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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2007

Irina Farquhar and Alan Sorkin

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized…

Abstract

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized innovative information technology open architecture design and integrating Radio Frequency Identification Device data technologies and real-time optimization and control mechanisms as the critical technology components of the solution. The innovative information technology, which pursues the focused logistics, will be deployed in 36 months at the estimated cost of $568 million in constant dollars. We estimate that the Systems, Applications, Products (SAP)-based enterprise integration solution that the Army currently pursues will cost another $1.5 billion through the year 2014; however, it is unlikely to deliver the intended technical capabilities.

Details

The Value of Innovation: Impact on Health, Life Quality, Safety, and Regulatory Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-551-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Chung Hyuk Park and Bum‐Hee Lee

To propose a new haptic modeling and contact analysis algorithm (modified long element method (MLEM)) to efficiently model deformation, to estimate elasticity, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

To propose a new haptic modeling and contact analysis algorithm (modified long element method (MLEM)) to efficiently model deformation, to estimate elasticity, and to provide the characterization of contact with deformable objects, which is important in teleoperation and haptic system.

Design/methodology/approach

Widely used finite element method for haptic rendering and visualization of deformable objects has limitations in real‐time applications because of its massive calculations and the absence of physical modeling. Using long elements method (LEM), the authors propose the MLEM which is capable of real‐time deformation rendering and elasticity estimation with reliable physical modeling. The authors applied MLEM to a simple haptic system composed of the three‐link SNU DD‐robot and a force‐feedback joystick.

Findings

An efficient, real‐time haptic modeling for deformable objects has been developed. MLEM provides physically accurate deformation modeling in real time, and estimates the elasticity of objects at contact, providing contact characterization based on material properties.

Research limitations/implications

MLEM has been applied to SNU DD‐robot, and displayed real‐time haptic visualization in 2D space. It can be applied easily to any haptic system with force sensors, and may have impacts on the applications of teleoperation, robot‐aided surgery and human‐robot interaction.

Originality/value

This paper offers a practical tool to the engineers in the haptics field for visualization of deformation. The efficient algorithm of MLEM can be placed on any haptic system with force sensors, and will improve the efficiency and accuracy of teleoperated haptic systems with real‐time analysis of haptic contact.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Weifei Hu, Tongzhou Zhang, Xiaoyu Deng, Zhenyu Liu and Jianrong Tan

Digital twin (DT) is an emerging technology that enables sophisticated interaction between physical objects and their virtual replicas. Although DT has recently gained…

Abstract

Digital twin (DT) is an emerging technology that enables sophisticated interaction between physical objects and their virtual replicas. Although DT has recently gained significant attraction in both industry and academia, there is no systematic understanding of DT from its development history to its different concepts and applications in disparate disciplines. The majority of DT literature focuses on the conceptual development of DT frameworks for a specific implementation area. Hence, this paper provides a state-of-the-art review of DT history, different definitions and models, and six types of key enabling technologies. The review also provides a comprehensive survey of DT applications from two perspectives: (1) applications in four product-lifecycle phases, i.e. product design, manufacturing, operation and maintenance, and recycling and (2) applications in four categorized engineering fields, including aerospace engineering, tunneling and underground engineering, wind engineering and Internet of things (IoT) applications. DT frameworks, characteristic components, key technologies and specific applications are extracted for each DT category in this paper. A comprehensive survey of the DT references reveals the following findings: (1) The majority of existing DT models only involve one-way data transfer from physical entities to virtual models and (2) There is a lack of consideration of the environmental coupling, which results in the inaccurate representation of the virtual components in existing DT models. Thus, this paper highlights the role of environmental factor in DT enabling technologies and in categorized engineering applications. In addition, the review discusses the key challenges and provides future work for constructing DTs of complex engineering systems.

Details

Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing and Special Equipment, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-6596

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Zhuolin Li, Dongmei Fu and Zibo Pei

This paper aims to discover the mathematical model for Q235 carbon steel corrosion date acquired in the initial stage of atmospheric corrosion using electrical resistance probe.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discover the mathematical model for Q235 carbon steel corrosion date acquired in the initial stage of atmospheric corrosion using electrical resistance probe.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, mathematical approaches are used to construct a classification model for atmospheric environmental elements and material corrosion rates.

