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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Paul F. Burke, Christine Eckert and Stacey Davis

This paper aims to quantify the relative importance of reasons used to explain consumers’ selection and rejection of ethical products, accounting for differences in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the relative importance of reasons used to explain consumers’ selection and rejection of ethical products, accounting for differences in ethical orientations across consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviewing previous literature and drawing on in-depth interviews, a taxonomy of reasons for and against ethical purchasing is developed. An online survey incorporating best–worst scaling (BWS) determines which reasons feature more in shaping ethical consumerism. Cluster analysis and multinomial regression are used to identify and profile segments.

Findings

Positively orientated consumers (42 per cent of respondents) purchase ethical products more so because of reasons relating to impact, health, personal relevance, and quality. Negatively orientated consumers (34 per cent of respondents) reject ethical alternatives based on reasons relating to indifference, expense, confusion and scepticism. A third segment is ambivalent in their behaviour and reasoning; they perceive ethical purchasing to be effective and relevant, but are confused and sceptical under what conditions this can occur.

Research limitations/implications

Preferences were elicited using an online survey rather than using real market data. Though the task instructions and methods used attempted to minimise social-desirability bias, the experiment might still be subject to its effects.

Practical implications

Competitive positioning strategies can be better designed knowing which barriers to ethical purchasing are more relevant. The paper challenges the benefits in altruistic-based positioning and outlines shortcomings in communication about ethical products, including those relating to product labelling.

Social implications

Through their purchase behaviours across a number of categories, ethical consumers aim to minimise the harm and exploitation of humans, animals and the natural environment. This research provides insights into the potential reasons why the uptake of ethical products is not being achieved and how it can be addressed to make improvements in making this movement more mainstream.

Originality/value

This research examines an extensive list of reasons for and against ethical purchasing used by a general population of consumers. By forcing respondents to make trade-offs, this is the first study quantifying the relative importance of reasons utilised by consumers. It also highlights the value in using cluster analysis on best–worst scores to identify underlying segments.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Cognitive Economics: New Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-862-9

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Pi‐Chuan Sun

This purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of trivial attribute and product involvement on product evaluation in different product‐line extensions.

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of trivial attribute and product involvement on product evaluation in different product‐line extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a 2×2×2 between‐subjects experiment was conducted.

Findings

It was found that the product with trivial attributes has a higher evaluation than those without trivial attributes in the upward extension situation. The highly involved product with trivial attributes is more positively evaluated than those without trivial attributes.

Research limitations/implications

During the experimental process, the subjects read only the product information described in words and photographs.

Practical implications

Firms can differentiate their products by trivial attributes to create implied benefits. However, a trivial attribute does not always function well for all products, and positive evaluation is associated with trivial attributes coupled with price.

Originality/value

The paper examines the interaction effect among trivial attributes, product involvement and product‐line extension strategy.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2018

Duarte Pimentel, Marc Scholten and Joao Pedro Couto

The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in the decision-making styles between family and nonfamily firms, while assessing how family participation relates to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in the decision-making styles between family and nonfamily firms, while assessing how family participation relates to the use of decision-making styles within family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical evidence is provided by a sample of 155 firms, located in the Azores, Portugal, 82 family controlled and 73 nonfamily controlled firms. All firms included in the sample are small-sized privately owned enterprises. Business owners and managers responded to a decision-making styles questionnaire, followed, in the case of family firms, by the report of the number of family members actively involved in the business.

Findings

Results show that there are no differences in the use of rational decision making between family and nonfamily firms. However, nonfamily firms show higher levels of experiential decision making than family firms. Results also show that family participation plays a key role in guiding the decisional process, by promoting the use experiential decisions and inhibiting the adoption of a rational decision-making styles in family firms.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective, this study opens the door to new research on an under investigated topic in the family business literature. It contributes with initial notions that may help profile the decisional style within small family firms, while revealing how family participation affects it. Thus, creating a fertile ground of discussion that can be an impulse for more research in this area.

Practical implications

From an applied perspective, assessing the influence of family participation in the adoption of a decisional style is potentially valuable for practitioners as well as for owners and managers. Providing them with clues that may help them better understand the basis of their decisions which can benefit their relations with other family members, as with customers, partners and suppliers that play a key role in the firm’s growth, profitability and adaptability.

