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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Indranarain Ramlall

Abstract

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The Corporate, Real Estate, Household, Government and Non-Bank Financial Sectors Under Financial Stability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-837-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Nico B. Rottke and Julia Gentgen

The German banking sector has recently been facing high real estate loan default rates resulting in the accumulation of a high volume of distressed real estate debt in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The German banking sector has recently been facing high real estate loan default rates resulting in the accumulation of a high volume of distressed real estate debt in the banks' balance sheets. As a consequence, German banks are confronted with the workout of their non‐ and sub‐performing real estate loans to proactively solve the problem. When doing so, banks have to decide whether they want to conduct the loan workout in their own workout departments (integrative approach) or whether they prefer to outsource the workout to a third party servicer or even sell their bad loan exposure to an external investor (disintegrative approach). This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A bank's decision to employ an integrative or a disintegrative approach can be transferred into a make‐or buy‐decision as described by the transaction cost economics. The transaction between the bank and the workout manager is analysed by the transaction characteristics of the transaction cost economics. The specificity of the human capital required for the loan workout of real estate loans is a key consideration for answering the question of integration or disintegration. Assuming highly specific investments for both, the workout manager and the bank, a formal model compares the aggregated pay offs for the bank and the workout manager to determine the optimal control structure for the specific assets.

Findings

Following the assumptions of the transaction cost economics, the specificity of the investment of the workout manager (and also the bank) is crucial for the decision of integrating or disintegrating the workout of real estate loans. The degree of specificity required to perform the workout tasks depends on the status of underlying credit engagement and the characteristics of the collateral (the real estate). The formal analysis shows that the bank and the workout manager both under‐invest in integration and disintegration scenarios. However, if the degree of specificity of the investments is equal, nonintegration is superior to integration. Forward integration is superior to nonintegration, if the bank's investment is more specific than the workout manager's investment.

Originality/value

This research paper approaches the problematic from an academic stand point, integrating both the banking and the real estate perspective and aims to provide a recommendation for banks on the integration or disintegration of the workout unit for a certain real estate secured loan portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Tanu Aggarwal and Priya Solomon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of residential and commercial loans on total real estate sector loans by using partial least square–structured equation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of residential and commercial loans on total real estate sector loans by using partial least square–structured equation modelling (PL–SEM) method. The residential loans as a mediator have been used to know the mediation effect between commercial and total real estate loans of banks in India. The residential loans as a mediator govern the relationship between commercial loans and total real estate loans in India. Real estate sector development is a lucrative opportunity for India. The real estate sector plays a major role in shaping economic conditions of the individuals, firms and family.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is descriptive in nature. The study on residential loans, commercial loans and total real estate loans has been taken into consideration, and on the other hand the measurement and structural model have been employed to the study the impact of residential loans and commercial loans on total real estate loans in India by using PL–SEM. The residential loans as a mediator have been taken to study the mediation effect of the relationship between commercial loans and total real estate loans in India.

Findings

The outcome of the structural model that is bootstrapping technique shows that there is an impact of residential and commercial loans by public and private sector banks on total real estate sector development in India. The residential loans show the full mediation effect between commercial loans and total real estate loans as the value of variation accounted for (VAF) is more than 1.93 which shows residential loans govern the nature of variable between commercial loans and total real estate loans.

Practical implications

The public and private sector banks are contributing to the real estate sector development in India which increases the economic growth of the country. The mediation analysis shows that residential loans are an important aspect between commercial and total real estate loans in India as the demand for residential housing is more in India. The increasing role of banks in the real estate sector strengthens the financial capability in the real estate sector market, and the property buyers will able to purchase more property which leads to increasing demand for real estate sector.

Originality/value

The research paper is original, and PL–SEM has been used to find the results.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Amit Ghosh

Using state-level data, the purpose of this paper is to examine state banking-industry specific as well as region economic determinants of real estate lending of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using state-level data, the purpose of this paper is to examine state banking-industry specific as well as region economic determinants of real estate lending of commercial banks across all 51 states spanning the period 1966-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Using both fixed-effects and dynamic-generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation techniques the study compares the sensitivity of different categories of real estate loans to regional banking and economic conditions. Finally, it provides a comparative perspective by comparing the results for real estate loans with other categories of loans given out by banks.

Findings

Greater capitalization, liquidity and overhead costs reduce real estate lending, while banks diversification and the size of the banking industry in each state increase such lending. Moreover, real estate loans are found to be procyclical to state economic cycles with a rise in state real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, increase in state housing price index (HPI) and decline in both inflation and unemployment rates, increasing real estate loans. Within disaggregated loan types, construction and land development and single-family residential loans are most responsive to state banking and economic conditions.

