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Article

Friedner Wittman, Douglas Polcin and Dave Sheridan

Roughly half a million persons in the USA are homeless on any given night and over a third of those individuals have significant alcohol/other drug (AOD) problems. Many…

Abstract

Purpose

Roughly half a million persons in the USA are homeless on any given night and over a third of those individuals have significant alcohol/other drug (AOD) problems. Many are chronically homeless and in need of assistance for a variety of problems. However, the literature on housing services for this population has paid limited attention to comparative analyses contrasting different approaches. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined the literature on housing models for homeless persons with AOD problems and critically analyzed how service settings and operations aligned with service goals.

Findings

The authors found two predominant housing models that reflect different service goals: sober living houses (SLHs) and housing first (HF). SLHs are communally based living arrangements that draw on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. They emphasize a living environment that promotes abstinence and peer support for recovery. HF is based on the premise that many homeless persons with substance abuse problems will reject abstinence as a goal. Therefore, the HF focus is providing subsidized or free housing and optional professional services for substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, and other problems.

Research limitations/implications

If homeless service providers are to develop comprehensive systems for homeless persons with AOD problems, they need to consider important contrasts in housing models, including definitions of “recovery,” roles of peer support, facility management, roles for professional service, and the architectural designs that support the mission of each type of housing.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to consider distinct consumer choices within homeless service systems and provide recommendations to improve each based upon architecture and community planning principles.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article

Mojgan Taheri Tafti and Richard Tomlinson

This paper aims to examine the socio-spatial transformation of earthquake-affected neighbourhoods as a setting for understanding post-disaster recovery trajectories of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the socio-spatial transformation of earthquake-affected neighbourhoods as a setting for understanding post-disaster recovery trajectories of people, their opportunities for achieving housing recovery and their housing recovery outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a case study approach, this paper focuses on two neighbourhoods located in old urban areas of the city of Bhuj, India. The authors map the transformation of the built environment from before the earthquake, immediately after the earthquake and 10 years after the earthquake. While explaining the morphological changes of the built environment, the authors examine the associated changes in the social fabric of the neighbourhoods by explaining who stayed in their neighbourhoods, who moved out or moved in and who were displaced after the earthquake.

Findings

The authors explore the role of post-disaster public policies, including urban planning, in these changes and in shaping the opportunities of households and individuals for achieving recovery. These policies are compared and contrasted with other urban disaster responses to provide a better understanding of the possibilities of achieving more just recovery outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the scant literature on post-disaster planning in cities of developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Elizabeth Maly and Eiko Ishikawa

This paper aims to consider the current situation of relocation in Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in the context of past examples and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider the current situation of relocation in Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in the context of past examples and post-disaster housing relocation projects in other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Information about international cases of post-disaster housing relocation was gathered though desk and literature review, supplemented by field visits to the sites for direct observation and interviews with people involved in the relocation projects.

Findings

To be successful, residential relocation must consider livelihood, especially in regards to location. Involvement of the residents in the planning and decision making process creates housing relocation projects that better meet residents’ needs. Japan faces some unique challenges, yet shares commonalities with other countries, for example, in tsunami-stricken fishing areas. Housing relocation in Tohoku must strive to be accountable to the needs of the residents and the specific contexts of their communities.

Originality/value

There is still a limited amount of literature in English that considers the issues of relocation in recovery after the GEJE in an international context, especially comprehensive comparisons with multiple countries. Although this paper does not deal with each international case in great detail, the comparison provides a good overview of the key issues for residents in post-disaster relocation, and suggests how lessons from international cases could be applied to the challenges that Japan currently faces in relocation planning in the Tohoku region.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Rebecca DeGuzman, Rachael Korcha and Douglas Polcin

Persons in the USA who are incarcerated for drug offenses are increasingly being released into the community as a way to decrease prison and jail overcrowding. One…

Abstract

Purpose

Persons in the USA who are incarcerated for drug offenses are increasingly being released into the community as a way to decrease prison and jail overcrowding. One challenge is finding housing that supports compliance with probation and parole requirements, which often includes abstinence from drugs and alcohol. Sober living houses (SLHs) are alcohol- and drug-free living environments that are increasingly being used as housing options for probationers and parolees. Although a few studies have reported favorable outcomes for residents of SLHs, little is known about resident experiences or the factors that are experienced as helpful or counterproductive. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted qualitative interviews with 28 SLH residents on probation or parole to understand their experiences living in the houses, aspects of the houses that facilitated recovery, ways residence in an SLH affected compliance with probation and parole, and ways the houses addressed HIV risk, a widespread problem among this population. Interviews were audiotaped and coded for dominant themes.