Social implications

From a social point of view, showing that family firms tend to be rational in their decisions may help create a more reputable and credible image surrounding these firms that are sometimes perceived as less professional than nonfamily firms. Thus, a more solid reputability can help improve their relationship with important partner institutions (e.g. financial, governmental), becoming more attractive to private and public investment, which can translate into win-win situations.

Originality/value

This study responds to a gap in the literature, by exploring the use of experiential vs rational decision-making styles in small family and nonfamily firms. This study also contributes to the understanding of the decision making within family firms, by assessing the role of family participation in the adoption of a decisional style.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Wei Shao, Debra Grace and Mitchell Ross

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of self-regulatory focus (SRF) in the context of advertising effectiveness pertaining to rational vs emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of self-regulatory focus (SRF) in the context of advertising effectiveness pertaining to rational vs emotional appeals. Past research has dichotomized self-regulatory (SR) foci (i.e. prevention or promotion) on the basis of an individual’s so-called “chronic” orientation, i.e. high or low prevention focus; high or low promotion focus. However, psychological theorists purport that SRF is orthogonal and, thus, various combinations of both foci are evident in any given population.

Design/methodology/approach

A two (rational appeal vs emotional appeal)×two (utilitarian product vs hedonic product) experimental design was used. Data was collected via an online survey instrument which included the stimulus advertisements (experimental manipulations) and the relevant independent (SRF) and dependent measures (advertising effectiveness).

Findings

The findings of this study support application of regulatory focus theory (RFT) as an appropriate framework to study consumer behaviour and as a mechanism by which to segment consumers. However, past advertising research has predominantly examined consumer’s “chronic” foci (i.e. prevention and promotion). This study found that consumers can adopt various combinations of information processing styles and goal orientations and cannot be boxed into dichotomous categories based on either a prevention of promotion focus. As such, the findings reveal very different conclusions in contrast to previous advertising and marketing research in the SRF area.

Originality/value

This study is the first to approach SRF from a quadratic perspective (i.e. involving all SRF combinations). In calling to question the validity of previous findings, this study paves the way for numerous future research opportunities.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Chen Wang, Qiang Wang, Taiwen Feng and Yan Zhang

This study aims to investigate the impacts of service category (utilitarian vs hedonic) on chosen degree of uniqueness (CDOU) and consumers' willingness to pay more…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impacts of service category (utilitarian vs hedonic) on chosen degree of uniqueness (CDOU) and consumers' willingness to pay more (WTPM), as well as the moderating roles of consumers' narcissism trait (high vs low) and processing mode (rational vs experiential) on the relationship between service category and CDOU.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts one online experiment-questionnaire study and one between-subject lab experiment to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study finds that consumers are more likely to choose unique choices in hedonic service customization. Consumers' CDOU has a positive effect on their attitudes toward WTPM. In addition, consumers' processing mode moderates the relationship between service category and CDOU.

Practical implications

The findings provide new insights into better understanding the factors affecting the choice of service customization and have significant practical implications. First, consumers' different desire for uniqueness of different service should not be neglected when examining the values of service customization. Second, high-level CDOU is quite prevalent for hedonic (vs utilitarian) service customization, especially for consumers with experiential processing mode.

Originality/value

While previous studies state “need for uniqueness” as a key characteristic of product customization in general, we extend it to intangible service customization and connect it with consumers' WTPM. In addition, the moderating role of individual trait and decision-making processing mode is also checked. Thus, the findings refine the existing understanding of the relationship between uniqueness and service customization.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2015

Thomas D. Beamish and Nicole Woolsey Biggart

Following Philip Selznick’s lead in using pragmatist social science to understand issues of public concern we conducted a study of failed innovation in the commercial…

Abstract

Following Philip Selznick’s lead in using pragmatist social science to understand issues of public concern we conducted a study of failed innovation in the commercial construction industry (CCI). We find that social heuristics – collectively constructed and maintained interpretive decision-making frames – significantly shape economic and non-economic decision-making practices. Social heuristics are the outcome of industry-based “institutionalization processes” and are widely held and commonly relied on in CCI to reduce uncertainty endemic to decision-making; they provide actors with both a priori and ex post facto justifications for economic decisions that appear socially rational to industry co-participants. In the CCI – a project-centered production network – social heuristics as shared institutions sustain network-based social order but in so doing discourage novel technologies and impede innovation. Social heuristics are actor-level constructs that reflect macro-level institutional arrangements and networked production relations. The concept of social heuristics offers the promise of developing a genuinely social theory of individual economic choice and action that is historically informed, contextually situated, and neither psychologically nor structurally reductionist.