Originality/value

The recent financial turmoil is to a large extent attributable to excessive risk-taking by banks, particularly in terms of real estate lending. Hence, it is of paramount importance to empirically address the various determinants of real estate lending. With most banks restricting their operations in either one or a few states only, real estate lending in any given state may be more sensitive to regional banking and economic conditions than national aggregates. The present study is the first of its type to perform such an analysis.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

William G. Hardin

Presents an investigation into the existence of information processing heuristics in two commercial bank lender types that provide investment and construction loans

Abstract

Presents an investigation into the existence of information processing heuristics in two commercial bank lender types that provide investment and construction loans secured by real estate. Expert real estate banking lenders and expert private banking lenders evidenced different, systematic group specific heuristic usage. Heuristics constrained information cue relevancy and affected the lending decision. Expert private banking lenders mitigated real estate risk by using non‐collateral specific information cues. Real estate lending experts did not mitigate real estate market risk and required favourable collateral specific information cues in order to approve a loan. Concludes that access to credit for real estate investment may be limited by lender expertise because the development of expertise mandates restrictive task interpretation and cue relevance.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Courtney J. Linn

The paper seeks to focus on the causes of the recent subprime lending crisis in the US residential property market.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to focus on the causes of the recent subprime lending crisis in the US residential property market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the present situation.

Findings

A number of causes for the crisis are shown, including the fragmented structure of the real estate settlement process, and the various people involved in real estate closings who operate under different regulatory and supervisory regimes with varying intensities of enforcement effort. This fragmentation makes it difficult to regulate the conduct of real estate industry insiders. Fragmented regulation also provides opportunities for swindlers, con‐artists, and fraudsters.

Originality/value

The paper makes a case for a meaningful regulatory reform, namely mandatory fraud reporting by all those involved in residential real estate closings and settlements.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Stephen E. Roulac

The questions of loan availability and pricing were considered from the perspectives of financial economic theory and practice as well as a survey of lenders capable of…

Abstract

Purpose

The questions of loan availability and pricing were considered from the perspectives of financial economic theory and practice as well as a survey of lenders capable of financing a one-year bridge loan to determine the market's willingness to make such a loan and what rate of interest would be charged. Utilizing the sources above, in conjunction with professional knowledge and industry contacts, 101 lenders were selected as representative of the universe of lenders who had the capacity to make directly or otherwise to arrange, a $192 million bridge loan. The survey of lenders involved interviews with 67 of the 86 selected lenders from 59 firms. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Loan availability and pricing were considered from perspectives of financial economic theory and practice plus a survey to determine market's willingness to make a loan at what price. Utilizing professional knowledge and industry contacts, 101 lenders were selected as representative of those which had the capacity to make a $192 million bridge loan. When lenders were evaluated against criteria of size, product type, geographic territory, and willingness/capability to provide nonstandard loans, list selected for telephone interviews was narrowed, then subsequently expanded with referrals that led to identification of new potential lenders to be contacted.

Findings

Nine lenders offered conceptualized deal structures to provide the required financing. Though the price may be expensive, especially relative to what borrowers may wish to pay, financing is available. Developers’ and deal-makers’ protestations that “it's impossible,” should be discounted and rejected. Because the subject property is characterized by high-risk, it is logical conclusion that the lenders expressing a desire to provide the bridge loan would expect to earn a high return, meaning that the interest rate would approach, if not exceed, 20 percent.

Research limitations/implications

Because the nature of the research required that the specific identities of the building and the parties were not revealed, some lenders might decline to consider this financing opportunity. And, real world negotiation of financing terms could result in higher rates than quoted and/or disinclination of lenders to proceed. Because of very specialized circumstances surrounding this proprietary research, conducted subject to nondisclosure agreement, publication had to be deferred until those constraints no longer applied. Though the data are more than a decade old, this consideration does not compromise the relevance, validity, or generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

Markets can accommodate transactions that might be perceived as improbable. Investors which approach opportunities with creativity and open mind, can make deals that would not be possible, were strict, rigid, unbending eligible deal preference parameters to be employed. Strategists establishing policies for real estate enterprises should insist on progressive, expansive thinking in turning the scope of their potential venture involvements. Real estate education and training should address more attention to financial economic theory, strategic initiative, and creative deal making, which priority topics are too seldom prioritized, with the consequence that too many in real estate think narrowly rather than expansively.

Social implications

This research substantiates a fundamental theory of financial economics and refutes conventional applied wisdom. Seldom do researchers and investors have the opportunity to “get inside” the lending decision process for a large scale commercial property, especially one characterized by daunting circumstances and considerable complexity, such as studied here. A unique real world date set – not normally accessible to property scholars – enables study of the proposition that every commodity has a price, no matter how severe or difficult the circumstances, in a manner fully congruent with the new AACSB Business School Deans policy emphasis on relevance in addition to rigor.

