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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

Modern service robots are designed to work in a complex indoor environment, in which the robot has to interact with the objects in different ambient light intensities (day…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern service robots are designed to work in a complex indoor environment, in which the robot has to interact with the objects in different ambient light intensities (day light, tube light, halogen light and dark ambiance). The variations in sudden ambient light intensities often cause an error in the sensory information of optical sensors like laser scanner, which reduce the reliability of the sensor in applications such as mapping, path planning and object detection of a mobile robot. Laser scanner is an optical sensor, so sensory information depends upon parameters like surface reflectivity, ambient light condition, texture of the targets, etc. The purposes of this research are to investigate and remove the effect of variation in ambient light conditions on the laser scanner to achieve robust autonomous mobile robot navigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ambient light condition (dark ambiance, tube light and halogen bulb) on the accuracy of the laser scanner for the robust autonomous navigation of mobile robot in diverse illumination environments. A proposed AIFA (Adaptive Intensity Filter Algorithm) approach is designed in robot operating system (ROS) and implemented on a mobile robot fitted with laser scanner to reduce the effect of high-intensity ambiance illumination of the environment.

Findings

It has been experimentally found that the variation in the measured distance in dark is more consistent and accurate as compared to the sensory information taken in high-intensity tube light/halogen bulbs and in sunlight. The proposed AIFA approach is implement on a laser scanner fitted on a mobile robot which navigates in the high-intensity ambiance-illuminating complex environment. During autonomous navigation of mobile robot, while implementing the AIFA filter, the proportion of cession with the obstacles is reduce to 23 per cent lesser as compared to conventional approaches.

Originality/value

The proposed AIFA approach reduced the effect of the varying ambient light conditions in the sensory information of laser scanner for the applications such as autonomous navigation, path planning, mapping, etc. in diverse ambiance environment.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

An autonomous mobile robot requires efficient perception of the environment to perform various tasks in a challenging environment. The precise sensory information from the…

Abstract

Purpose

An autonomous mobile robot requires efficient perception of the environment to perform various tasks in a challenging environment. The precise sensory information from the range sensors is required to accomplish prerequisites, such as SLAM, path planning and localization. But the accuracy and precision of the sensors become unreliable in harsh environmental conditions because of the effect of rain, dust, humidity, fog and smoke. The purpose of this paper is to generate robust mapping of the environment in harsh environmental conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a novel technique, averaging data with short range selection (ADWSRS), to reduce the effect of harsh environmental (rain, wind, humidity, etc.) conditions on sensory information (range) to generate reliable grid mapping. The sensory information on laser and sonar sensors in terms of probability values (occupied/unoccupied cell) in generating grid maps are fused after passing through two newly designed pre-processing filters: laser averaging filter and short range selection filter. This proposed approach relies on various aspects such as averaging laser data analogous to current pose of the sensor, selection of short range with respect to threshold value to remove the effect of specular reflection/crosstalk of sonar and a newly designed apparatus in which dirt cover (glass cover) and air blower are coupled to remove the influence of dirt, rain and humidity.

Findings

This proposed approach is tested in different environmental conditions, and to verify the consistency of the proposed approach, qualitative and quantitative analyses are carried out, which shows 42.5 per cent improvement in the probability value of occupied cells in the generated grid map.

Originality/value

The proposed ADWSRS approach reduced the effect of harsh environmental conditions such as fog, rain and smoke to generate efficient mapping of the environment, which may be implemented in diverse applications such as autonomous navigation, localization, path planning and mapping.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

Accurate perception of the environment using range sensors such as laser scanner, SONAR, infrared, vision, etc., for the application, such as path planning, localization…

Abstract

Purpose

Accurate perception of the environment using range sensors such as laser scanner, SONAR, infrared, vision, etc., for the application, such as path planning, localization, autonomous navigation, simultaneously localization and mapping, is a highly challenging area. The reliability of the perception by range sensors relies on the sensor accuracy, precision, sensor model, sensor registration, resolution, etc. Laser scanner is even though accurate and precise but still the efficient and consistent mapping of the environment is yet to be attained because laser scanner gives error as the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters varied which cause specular reflection, refraction, absorption, etc., of the laser beam. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an error analysis in sensory information of laser scanner due to the effect of varying the scanning angle with respect to the optical axis and surface reflectivity or refractive index of the targets. Uncertainties caused by these parameters are reduced by proposing a new technique, tilt mounting system (TMS) with designed filters of tilting the angular position of a laser scanner with the best possible selection of range and scanning angle for the robust occupancy grid mapping. Various experiments are performed in different indoor environments, and the results are validated after the implementation of the TMS approach with designed filters.

Findings

After the implementation of the proposed TMS approach with filters, the errors in the laser grid map are reduced by 15.6 percent, which results in 62.5 percent reduction in the collision of a mobile robot during autonomous navigation in the laser grid map.