Details

Institutions and Ideals: Philip Selznick’s Legacy for Organizational Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-726-0

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Mariola Palazon and Elena Delgado-Ballester

This study aims to analyse what type of premium, hedonic or utilitarian, is preferred in a promotional context. Additionally, it seeks to examine the role of affective and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse what type of premium, hedonic or utilitarian, is preferred in a promotional context. Additionally, it seeks to examine the role of affective and cognitive reactions in decision processes where utilitarian and hedonic premiums are involved.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted. A single factor within-subjects design was employed, with the nature of the premium (hedonic/utilitarian) as the treatment factor. Respondents were asked to make their choice between two promotional offers. Affective and cognitive reactions were measured. Regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized effects.

Findings

The results show that hedonic premiums are preferable to utilitarian ones in a promotional context, other characteristics of the premium (e.g. premium attractiveness) being equal. The findings also identify that a preference for the hedonic/utilitarian premium is more likely to emerge when affective/cognitive reactions are incited, and indicate that the nature of the preferred premium determines the mediating effect of cognitive reactions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper only focuses on the hedonic/utilitarian nature of the premium. However, premiums come in very different forms and several characteristics – such as a premium with a relatively low price, the reception delay of the premium, and the perceived fit between the product and the premium – may reverse the relative preference for hedonic premiums.

Practical implications

The hedonic vs utilitarian nature of the premium should be considered when planning premium promotion. It appears that the use of more hedonic premiums increases the effectiveness of promotional actions alongside other variables such as premium attractiveness, the promotional benefit level or the product-premium fit. Furthermore, the type of premium offered influences the role of affective and cognitive reactions aroused during shopping. Thus, the nature of the premium may influence the reactions of consumers when participating in promotional actions.

Originality/value

The research extends the factors that may explain the effectiveness of premium promotions, since few studies to date have focused on the hedonic or utilitarian nature of premiums.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2013

Bernd Schmitt and Lia Zarantonello

Purpose – This chapter provides a critical review of the emerging field of consumer experience and experiential marketing.Design/methodology/approach – We review…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter provides a critical review of the emerging field of consumer experience and experiential marketing.Design/methodology/approach – We review definitions, perspectives, and key research areas on the topics of consumer experience, product and service experiences, off-line and online experiences, as well as consumption and brand experiences. We report empirical findings, seminal studies, and insight into the experience process (e.g., how consumers process experiential attributes, how they process experiences over time, and whether positive and negative experiences can co-occur). We present research on experiential dimensions, experiential themes, and the nature of extraordinary experiences.Value/originality – The chapter provides value by discussing the key measurement and marketing management issues of experiential marketing and discusses the original issue whether it is rational for consumers to include experiences in their decision making.

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-761-0

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2017

Ilaria Baghi and Paolo Antonetti

Past research on cause-related marketing (CRM) suggests that these socially beneficial initiatives are more effective when linked with hedonic than utilitarian products…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research on cause-related marketing (CRM) suggests that these socially beneficial initiatives are more effective when linked with hedonic than utilitarian products. Little is known, however, about the process underpinning this effect. This paper aims to investigate why and under what circumstances CRM enhances the appeal of hedonic products by testing the mediation of guilt and introducing the moderating role of cause-product fit.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test a model of moderated mediation in two studies. Study 1 shows that the effectiveness of combining CRM with hedonic consumption is explained by the mediating role of feelings of guilt. Study 2 demonstrates that this mediation depends on the level of fit or congruency between the cause and the product.

Findings

Results suggest that CRM campaigns offer the opportunity to improve the consumption experiences of hedonic products by reducing the feelings of guilt intrinsically connected with these options. Moreover, fit moderates the emotional processes activated by CRM initiatives. When fit is high, CRM reduces guilt and improves consumers’ experiences when purchasing hedonic alternatives.

Originality/value

The study extends current understanding of how CRM can promote hedonic consumption and contributes further to research on guilt as an emotion able to promote responsible consumption decisions. Moreover, the study introduces and tests the impact of cause-product fit in predicting consumers’ ethical purchase intention. For managers of hedonic brands, the study offers important implications on how to deploy CRM campaigns to foster better customer experiences.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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