Findings

Study participants identified housing as a critically important need after incarceration. For residents nearing the end of their stay in the SLHs, there was significant concern about where they might live after they left. Residents emphasized that shared experiences and goals, consistent enforcement of rules (especially the requirement of abstinence) and encouragement from probation and parole officers as particularly helpful. There was very little focus in HIV issues, even though risk behaviors were fairly common. For some residents, inconsistent enforcement of house rules was experienced as highly problematic. Research is needed to identify the organizational and operational procedures that enhance factors experienced as helpful.

Research limitations/implications

Data for this study are self-reported views and experiences. Therefore, the study may not tap into a variety of reasons for resident experiences. In addition, the data set was small (n=28) and limited to one city in the USA (Los Angeles), so generalization of results might be limited. However, SLHs represent an important housing option for criminal justice involved persons and knowledge about resident experiences can help guide organization and operation of houses and identify areas for further research.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to document the views and experiences of persons on probation or parole who reside in sober living recovery houses. These data can be used by SLH operators to develop houses that are responsive to factors experienced as helpful and counterproductive. The significance of this paper is evident in the trend toward decreasing incarceration in the USA of persons convicted of drug offenses and the need for alcohol- and drug-free alternative living environments.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article

Chang Yeol Choi and Riki Honda

The purpose of this study is to address the key factors for the sustainable process of long-term recovery from disaster, with focus on interdependent decisions of various players.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address the key factors for the sustainable process of long-term recovery from disaster, with focus on interdependent decisions of various players.

Design/methodology/approach

The consistency among strategies of recovery players, who make a decision based not only on direct motive but also on various complex motives and interactions with other players, is considered. Interactive decision-making during the housing reconstruction project in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami is analyzed using game theory.

Findings

Regarding two important decisions defining the result of recovery, players’ possible decisions are evaluated, and by using the game theoretic approach, the reasons for poor output and the conditions to shift equilibrium to that which is suitable for the long-term goal of recovery are discussed.

Originality/value

These analyses show that motive compatibility among players should be considered when we design processes for recovery from disasters.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Arnim Wiek, Robert Ries, Lanka Thabrew, Katja Brundiers and Anoja Wickramasinghe

Sustainable housing and community recovery processes in the aftermath of tsunamis have to cope with direct impacts, such as fatalities, destroyed buildings, and loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable housing and community recovery processes in the aftermath of tsunamis have to cope with direct impacts, such as fatalities, destroyed buildings, and loss of economic assets, as well as indirect impacts caused by shortcomings in recovery management. Recent studies on post‐tsunami recovery tend to focus on direct impacts, ranging from monitoring to prevention studies. Less attention is paid to recovery as a complex bundle of multi‐agent processes causing subsequent problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents results from field studies evaluating post‐tsunami recovery processes in Sri Lanka against the concept of sustainable housing and community recovery. Semi‐structured observations and interviews were conducted on eight sites in the south‐western part of Sri Lanka during field visits 2005‐2006. The research involved beneficiaries and other citizens, representatives from government and administration, field workers (non‐governmental organizations), and scientists.

Findings

Empirical findings identify subsequent problems for specific capital forms, across different capital forms, and across different administrative levels. Moreover, critical issues refer to conceptualizing temporal horizons, comprehensive planning and decision making, stakeholders' involvement, and institutional embedding of recovery processes.

Originality/value

Against this empirical background, the paper indicates improvement potentials referring to literature on comprehensive and adaptive planning to address the sustainable recovery challenges identified. The paper provides guidance for researchers, decision makers, planners, and field workers engaged in post‐disaster sustainable development.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Arindam Bandyopadhyay and Asish Saha

The primary objective of the paper is to demonstrate the importance of borrower‐specific characteristics as well as local situation factors in determining the demand…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary objective of the paper is to demonstrate the importance of borrower‐specific characteristics as well as local situation factors in determining the demand prospect as well as the risk of credit loss on residential housing loan repayment behavior in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 13,487 housing loan accounts (sanctioned from 1993‐2007) data from Banks and Housing Finance Cos (HFCs) in India, this paper attempts to find out the crucial factors that drive demand for housing and its correlation with borrower characteristics using a panel regression method. Next, using logistic regression, housing loan defaults and the major causative factors of the same are examined.

Findings

In analyzing the housing demand pattern, some special characteristics of the Indian residential housing market (demographic and social features) and the housing loan facility structure (loan process, loan margin, loan rate, collateral structure etc.), that have contributed to the safety and soundness of the Indian housing market have been deciphered. The empirical results suggest that borrower defaults on housing loan payments is mainly driven by change in the market value of the property vis‐à‐vis the loan amount and EMI to income ratio. A 10 percent decrease in the market value of the property vis‐à‐vis the loan amount raises the odds of default by 1.55 percent. Similarly, a 10 percent increase in EMI to income ratio raises the delinquency chance by 4.50 percent. However, one cannot ignore borrower characteristics like marital status, employment situation, regional locations, city locations, age profile and house preference which otherwise may inhibit the lender to properly assess credit risk in home loan business, as the results show that these parameters also act as default triggers.