Originality/value

The TMS approach with designed filter reduces the effect of variation in intrinsic and extrinsic parameters to generate efficient laser occupancy grid map to achieve collision-free autonomous navigation.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

An efficient perception of the complex environment is the foremost requirement in mobile robotics. At present, the utilization of glass as a glass wall and automated…

Abstract

Purpose

An efficient perception of the complex environment is the foremost requirement in mobile robotics. At present, the utilization of glass as a glass wall and automated transparent door in the modern building has become a highlight feature for interior decoration, which has resulted in the wrong perception of the environment by various range sensors. The perception generated by multi-data sensor fusion (MDSF) of sonar and laser is fairly consistent to detect glass but is still affected by the issues such as sensor inaccuracies, sensor reliability, scan mismatching due to glass, sensor model, probabilistic approaches for sensor fusion, sensor registration, etc. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a modified framework – Advanced Laser and Sonar Framework (ALSF) – to fuse the sensory information of a laser scanner and sonar to reduce the uncertainty caused by glass in an environment by selecting the optimal range information corresponding to a selected threshold value. In the proposed approach, the conventional sonar sensor model is also modified to reduce the wrong perception in sonar as an outcome of the diverse range measurement. The laser scan matching algorithm is also modified by taking out the small cluster of laser point (w.r.t. range information) to get efficient perception.

Findings

The probability of the occupied cells w.r.t. the modified sonar sensor model becomes consistent corresponding to diverse sonar range measurement. The scan matching technique is also modified to reduce the uncertainty caused by glass and high computational load for the efficient and fast pose estimation of the laser sensor/mobile robot to generate robust mapping. These stated modifications are linked with the proposed ALSF technique to reduce the uncertainty caused by glass, inconsistent probabilities and high load computation during the generation of occupancy grid mapping with MDSF. Various real-world experiments are performed with the implementation of the proposed approach on a mobile robot fitted with laser and sonar, and the obtained results are qualitatively and quantitatively compared with conventional approaches.

Originality/value

The proposed ASIF approach generates efficient perception of the complex environment contains glass and can be implemented for various robotics applications.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Ravinder Singh, Akshay Katyal, Mukesh Kumar, Kirti Singh and Deepak Bhola

Sonar sensor-based mobile robot mapping is an efficient and low cost technique for the application such as localization, autonomous navigation, SLAM and path planning. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Sonar sensor-based mobile robot mapping is an efficient and low cost technique for the application such as localization, autonomous navigation, SLAM and path planning. In multi-robots system, numbers of sonar sensors are used and the sound waves from sonar are interacting with the sound wave of other sonar causes wave interference. Because of wave interference, the generated sonar grid maps get distorted which resulted in decreasing the reliability of mobile robot’s navigation in the generated grid maps. This research study focus in removing the effect of wave interfaces in the sonar mapping to achieve robust navigation of mobile robot.

Design/methodology/approach

The wrong perception (occupancy grid map) of the environment due to cross talk/wave interference is eliminated by randomized the triggering time of sonar by varying the delay/sleep time of each sonar sensor. A software-based approach randomized triggering technique (RTT) is design in laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW) that randomized the triggering time of the sonar sensor to eliminate the effect of wave interference/cross talk when multiple sonar are placed in face-forward directions.

Findings

To check the reliability of the RTT technique, various real-world experiments are perform and it is experimentally obtained that 64.8% improvement in terms of probabilities in the generated occupancy grid map has been attained when compared with the conventional approaches.

Originality/value

This proposed RTT technique maybe implementing for SLAM, reliable autonomous navigation, optimal path planning, efficient robotics vision, consistent multi-robotic system, etc.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Satyendra Kumar Sharma, Ravinder Singh and Rajesh Matai

Strategic sourcing and supply risk management have become interesting topics of research in the recent years. Automotive industry experts are increasingly focussing on…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic sourcing and supply risk management have become interesting topics of research in the recent years. Automotive industry experts are increasingly focussing on improving the supply efficiency and performance towards gaining sustainable competitive advantage. This study aims to classify, through an exhaustive review of past literature, the various enablers and barriers of strategic sourcing risk management (SSRM) and use them to identify the problems in the automobile sector.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of this research, responses were collected through structured questionnaire from respondents belonging to senior management cadre in the industry. Factor analysis and force field analysis tools have been used for analysis.

Findings

Through independent exploratory factor analysis (EFA), four SSRM enablers, namely, supplier risk assessment, data sharing in supply network, partnership with supplier and supply flexibility, were identified. Similarly EFA revealed four SSRM barriers, namely, cost focus, ad hoc or poor planning, data security/privy breaches and hard visualization of SSRM benefits. Through a force field analysis, it was found out that the barriers had a higher impact on the SSRM initiatives than enablers.

Practical implications

The research suggests the ways how managers can reduce the impact of barriers and increase the enabling forces.

