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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Céleste M. Brotheridge and Raymond T. Lee

This introduction aims to highlight the special contributions made by the articles in this issue in understanding how emotions are implicated in the process of managing.

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Abstract

Purpose

This introduction aims to highlight the special contributions made by the articles in this issue in understanding how emotions are implicated in the process of managing.

Design/methodology/approach

Presents a model as a means of framing the discussion of the articles included in this issue.

Findings

Argues that emotions and emotional skills are essential for everyday managerial work and that the traditional stereotype of the exclusively rational manager has been replaced by one in which managers are expected to create and nourish positive relationships by effectively managing their own emotions and those of their employees.

Practical implications

Managers need to be aware of the impact that their expressed emotions have on their work units' emotional climate, their employees' emotions, their effectiveness as well as that of their employees, and the organization's overall success.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into the emotions of managing.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Raymond T. Lee and Céleste M. Brotheridge

The purpose of this paper is to understand, from the child care worker's perspective, how work experience, display rules, and affectivity are related to emotional labor. It also…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand, from the child care worker's perspective, how work experience, display rules, and affectivity are related to emotional labor. It also examines the utility of separating surface acting into its two components: the hiding and faking of emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a cross‐sectional self‐report survey of 198 child care workers in Western Canada.

Findings

Deep acting occurred more frequently among younger workers, whereas experienced workers hid their feelings more frequently than did their less‐experienced counterparts. The requirement to express positive emotions was associated with deep acting and faking emotions, whereas the requirement to suppress negative emotions was associated with hiding feelings.

Research limitations/implications

Results support the treatment of surface acting's components as distinct given their differential association with the other variables. Future research should validate the emotional labor measure in service occupations that involve different frequency and intensity levels of contact.

Practical implications

The finding that young and inexperienced workers appear to engage in different emotion regulation strategies than mature and experienced workers may be due to their job training. A potential solution is to include service learning projects in child care training that build their confidence in communicating with parents.

Originality/value

Use of the revised Emotional Labour Scale in future studies may facilitate a deeper understanding of workplace emotional expression.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Raymond T. Lee and Céleste M. Brotheridge

This study aims to examine sex and position status differences in the experience of workplace aggression. Based on the imbalance of power thesis, the aim is to posit that: women…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine sex and position status differences in the experience of workplace aggression. Based on the imbalance of power thesis, the aim is to posit that: women would report targeting other women; men would report targeting either sex; supervisors would report targeting a peer or subordinate; victims would report that a supervisor more often uses indirect forms of aggression; a peer more often uses direct forms of aggression; and; after controlling for position status, men would report using direct forms of aggression more often than women who, in turn, would report using indirect forms of bullying more often than men.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 180 Canadian supervisory and non‐supervisory workers from several industries completed a questionnaire that included measures of aggressive acts.

Findings

Most men reported being targeted by another man, and most women reported being targeted by another woman. Similarly, most men reported that they targeted another man, and most women reported that they targeted another woman. Most respondents reported that their aggressor had either higher or the same position status as them, whereas, if the respondents targeted others, their victim had the same or lower status. Compared to similar status aggressors, higher status aggressors were reported by the respondents as using both direct and indirect forms of aggression more often. After controlling for position status, compared to women, men reported using both forms more often as well.

Originality/value

The findings have implications for how victims cope with workplace aggression and for developing organizational anti‐harassment policies.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Helena Cooper‐Thomas, Dianne Gardner, Michael O'Driscoll, Bevan Catley, Tim Bentley and Linda Trenberth

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and buffering effects of three workplace contextual factors – constructive leadership, perceived organizational support, and…

6198

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and buffering effects of three workplace contextual factors – constructive leadership, perceived organizational support, and organizational anti‐bullying initiatives – on bullying and its relationships with relevant criteria. Further, the paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of organizational initiatives against bullying as perceived by targets and non‐targets.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 727 employees in nine New Zealand healthcare organizations. Of these, 133 employees were classified as bullied, as they had experienced at least two negative acts per week over the last six months.

Findings

Correlations revealed negative relationships between the three contextual work factors and bullying. Moderated regression showed that perceived organizational support buffered the relationship of bullying with self‐rated job performance, and that organizational initiatives against bullying buffered the relationship of bullying with both wellbeing and organizational commitment. Targets consistently gave lower ratings than non‐targets of the effectiveness of organizational initiatives to address bullying.

Originality/value

There is scant research on workplace factors that may reduce bullying and buffer its negative effects. This paper makes an original contribution in providing evidence of the importance of three contextual factors, and of buffering effects for perceived organizational support and organizational initiatives against bullying.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2010

Céleste M. Brotheridge and Raymond T. Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the emotions experienced by targets of bullying in the workplace.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the emotions experienced by targets of bullying in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 180 employees in Canada took part in a cross‐sectional self‐report survey study.