Originality/value

This study contributes on the micro side of the housing market in India, since it uses unique and robust loan information data from banks and HFCs. The empirical results obtained in this paper are useful to regulators, policy makers, market players as well as the researchers to understand housing market demand and risk characteristics in an emerging market economy such as India.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Bevaola Kusumasari and Quamrul Alam

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the local wisdom‐based recovery model that has been applied in the Bantul district, Yogyakarta, Indonesia following the 2006…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the local wisdom‐based recovery model that has been applied in the Bantul district, Yogyakarta, Indonesia following the 2006 earthquake. This recovery model might appropriately be implemented in any type of local government in developing countries which have strong local culture characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is an exploratory case study which concentrates on the Bantul district. Data were gathered in two categories: primary data and secondary data. Primary data were collected through in‐depth interviews. Secondary data were collected from related document such as articles, books, web sites or government and NGO reports.

Findings

Bantul is a small district in the province of Yogyakarta Special region, Indonesia, and is known to be a highly urbanized area, poverty‐stricken and lacking in funds, and with a limited capability to manage a disaster. However, the two years of recovery has resulted in “reimaging” this district as a well‐planned area with a correctly targeted development strategy. The results of the recovery phase were satisfactory. The recovery efforts paid due respect to the high quality of existing local cultures and popular wisdom. Principally, it is the people themselves who should decide how to rebuild their houses. Local government has only provided assistance for earthquake‐resistant houses and has supported basic housing needs.

Originality/value

This paper presents lessons learnt from local government in a developing country in dealing with a recovery process based on local community wisdom.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Teresa Wai Chi Tai, Jee Young Lee and Sherry I. Bame

In Spring 2015, Texas experienced record-breaking floods, causing deaths, injuries, and widespread property and infrastructure damage. However, little is known about those…

Abstract

Purpose

In Spring 2015, Texas experienced record-breaking floods, causing deaths, injuries, and widespread property and infrastructure damage. However, little is known about those who encountered access barriers to disaster support in Texas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the unmet disaster-related needs from 2-1-1 calls during evacuation, flooding, and early recovery phases.

Design/methodology/approach

The 2-1-1 Texas Information and Referral Network’s caller database was used to identify real time, non-emergency, unmet disaster-related caller needs longitudinally. The two-month study period included a baseline week before flashflood (05/01/2015) into early recovery (06/30/2015). Caller unmet needs were categorized and graphed by type daily throughout the study period.

Findings

Of the 4,880 disaster-related 2-1-1 calls from Texas’ 254 counties, 1,183 callers needed housing help, compared to 442 utilities, 409 food and 109 medically related assistance. Total calls quickly peaked at 405 calls/day during Memorial Day weekend when Greater Houston flooded. Despite total calls decreasing gradually during recovery, they remained four times higher than baseline. Unmet needs varied by type, especially during early recovery. Housing, food, and medical unmet needs surged when Houston flooded. Although medical calls were lowest volume than other basic needs, demand for medical assistance had a higher threshold throughout early recovery.

Practical implications

Examination of unmet needs over disaster phases identified longitudinal patterns of demand and effectiveness of disaster management efforts.

Originality/value

Using real-time 2-1-1 data to monitor types of unmet demand is valuable to tailor timely and effective disaster support, reduce access barriers, and allocate disaster support services and supplies to the vulnerable communities.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Yan Chang‐Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa and Erica Seville

The purpose of this paper is to identify resourcing challenges that face housing rebuild following the 2009 Victorian “Black Saturday” bushfires in Australia and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify resourcing challenges that face housing rebuild following the 2009 Victorian “Black Saturday” bushfires in Australia and to examine the impacts of resource shortages on longer term community recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology included a longitudinal study which consists of a questionnaire survey, field‐based interviews and observations to track trends evident in the survey.

Findings

A total of 28 months after the bushfires, reconstruction in the worst‐affected area, the Shire of Murrindindi, was proceeding slowly despite the institutions and procedures set up for recovery. This slow reconstruction was due to the unavailability of building resources. Changed Building Standards, increased building markets outside the bushfire zone, lack of economic incentives, combined with home owners’ socio‐economic vulnerabilities, created a chain of impacts on households’ ability to get resources.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence in this paper points to emergent resource issues that impeded recovery progress in the bushfire zone. These issues primarily come from technical decisions on building controls, economic conditions, and risk perceptions of construction professionals. Findings from this longitudinal study will inform the recovery planning of government agencies in future events.

Originality/value

This paper makes the case for a new approach to looking at resourcing problems following a major disaster. This study demonstrates that recovery planning needs to include a resource perspective which explains both impacts of recovery polices on resource availability and impacts of resourcing dynamics on the wider recovery environment.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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