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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Robert W. Herdt and Rebecca Nelson

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…

Abstract

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.

In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.

Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

Hans W. Klar, Kristin Shawn Huggins, Frederick C. Buskey, Julie K. Desmangles and Robin J. Phelps-Ward

The ever-increasing pressure for school improvement has led to a related increase in research-practice partnerships (RPPs) that address problems of practice. Yet, little…

Abstract

Purpose

The ever-increasing pressure for school improvement has led to a related increase in research-practice partnerships (RPPs) that address problems of practice. Yet, little research has centered on how the myriad challenges to such partnerships can be overcome, such as bridging the cultural divide between universities and their school-based partners. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine how social capital was developed among the members of a steering committee in a RPP between a university and a 12-district consortium of predominantly rural, high-poverty school districts to develop and implement a professional development initiative for rural school leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this phenomenological single case study were collected over a one-year period through participant observations, document analysis and semi-structured interviews with ten steering committee members. Data were inductively and deductively coded through multiple rounds of analysis, which drew on the structural and cognitive elements of social capital (Uphoff, 2000). Findings were triangulated and member checked for trustworthiness.

Findings

The analysis of the data revealed three key ways in which social capital was developed among members of the steering committee to overcome the cultural challenges of RPPs to develop and implement a professional development initiative for rural school leaders: providing an open but focused structure, ensuring inclusive and respectful discussion and negotiating roles and ideas.

Originality/value

The findings provide a fine-grained illustration of how intentional efforts to develop social capital among members in a co-design team can assist in bridging the cultural boundaries often encountered in RPPs.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Elizabeth S. Barnert, Laura S. Abrams, Lello Tesema, Rebecca Dudovitz, Bergen B. Nelson, Tumaini Coker, Eraka Bath, Christopher Biely, Ning Li and Paul J. Chung

Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated.

Findings

Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population.

Practical implications

Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children’s health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed.

Social implications

Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children.

Originality/value

No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Pamela Schlauderaff, Tracy Baldino, K.C. Graham, Katie Hackney, Rebecca Hendryx, Jennifer Nelson, Allen Millard, Caleb Hunter Schlauderaff, Mark Schlauderaff, Dodie Smith and Michael Millard

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening saves patient suffering and health system expenses if the pathology is found in its early stages. Utilizing rapid process improvement…

Abstract

Purpose

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening saves patient suffering and health system expenses if the pathology is found in its early stages. Utilizing rapid process improvement cycles, the purpose of this paper is to improve the rate of CRC screening in a rural community in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from the authors’ electronic medical record. Non provider staff were trained to do the majority of the work utilizing population health, clinic visit checklists, and standard work. The two tests used were colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical test testing.

Findings

Dramatic improvement in the rates of colorectal screening were achieved. The base rate of documented CRC screening was 22 percent, with the rate two years later being 62.7 percent.

Originality/value

This work is of interest to those working in primary care, gastroenterology, general surgery, or if interested in designing standard work.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1948

MURIEL M. GREEN

IT is curious to note how many more books are written for boys than for girls. Considering the growing number of women writers, it might be expected that girls' books…

Abstract

IT is curious to note how many more books are written for boys than for girls. Considering the growing number of women writers, it might be expected that girls' books would predominate. It may be that women writers are canny enough to write with their eye on the boy reader knowing that while a totally feminine story will not attract boys, girls often read their brothers' books. Most of the children's classics appeal to both sexes—Peter Pan, Pinocchio, A Christmas Carol, Hans Brinker, The Wind in the Willows, and The Bastable Children, for example. Even the classics of adventure such as Treasure Island, and Robinson Crusoe, have their female devotees and therefore stand a greater chance of survival than books like Little Women, the Katy series, and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. With the development of the “family story” popularised by E. Nesbit, there seems to have been a decline in the school story—at least among boys. Either they prefer natural tales of boys and girls together at home, or on holiday, or realistic adventures. A. S. Tring keeps a foot in all three camps, so to speak, with his tale of out‐of‐school activities, adventures and feuds between two day schools. His story entitled The Old Gang (O.U.P., 7/6) is told by the hero himself, in a racy style, and is amusingly illustrated by John Camp. Of the realistic adventure type is The Missing Legatee, by Wilfrid Robertson (O.U.P., 7/6), and it has its setting in the wilds of the Zambesi where the author himself has made expeditions, exploring and big game hunting. It satisfies the boy's demand for plenty of action and at the same time conforms to a good stylistic standard. Another tale of a search undertaken at great risk is David Gammon's Against the Golden Gods (Lutterworth, 5/‐) in which a seventeen year old boy goes out among the head hunters of Papua to rescue his captive father. Fog in the Channel, by Percy Woodcock (Nelson, 7/6) relates stirring adventures by sea, beginning with a collision in the fog when two schoolboys board a mysterious vessel supposed to be on secret service.