Findings

Results of the experiment show that the corrosion data can be converted into corrosion depth for calculating corrosion rate to obtain corrosion kinetics model and conform corrosion acceleration phase. Combined with corresponding atmospheric environmental elements, a real time grade subdivision model for corrosion rate can be constructed.

Originality/value

These mathematical models constructed by real time corrosion data can be well used to research the characteristics about initial atmospheric corrosion of Q235 carbon steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Paul G. Ranky

The aim of this paper is to introduce a real‐time performance evaluation and control model, for the purpose of reducing cost and improving the quality, and the real‐time

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to introduce a real‐time performance evaluation and control model, for the purpose of reducing cost and improving the quality, and the real‐time responsiveness of manufacturing/assembly systems and enterprises that host them. In order to make the approach practical, networking solutions with integrated sensory feedback processing and visualization methods are illustrated. In this paper we summarize the core concepts of our method and demonstrate some quality industrial solutions.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Adnan Ayub, Farman Ali Khan and Jeffrey Davis

Short-term motivation encompasses specific, challenging and attainable goals that develop in the limited timespan. On the other hand, long-term motivation indicates a sort…

Abstract

Purpose

Short-term motivation encompasses specific, challenging and attainable goals that develop in the limited timespan. On the other hand, long-term motivation indicates a sort of continuing commitment that is required to complete assigned task. As short-term motivational problems span for a limited period of time, such as a session, therefore, they need to be addressed in real time to keep the learner engaged in the learning process. Similarly, long-term learners’ motivation plays an equally important role to retain the learner in the long run and minimize the risk of dropout. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to incorporate a comprehensive learner motivation model that is based on short-term and long-term aspects of the learners' motivation. This approach enables Web-based educational systems to identify the real-time motivational state of the learner and provide personalized interventions to keep the learners engaged in learning process.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent research regarding personalized Web-based educational systems demonstrates learner’s motivation to be an essential component of the learning model. This is because of the fact that low motivation results in either students’ less engagement or complete drop out from the learning activities. A learner motivation model is considered to be a set of perceptions and beliefs that the system has developed about a learner. This includes both short-term and long-term motivations of leaners.

Findings

This study proposed a framework of a domain independent learners’ motivation model based on firm educational theories. The proposed framework consists of two modules. The primary module deals with real-time identification of motivation and logging off activities such as login, forum participation and adherence to assessment deadline. Secondary module maintains the profile of leaners associated with both short-term and long-term motivation. A study was conducted to verify the impact of learners’ motivation model and personalized interventional strategies based on proposed model, using Systematical Information Education Method assessment standards. The results show an increase in motivational index and the characteristics associated with motivation during the conducted study.

Originality/value

Motivational diagnosis is important for both traditional classrooms and Web-based education systems. It is one of the major elements that contribute in the success of the learning process. However, dropout rate among online students is very high, which leads to incorporate motivational elements in more personalized way because motivated students will retain the course until they successfully complete it. Hence, identifying learner’s motivation, updating learners’ motivation model based on this identification and providing personalized interventions are the key for the success of Web-based educational systems.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Premaratne Samaranayake and Tritos Laosirihongthong

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework of integrated supply chain model that can be used to measure, evaluate and monitor operational performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework of integrated supply chain model that can be used to measure, evaluate and monitor operational performance under dynamic and uncertain conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology consists of two stages: configuration of a conceptual framework of integrated supply chain model linked with performance measures and illustration of the integrated supply chain model and delivery performance using a case of dairy industry. The integrated supply chain model is based on a unitary structuring technique and forms the basis for measuring and evaluating supply chain performance. Delivery performance with variation of demand (forecast and actual) is monitored using a fuzzy-based decision support system, based on three inputs: capacity utilization (influenced by production disruption), raw materials shortage and quality of dairy products.

Findings

Integration of supply chain components (materials, resources, operations, activities, suppliers, etc.) of key processes using unitary structuring approach enables information integration in real time for performance evaluation and monitoring in complex supply chain situations. In addition, real-time performance monitoring is recognized as being of great importance for supply chain management in responding to uncertainties inherent in the operational environment.

Research limitations/implications

Implementation of an integrated model requires maintenance of supply chain components with all necessary data and information in a system environment such as enterprise resource planning.

Practical implications

The integrated model provides decision-makers with an overall view of supply chain components and direct links that need to be maintained for supply chain performance evaluation and monitoring. Wider adaptation and diffusion of the proposed model require further validation of the model and feasibility of implementation, using real-time data and information on selected performance measures.