Findings

The study found that, for men, in the presence of belittlement and work being undermined, verbal abuse was negatively associated with confusion, suggesting an active coping strategy. In contrast, for women, in the presence of belittlement and work being undermined, verbal abuse was positively associated with confusion, suggesting a passive coping strategy.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study's cross‐sectional methodology provided a static snapshot of the emotions of bullying, it may be informative to capture emotions as they arise in response to specific episodes and forms of bullying as well as in response to repeated acts of bullying.

Practical implications

Workers should be offered resources for understanding and coping constructively with their emotions, training in interpersonal sensitivity to become more aware of and responsive to others' feelings, and the opportunity to work in respectful workplace climates.

Originality/value

Specific emotions were examined that are associated with exposure to different forms of bullying, and the career‐related implications of these findings are discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Brenda L. Lovell, Raymond T. Lee and Celeste M. Brotheridge

This study seeks to determine how process and latent errors in the interpersonal, organizational, health system, and public health domains impact doctor/patient communication and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to determine how process and latent errors in the interpersonal, organizational, health system, and public health domains impact doctor/patient communication and patient safety.

Design/methodology/approach

There were 278 physicians from Manitoba, Canada who completed a self‐report questionnaire during 2006. The largest specialty was family medicine, followed by internal medicine and pediatrics. Mean years of practice was 16, and 60 percent of the respondents were male. Respondents indicated the extent to which difficulties were encountered when communicating with patients.

Findings

The study finds that physicians had more difficulties with patients in the 0‐20 year age bracket on 12 of the 18 communication statements. Psychiatry and pediatrics reported more difficulties with language interpreters. Pediatrics reported more difficulties with patients using culturally‐based alternative medicine. Internal medicine had more difficulty with patients not appearing to trust or participate in treatment decisions. Patients in the 41‐60 years age bracket had the highest mean for non‐adherence to treatment plans, health maintenance and needed lifestyle change. The female physician‐female patient dyad had fewer communication difficulties on all statements.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should examine how family structure influences health‐care delivery and health outcomes. Health care organizations can contribute to improving quality of care by seeking out and correcting sources of latent errors, and by supporting professional development and practice interventions.

Originality/value

Few studies exist that have linked communication difficulties to adverse events. This study provides insight on sources of interpersonal errors in communication that directly impact the physician/patient relationship and which may represent threats to patient safety.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Ronald H. Humphrey, Jeffrey M. Pollack and Thomas Hawver

This paper seeks to argue that leaders perform emotional labor whenever they display emotions in an attempt to influence their subordinates' moods and motivations.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to argue that leaders perform emotional labor whenever they display emotions in an attempt to influence their subordinates' moods and motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that integrates the literature on leadership with the research on emotional labor.

Findings

This paper develops 15 propositions that distinguish emotional labor performed by leaders from that performed by front‐line service workers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that leading with emotional labor is a fruitful research topic, and that considerable research could be done in this area.

Practical implications

Instead of conducting business in a non‐emotional, “business‐like manner”, leaders would benefit by expressing their emotions in the workplace. Emotionally expressive leaders are more charismatic and are better motivators.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to develop a theoretical model that describes how leaders perform emotional labor; thus the propositions are original.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Denise Salin and Helge Hoel

The purpose of this paper is to argue that bullying is a gendered, rather than gender‐neutral, phenomenon.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that bullying is a gendered, rather than gender‐neutral, phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews empirical findings on gender and bullying and identifies and discusses theoretical frameworks that can provide explanations for identified gender differences.

Findings

The paper shows that there are gender differences not only in reported prevalence rates and forms of bullying, but that gender also matters for the way targets and third parties make sense of and respond to bullying. It is shown that gendered conceptions of power, gender role socialisation theory and social identity theory are all relevant for explaining reported gender differences.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical frameworks that have been selected should not be seen as exhaustive, but rather as useful examples. The authors encourage researchers in the field of bullying to pursue cross‐disciplinary research and actively apply existing theoretical frameworks to integrate their findings more firmly in existing research on related themes.

Practical implications

The finding that bullying is gendered rather than gender‐neutral has implications above all for the way managers, organisational representatives and policy‐makers should address and prevent workplace bullying.

Originality/value

The paper questions the prevailing notion that bullying is gender‐neutral and demonstrates the importance of gender in the experience of workplace bullying. It further identifies gaps in research and puts forward an agenda for future research in this area.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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