Details

Library Review, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2016

Christopher J. Schneider

The body of scholarship on YouTube is an expanding area of scholarly inquiry. Existent research indicates that music videos are one of the most salient features of…

Abstract

The body of scholarship on YouTube is an expanding area of scholarly inquiry. Existent research indicates that music videos are one of the most salient features of YouTube. Interactionist research about popular music has provided important insights through interviews with fans and audience members; however, this work has yet to examine audience engagement with music videos on YouTube. Using Qualitative Media Analysis, I illustrate how the researcher of popular music can work with user comments collected from YouTube. Thematic understandings largely consistent with nostalgia that emerged from an analysis of user-generated comments in response to selected music videos on YouTube are explored. I conclude by suggesting some directions for future research.

Details

Symbolic Interactionist Takes on Music
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-048-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Catherine Komugisha Tindiwensi, John C. Munene, Arthur Sserwanga, Ernest Abaho and Rebecca Namatovu-Dawa

This article investigates the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation in smallholder farms.

Abstract

Purpose

This article investigates the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation in smallholder farms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used quantitative approaches to survey 378 smallholder farms in Uganda. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling to establish the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation.

Findings

Farm management skills positively predict market orientation while entrepreneurial bricolage partially mediates the relationship between farm management skills and market orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilized a survey design, which provides a cross-sectional view. Given that market orientation of smallholder farms can vary during the farm growth process, it becomes more informative to analyse how the independent and mediating variables cause a variation at different levels of market orientation.

Practical implications

Farm management training programmes that emphasize financial management skills and employ a household approach should be strengthened to enhance smallholder market orientation. Strategies for enhancing market orientation should also entail bricolage as a complementary behaviour to farm management.

Originality/value

We introduce entrepreneurial bricolage to the market orientation debate. The study brings alive the significance of entrepreneurial bricolage in smallholder farming. It also confirms the role of farm management skills in enhancing the market orientation of smallholder farms.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Rebecca Reece, Isabelle Bray, Danielle Sinnett, Robert Hayward and Faith Martin

There is a mental health crisis, particularly among young people. Despite many young people living in urban settings, reviews about the association between exposure to…

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Abstract

Purpose

There is a mental health crisis, particularly among young people. Despite many young people living in urban settings, reviews about the association between exposure to green or natural environments and mental health tend to focus on either children or adults. The aim of this review is to examine the scope of the global literature for this age group, to inform a systematic review on the role of exposure to green space in preventing anxiety and depression amongst young people aged 14–24 years.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven databases were searched for quantitative and qualitative sources published from January 2000 to June 2020. This identified 201 sources and their characteristics are described here. Gaps in the literature are also highlighted.

Findings

The number of relevant studies published per year has increased over time. Most studies are set in North America (28%) or Europe (39%). The most common study designs were observational (34%) or experimental (28%). A wide range of exposures and interventions are described.

Research limitations/implications

This review included literature from predominantly high-income countries and has shown the under-representation of low-middle income countries and lack of ethnic diversity in study populations. It has also highlighted the lack of clinical measures of anxiety and depression as outcomes.

Originality/value

This inter-disciplinary review has contributed to the field by describing the geographic distribution of the literature and the broad range of exposures to green spaces being reported. Unlike previous scoping reviews, this review focused specifically on young people and on measures of anxiety and depression and their pre-cursers.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Gender and Female Villains in 21st Century Fairy Tale Narratives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-565-4

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