Originality/value

Integration of supply chain components across supply chain processes directly linked with performance measures is a novel approach for effective supply chain performance evaluation and monitoring in complex supply chains under dynamic and uncertain conditions.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

B. Li, F.F. Fu, H. Zhong and H.B. Luo

The purpose of the paper is to marshal the carbon sources, and explore a computational model to calculate the buildings’ carbon emissions by using building information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to marshal the carbon sources, and explore a computational model to calculate the buildings’ carbon emissions by using building information modeling (BIM) techniques. The study aims to integrate the BIM techniques with the carbon emission and energy analysis tools, which can provide a more exact quantification result.

Design/methodology/approach

To define the scope of this study, several standards or regulations have been comparatively analyzed. The BIM technique has also been used to establish the computational model of carbon emissions, including the calculation principle, the basic database, and each process of modeling. Finally, a case study is given to test the theoretical study.

Findings

The paper provides a quantitative calculation method for the carbon emissions of buildings, and suggests an approach to integrate the BIM techniques with the low carbon research. This allows the quantity of material consumption and carbon emission to be calculated in real time during the whole construction process.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen American database, the calculation results may lack generalizability. Therefore, the approach of establishing a universal database of carbon emission coefficients will be the next key point.

Practical implications

As this research shows, there is a need for an advanced calculation method to evaluate the buildings’ carbon emission exactly by BIM techniques, which also provides a basis to establish the regulation of carbon transaction tax in the future.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to calculate the carbon emission during the buildings’ construction stage, so that better decisions can be made to optimize the construction plan and choose the low emission materials properly.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qi Shi, Anurag Pande and Rongjie Yu

Purpose – This chapter provides details of research that attempts to relate traffic operational conditions on uninterrupted flow facilities (e.g., freeways and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter provides details of research that attempts to relate traffic operational conditions on uninterrupted flow facilities (e.g., freeways and expressways) with real-time crash likelihood. Unlike incident detection, the purpose of this line of work is to proactively assess crash likelihood and potentially reduce the likelihood through proactive traffic management techniques, including variable speed limit and ramp metering among others.

Methodology – The chapter distinguishes between the traditional aggregate crash frequency-based approach to safety evaluation and the approach needed for real-time crash risk estimation. Key references from the literature are summarised in terms of the reported effect of different traffic characteristics that can be derived in near real-time, including average speed, temporal variation in speed, volume and lane-occupancy, on crash occurrence.

Findings – Traffic and weather parameters are among the real-time crash-contributing factors. Among the most significant traffic parameters is speed particularly in the form of coefficient of variation of speed.

Research implications – In the traffic safety field, traditional data sources are infrastructure-based traffic detection systems. In the future, if automatic traffic detection systems could provide reliable data at the vehicle level, new variables such as headway could be introduced. Transferability of real-time crash prediction models is also of interest. Also, the potential effects of different management strategies to reduce real-time crash risk could be evaluated in a simulation environment.

Practical implications – This line of research has been at the forefront of bringing data mining and other machine-learning techniques into the traffic management arena. We expect these analysis techniques to play a more important role in real-time traffic management, not just for safety evaluation but also for congestion pricing and alternate routing.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Xianghua Huang, Xiaochun Zhao and Jiaqin Huang

The traditional numerical methods to predict the interaction between the wing and propeller are too complex and time-consuming for computation to a certain extent…

Abstract

Purpose

The traditional numerical methods to predict the interaction between the wing and propeller are too complex and time-consuming for computation to a certain extent. Therefore, they are not applicable for a real-time integrated turboprop aircraft model. This paper aims to present a simplified model capable of high-precision and real-time computing.

Design/methodology/approach

A wing model based on the lifting line theory coupled with a propeller model based on the strip theory is used to predict the propeller-wing interaction. To meet the requirement of real-time computing, a novel decoupling parameter is presented to replace lifting line model (LLM) applied for wings with a simplified fitting model (FM).

Findings

The comparison between the LLM and the simplified FM demonstrates that the results of the FM have a good agreement with the results of the LLM, which means that the simplified FM has the advantages of both high-accuracy and real-time computation.

Practical implications

After simplification, the propeller-wing interaction model is suitable for a real-time integrated turboprop aircraft model.

Originality/value

A novel decoupling parameter is presented to replace LLM applied for wings with a simplified FM, which has the advantages of both high-accuracy and real-time computation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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