mixes.

Findings

The optimum concrete mix design using recycled construction waste was obtained by using a 50‐50 per cent mix of virgin gravel and recycled aggregates. Using recycled construction waste as a 100 per cent coarse aggregate replacement produces concrete with a lower compressive strength when compared to concrete made with virgin aggregates.

Originality/value

The paper investigates ways of incorporating construction demolition waste as recycled aggregate to reduce the environmental impact of the production of concrete.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Luca Mastrogiacomo, Federico Barravecchia and Fiorenzo Franceschini

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice of service recycling. There is an end of life to every product. At this stage, recycling is one option: it is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice of service recycling. There is an end of life to every product. At this stage, recycling is one option: it is the process of converting waste materials into new products or raw materials. There is also an end of life to every service, which generally coincides with the end of service delivery. However, services are not made of materials or components that can be recovered or converted, so can they be recycled? If the concept of product recycling is something well established, then that of service recycling has not yet been sufficiently investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces the perspective of service recycling, analyzing the modalities in which a service can be recycled by using an analogy with natural ecosystems. Some examples are also proposed to support this new vision.

Findings

This paper purports to formalize the practice of service recycling: recycling a service means recovering all the intangibles and tangibles resulting from the provision of a service that still may have a residual value. This practice may potentially lead to an increase in profits.

Originality/value

Although there are several examples of close relationships between two (or more) different services in which one of the two benefits from the externalities of the other, the concept of service recycling has not yet been structurally defined, and the authors believe that interesting perspectives of research may follow from its formalization.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Stefan Gößling‐Reisemann

The paper attempts to address both resource consumption and recycling effectiveness, using concepts from thermodynamics: entropy production for evaluating the costs…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper attempts to address both resource consumption and recycling effectiveness, using concepts from thermodynamics: entropy production for evaluating the costs (resource consumption) and statistical entropy for evaluating the benefits (separation of materials) of recycling processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Resource consumption, in this context, is to be understood as the overall thermodynamic devaluation of matter and energy flows. The recycling effectiveness, on the other hand, can be measured by the process's ability to reduce the “mixedness” of the material flows, using statistical entropy (entropy of mixing) as an indicator. Statistical entropy has been used by others as an indicator for the performance of waste separation processes, and its application to metal recycling seems straightforward. Entropy production has been applied as a measure for resource consumption in copper production. Here, the two concepts are combined to reach an expression describing the resource efficiency of recycling.

Findings

The theoretical description of the approach is supported by an example calculation for copper recycling. The findings suggest a near perfect effectiveness of the copper separation when processing medium grade copper scrap in a primary copper smelter. The resource consumption, on the other hand, is quite large when compared to the service of the process, giving rise to a rather small thermodynamic efficiency (in terms of the definition of efficiency as applied in this paper).

Research limitations/implications

Both measures used here, recycling efficiency and recycling effectiveness, are very demanding concerning the data basis, making applications time consuming. These drawbacks can be overcome by linking material flow tools (e.g. LCA software) with thermodynamic databases. More examples have to be considered to show the practical relevance of the approach.

Originality/value

The paper addresses effectiveness and efficiency using a common denominator, thermodynamic entropy. This unification helps in ranking different recycling options regarding their performance in terms of technical effectiveness and resource consumption.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Hamed Hemmati Pourghashti, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar and Rahmat Madandoust

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a laboratory investigation on measuring the tensile strength of recycled concrete using a double punch test. Furthermore, one of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a laboratory investigation on measuring the tensile strength of recycled concrete using a double punch test. Furthermore, one of the main goals of this study is to compare the tensile and compressive strengths of recycled concrete samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Recycled concrete samples were made with variables such as aggregate type (natural stone and aggregate recycled concrete), different water-to-cement ratios and different treatment conditions in the first stage. In the next stage, the double punch test was performed on them, and finally the results obtained from experiments were analyzed and investigated.

Findings

According to the above tests, it was concluded that: first, according to the laboratory results, the strength of concrete containing recycled aggregates becomes closer to the strength of concrete containing natural aggregates whenever the water-to-cement ratio is higher. Second, upon investigating the treatment conditions, it was observed that the treatment had a greater effect on the strength of the recycled concrete. However, this effect was less tangible in tensile strength. Third, upon investigating the results of tensile strength, it can be said that the Barcelona test results were closer to the direct tensile test results compared to the Brazilian test results. This indicates the higher viability of Barcelona’s test results. Fourth, the results obtained from the Barcelona tensile test for recycled concrete were closer to the results of the direct tensile test compared to the concrete containing natural aggregates, which suggests that the Barcelona test is more suitable as a tensile test for recycled concrete. Fifth, the effects of various factors on tensile strength were somewhat less compared to the compressive strength, although very close. Sixth, the relationships provided by the regulation for concrete tensile strength on compressive strength were highly inconsistent with the results obtained from the direct tensile test, for which the consistency was higher for concrete containing natural aggregates compared to recycled concrete. Seventh, the dispersion of results obtained from tensile tests was higher for recycled concrete compared to concrete containing natural aggregates, but lesser of this dispersion was observed in the compressive strength.

Originality/value

According to the laboratory results, the strength of concrete containing recycled aggregates becomes closer to the strength of concrete containing natural aggregates whenever the water-to-cement ratio is higher. Upon investigating the treatment conditions, it was observed that the treatment had a greater effect on the strength of the recycled concrete. However, this effect was less tangible in tensile strength. On the basis on the results of the tensile strength, it can be said that the Barcelona test results were closer to the results of the direct tensile test compared to those of the Brazilian test. This indicates the higher viability of Barcelona’s test results. The results obtained from the Barcelona tensile test for recycled concrete were closer to the results of direct tensile test compared to the concrete containing natural aggregates, which suggests that the Barcelona test is more suitable as a tensile test for recycled concrete. The effects of various factors on tensile strength were somewhat less compared to the compressive strength, although very close. The relationships provided by the regulation for concrete tensile strength on compressive strength were highly inconsistent with the results obtained from the direct tensile test, for which the consistency was higher for concrete containing natural aggregate compared to recycled concrete. The dispersion of results obtained from tensile tests was higher for recycled concrete compared to concrete containing natural aggregate, but lesser of this dispersion was observed in the compressive strength.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Helén Anderson and Maria Huge Brodin

The emerging material flows of recycled goods have effects on roles, responsibilities and positions of a range of industrial actors, but also on the consumer as a part of…

Downloads
5105

Abstract

Purpose

The emerging material flows of recycled goods have effects on roles, responsibilities and positions of a range of industrial actors, but also on the consumer as a part of the industrial recycling process. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the changing role and position of the final‐product customer, the consumer, as recycling is introduced into the supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper, building on theory and concepts from literature on marketing channels, industrial actors and material flows. Those concepts were developed basically for traditional forward material flows, while recycling complicates their application and further development.

Findings

Through recycling the consumer is given a new role; as a supplier, however, not as a seller in traditional terms. This new nature of its role complicates the conception of the consumer's position, vis‐à‐vis the recycler. It also addresses the consumer seen as an economic entity vis‐à‐vis other actors.

Originality/value

Including recycling in the concept of material flow structures and the consumer as an actor in industrial processes becomes more and more vital; both for theory development where this is still novel, and for practice, as the mechanisms of recycling and consumer behaviour need to be better described and understood for both industry and authorities.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 14000