This study found that 10 of 16 measures of interpersonalcommunication showed statistical significance between male and femaleadministrators in a university environment…
This study found that 10 of 16 measures of interpersonal communication showed statistical significance between male and female administrators in a university environment. Using the FIRO‐B questionnaire, females preferred to initiate more inclusion and affection in interpersonal activities; also, they wanted other people to include them and to be friendly to them in inter‐personal relationships. Beyond the comparison of males and females, however, it is evident that all scores (both male and female) exist within the mid‐range categories. Thus, it is concluded that interpersonal communication capacity is lacking throughout the sample, and definite actions are needed to increase interpersonal communication effectiveness in organisations.
Presents a longitudinal study examining the attitudes of consumers towards the products and associated marketing practices of selected European countries versus the USA…
Presents a longitudinal study examining the attitudes of consumers towards the products and associated marketing practices of selected European countries versus the USA. Covers the period from 1975‐95, focusing on Germany, the UK and France. Concludes, in particular, that there is a significant difference in the attitudes of consumers with regard to the products and associate marketing practices of these European countries in comparison to the USA.
The marketplace for virtually all product categories has become a competitive international arena during the past four decades. The marketing practices involved with…
The marketplace for virtually all product categories has become a competitive international arena during the past four decades. The marketing practices involved with products in the international marketplace have also taken on an increased multinational perspective and evolutionary importance—a globalization process that is now recognized as the most pervasive influence in business today (Samiee, 1994). To compete successfully in the international arena requires today's business firm and its management to have a profound understanding and empathy for the varying needs and demands of customers in the various markets within which the firm interacts (Kotabe, 1990; Darling, 1985). In the short span of four decades, Japan has attained a major competitive position in world markets (Lazer, Murata, and Kosaka, 1985; Cutts, 1991). And assuming this position remains, the future will continue to bring about an interesting and challenging competitive rivalry for U.S. products versus those of Japan in the international marketplace. This is particularly true with respect to Japan's involvement with Eastern Europe (Cutts, 1991). But what is the relative competitive position of U.S. versus Japanese products in the international marketplace?
A model is focused on for reducing resistance within anorganisation that is directed at changes in its international marketingprogramme. It is suggested that methods for…
A model is focused on for reducing resistance within an organisation that is directed at changes in its international marketing programme. It is suggested that methods for reducing resistance to change can be divided into either methods for building total support/ acceptance or methods for building a consensus of support/acceptance. This model allows the marketing administration to select methods of reducing resistance that will have the best chance of succeeding. Of course, no method can guarantee success in totally reducing the resistance that might occur. However, the model presented can be one of the tools that marketing administrators can use in developing highly effective and efficient international marketing programmes.
Anger has been shown to be associated with aggression and violence in adults with learning disabilities in both community and secure settings. Emerging evidence has…
Anger has been shown to be associated with aggression and violence in adults with learning disabilities in both community and secure settings. Emerging evidence has indicated that cognitive behavioural anger treatment can be effective in reducing assessed levels of anger in these patient populations. However, it has been suggested that the effectiveness of these interventions is significantly affected by verbal ability. In this service evaluation study the pre‐ and post‐treatment and 12‐month follow‐up assessment scores of 83 offenders with learning disabilities who received cognitive behavioural anger treatment were examined in order to investigate whether participants' responsiveness to treatment was a function of measured verbal IQ. The results indicate that, overall, the effectiveness of anger treatment was not the result of higher verbal ability as reflected in verbal IQ scores. It is concluded that cognitive behavioural therapy for anger control problems can be effective for people with moderate, mild and borderline levels of intellectual functioning and forensic histories.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of different ways of message framing on users’ engagement behavior regarding the brand posts on Facebook and to…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of different ways of message framing on users’ engagement behavior regarding the brand posts on Facebook and to determine whether users’ thumbs-up and reply moderate this impact.
A panel data analysis was conducted on a panel with 11,894 observations on 850 unique brand posts from the Facebook pages of the world’s most valuable brands over a seven days window with two observations each day. A system of equations was estimated using ordinary least squares, Hausman–Taylor IV and seemingly unrelated regressions to test study’s hypotheses.
The empirical findings confirm that more positively and negatively framed comments result in increased users’ engagement. Also, an increase in thumbs-up ratio for neutrally and negatively framed comments results in less engagement. The reply ratio might also have a positive and negative moderation effect on the influence of neutrally and positively framed comments on engagement behavior, respectively.
This study provides an in-depth understanding of online social interactions on Facebook pages for firms’ managers and marketers. Online social interactions might be either harmful or fruitful for firms depending on the type of interaction and engagement behavior. Findings can help managers and marketer to improve their strategies for leveraging Facebook for electronic marketing.
This is likely to be the first study that examines the moderating effect of users’ thumbs-up and reply on the relationship between message framing and users’ engagement behavior. By providing robust findings by addressing issues like omitted variables and endogeneity, the findings of this study are promising for developing new hypotheses and theoretical models in the context of online social interactions.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.
The authors provide new quantitative evidence of the relationship between technologies and organizational design in the context of complex one-off products. The systems…
The authors provide new quantitative evidence of the relationship between technologies and organizational design in the context of complex one-off products. The systems that produce complex, one-off products in mature, fragmented industries such as construction lack many of the typical organizational features that researchers have deemed critical to product development success (e.g., team familiarity, frequent communication, and strong leadership). In contrast, the complexity of these products requires a diverse knowledge base that is rarely found within a single firm. The one-off nature of construction’s products further requires improvization and development by a distributed network of highly specialized teams. And because the product is complex, significant innovations in the end product require systemic shifts in the product architecture. Riitta Katila, Raymond E. Levitt and Dana Sheffer use an original, hand-collected dataset of the design and construction of 112 energy-efficient “green” buildings in the United States, combined with in-depth fieldwork, to study these questions. A key conclusion is that the mature US construction industry, with its particularly fragmented supply chain, is not well suited to implementing “systemic innovations” that require coordination across trades or stages of the project. However, project integration across specialists with the highest levels of interdependence (i.e., craft, contract integration) mitigates the knowledge and coordination problems. There are implications for research on how technology shapes organizations (and particularly how organizations shape technology), and on the supply chain configuration strategies of firms in the construction industry as well as building owners who are seeking to build the best buildings possible within their budgets.