Search results1 – 10 of 17
Unions face serious challenges, which raise questions about organizational priorities. An issue important to the recent breakup of the AFLCIO is the priority given…
Unions face serious challenges, which raise questions about organizational priorities. An issue important to the recent breakup of the AFLCIO is the priority given political action vis-à-vis organizing. We examine competing theoretical perspectives on the potential relationship between union political action and organizing effectiveness. We present evidence on the scope of union political spending and conduct a preliminary analysis of its correlation with organizing. Our results indicate a negative relationship, but we urge a cautious interpretation. Theory raises substantial doubts about political activity as a motivation for joining a union. We urge more research.
The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to…
The aim of this article is to examine how office designs influence social capital or the value inherent in relationships. More specifically, this article attempts to better understand the level to which the value of social capital accrues, either to the individual or to the group.
The authors review theoretical and empirical research on the physical work environment and social capital to develop propositions that relate the effects of open office environments on the development of group‐ and individual‐level social capital.
It is argued that an open‐office environment, defined as an office design that attempts to maximize functional communication among organization members by removing physical barriers that hinder the flow of work and communications, can positively affect the development of social capital within an organization. Specifically, it is suggested that open office designs will foster the development of group‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits the group, the result of network closure) but reduce individual‐level social capital (i.e. social capital that benefits individuals who connect otherwise unconnected groups in the network, or structural holes).
By effectively managing the physical work environment, organizations can better control and/or influence the frequency and nature of interactions between employees, which may result in desirable outcomes for both the organization and employees.
The article integrates two streams of literature – social capital and physical work environment – and will be of interest to researchers in both literature groups. In addition, office managers and designers can benefit from the discussion in an effort to foster group level social capital.
Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…
Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.
The chapter aims to explore the themes of enterprise, leadership and partnership through examining aspects of the changing roles of and relationships between public…
The chapter aims to explore the themes of enterprise, leadership and partnership through examining aspects of the changing roles of and relationships between public, private and third sectors in the city of Leeds.
The chapter draws on the author’s long involvement in the city of Leeds, augmented by recent interviews with a range of different senior actors and set within the context of relevant literature.
The chapter suggests that despite a history of diverse enterprise, there have been some elements of external forces and internal culture and operational style that have held the city back. Recent national, city region and local reforms may have positive impacts and enable the city to realise more of its potential, though there remain formidable obstacles to progress.
Despite providing rich and meaningful insights that enhance understanding, the single case approach limits the potential for generalising the findings.
Other cities can learn from the experience of Leeds and how the ways of working here relate to findings by academics in other cities.
Originality/value of chapter
The general forces of change in enterprise, governance and leadership can only really be understood in terms of how they play out in specific settings.
Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.
Corrosion has been defined as the destruction of metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Methods of corrosion control become more and more…
Corrosion has been defined as the destruction of metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Methods of corrosion control become more and more important as we are increasingly concerned about conserving our natural resources. For effective control of corrosion, we must have a thorough understanding of its nature and methods of measurements. Little correlation exist between laboratory tests and field performance. Atmospheric exposure tests are required to determine the relative aggressiveness of the environment to a variety of materials that might be selected for use. The development of data for this purpose makes possible a suitable selection of materials. Atmospheric small scale tests can often be made the basis of positive statement about the durability of metals, alloys, metal couples and painted metals on large structures and it needs very careful planning and preparation.