Originality/value

As commercial mortgages much less studied than residential mortgages, this paper is significant addition to undeveloped segment of literature. As the majority of mortgage finance research, estimated to be in the range of 90 percent, has been limited to single family residential financing, the study of commercial mortgage financing is relatively under-researched. Further, the studies of commercial mortgage finance tend to be illustrative case studies with stylized facts rather than explorations of empiricism-based investigations. As most researchers engaged in exploring real estate topics limit themselves to public information, research that provides access to real world private transactions is especially important.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Calum G. Turvey, Amy Carduner and Jennifer Ifft

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market microstructure related to the Farm Credit System (FCS), Commercial Banks (CB) and Farm Services Administration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the market microstructure related to the Farm Credit System (FCS), Commercial Banks (CB) and Farm Services Administration (FSA). The commercial banks frequently call out the FCS as having an unfair advantage in the agricultural finance market place due to tax exempt bonds, and an implied guarantee of those bonds. This paper addresses the issue by examining the interrelationships since 1939, while addressing the historically distinctive roles that the FCS, CB and FSA have played in the US agricultural credit market.

Design/methodology/approach

There are two components to our model. The first is the estimation of short and long run credit demand elasticities, as well as land elasticities. These are estimated from a dynamic duality model using seemingly unrelated regression. The point elasticity measures are then used as independent variables in least square regressions, combined with farm specific and related macro variables, for the Cornbelt states. The dependent variable is the year-over-year changes in paired FCS, CB and FSA loans.

Findings

The genesis of the FCS was to provide credit to farmers in good and bad years. Therefore, we expected to see a countercyclical relationship between FCS and CB. This is found for the farm crisis years in the 1980s but is not a continuous characteristic of FCS lending. In good times the FCS and CB appear to compete, albeit with differentiated market segmentation into short- and long-term credit. The FSA, which was established to provide tertiary support to both the FCS and CB, appears to be responding as designed, with greater activity in bad years. The authors find the elasticity measures to be economically significant.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude that the market microstructure of the agricultural credit market in the US is important. Our analysis applies a broader definition of market microstructure for institutions and intermediaries and reveals that further research examining the economic frictions caused by comparative bond vs deposit funding of agricultural credit is important.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this is the first paper to examine agricultural finance through the market microstructure lens. In addition our long-term data measures allow us to examine the economics through various sub-periods. Finally, we believe that our introduction of credit and land demand elasticities into a comparative credit model is also a first.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 81 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Richard Barkham and Malcolm Frodsham

– The purpose of this paper is to provide an indication of the returns to commercial property lending over the last 30 years in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an indication of the returns to commercial property lending over the last 30 years in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

There is no long-term index of the returns to commercial property lending in the UK. This paper provides a partial solution by simulating the performance of bullet loans of various vintages, based on the value movements of the IPD index.

Findings

On average over the long-term debt returns are higher than equity returns. However, in certain periods, the losses incurred by real estate lenders are very large.

Research limitations/implications

No account taken of risk mitigation strategies used by lenders such as cross-collateralisation.

Practical implications

Provides an alternative approach to that recommended by the recent IPF “Vision For Real Estate Finance” Document based on the use of ICR. Makes the case for a loan equivalent of the IPD index.

Social implications

Reduced chance of resource misallocation and recession due to excess real estate lending.

Originality/value

Very limited information on private real estate debt returns.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Jianfu Shen and Xianting Yin

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the credit expansion in 2009 and 2010 in China on the capital structure of listed real estate companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the credit expansion in 2009 and 2010 in China on the capital structure of listed real estate companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Chinese listed real estate companies are divided into two groups, state-owned and non-state-owned, because their access to credit markets have different priority to state-owned banks that dominate bank lending. The difference-in-differences approach is employed to test the impact of changes in leverage ratios and loan ratios before and after the credit expansion period in state-owned firms and non-state-owned firms.

Findings

Using quarterly panel regressions, the authors find that during the credit expansion period, state-owned companies exhibit a relatively greater increase in leverage ratios than non-state-owned firms. State-owned firms have greater increases in book leverage ratios, market leverage ratios and long-term debt ratios by 5.2, 4.9 and 1.1 per cent, respectively. It is also shown that loan ratios have increased more in state-owned firms than non-state-owned firms during the credit expansion period.

Research limitations/implications

The paper explores only the impacts of credit expansion on capital structure of listed real estate firms in China. Further studies can be conducted to investigate the impact of credit supply on corporate investment decisions of real estate firms and on real estate markets.

Practical implications

The findings can help explain the surge in land and housing prices after 2008 in China. Deng et al. (2015) find that state-owned real estate firms paid more for land price than non-state-owned firms, which contributed to upward pressure on housing prices. This paper shows that such “over-investment” may be due to the increase of debt financing and availability of bank loans to real estate firms. Thus the credit market can affect real estate markets through debt financing at company level.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to investigate the impact of credit supply on capital structure of real estate companies, and presents evidence of the importance of credit supply as a determinant of capital structure.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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