Originality/value

This paper enumerates the barriers and enablers together on the same platform to prioritize and evolve strategies to overpower the barriers and strengthen the enablers.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Ravinder Singh and Kuldeep Singh Nagla

The purpose of this research is to provide the necessarily and resourceful information regarding range sensors to select the best fit sensor for robust autonomous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to provide the necessarily and resourceful information regarding range sensors to select the best fit sensor for robust autonomous navigation. Autonomous navigation is an emerging segment in the field of mobile robot in which the mobile robot navigates in the environment with high level of autonomy by lacking human interactions. Sensor-based perception is a prevailing aspect in the autonomous navigation of mobile robot along with localization and path planning. Various range sensors are used to get the efficient perception of the environment, but selecting the best-fit sensor to solve the navigation problem is still a vital assignment.

Design/methodology/approach

Autonomous navigation relies on the sensory information of various sensors, and each sensor relies on various operational parameters/characteristic for the reliable functioning. A simple strategy shown in this proposed study to select the best-fit sensor based on various parameters such as environment, 2 D/3D navigation, accuracy, speed, environmental conditions, etc. for the reliable autonomous navigation of a mobile robot.

Findings

This paper provides a comparative analysis for the diverse range sensors used in mobile robotics with respect to various aspects such as accuracy, computational load, 2D/3D navigation, environmental conditions, etc. to opt the best-fit sensors for achieving robust navigation of autonomous mobile robot.

Originality/value

This paper provides a straightforward platform for the researchers to select the best range sensor for the diverse robotics application.

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Ravinder Singh, Archana Khurana and Sunil Kumar

This study aims to develop an optimized 3D laser point reconstruction using Descent Gradient algorithm. Precise and accurate reconstruction of 3D laser point cloud of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop an optimized 3D laser point reconstruction using Descent Gradient algorithm. Precise and accurate reconstruction of 3D laser point cloud of the complex environment/object is a key solution for many industries such as construction, gaming, automobiles, aerial navigation, architecture and automation. A 2D laser scanner along with a servo motor/pan tilt/inertial measurement unit is used for generating 3D point cloud (either environment/object or both) by acquiring the real-time data from sensors. However, while generating the 3D laser point cloud, various problems related to time synchronization problem between laser and servomotor and torque variation in servomotors arise, which causes misalignment in stacking the 2D laser scan for generating the 3D point cloud of the environment. Because of the misalignment in stacking, the 2D laser scan corresponding to the erroneous angular and position information by the servomotor and the 3D laser point cloud become distorted in terms of inconsistency for measuring the dimension of the objects.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper addresses a modified 3D laser system assembled from a 2D laser scanner coupled with a servomotor (dynamixel motor) for developing an efficient 3D laser point cloud with the implementation of an optimization technique: descent gradient filter (DGT). The proposed approach reduces the cost function (error) in the angular and position coordinates of the servo motor caused because of torque variation and time synchronization, which resulted in enhancing the accuracy in 3D point cloud mapping for the accurate measurement of the object’s dimensions.

Findings

Various real-world experiments are performed with the proposed DGT filter linked with laser scanner and servomotor and an improvement of 6.5 per cent in measuring the accurate dimension of object is obtained while comparing with conventional approaches for generating a 3D laser point cloud.

Originality/value

This proposed technique may be applicable for various industrial applications that are based on robotics arms (such as painting, welding and cutting) in the automobile industry, the optimized measurement of object, efficient mobile robot navigation, precise 3D reconstruction of environment/object in construction, architecture applications, airborne applications and aerial navigation.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Ravinder Singh and Ravindra K. Pande

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a simple and convenient method for the landslides study.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a simple and convenient method for the landslides study.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based upon the individual case study of three past landslides which may probably prove fatal in the near future. It is useful for the measurement of the horizontal length, longitudinal length, altitude at different points and area of the landslide. These measurements are very helpful in calculating the valley side gradient, longitudinal gradient of the landslide scarp and the volume of the debris generated due to mass movement.

Findings

Reactivation of slope instability problems were found along these landslides spots, which will create havoc for the people and a problem for the administration in the near future.

Originality/value

The implication in the paper is that structural and non‐structural mitigation and management strategies are needed.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Ravindra K. Pande, Dhanjita Burman and Ravinder Singh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate landslide hazard problems in Hanuman Chatti area of Uttarakhand, India. Every year NH 58 experiences landslide activities, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate landslide hazard problems in Hanuman Chatti area of Uttarakhand, India. Every year NH 58 experiences landslide activities, which disrupts the tourist traffic to Badrinath shrine and higher Himalaya.

Design/methodology/approach

An urgent need is being felt to have a comprehensive landslide hazard evaluation factor (LHEF). The major causative factors that influence the slope stability are lithology, structure, soil depth, soil texture, geomorphology, slope morphology, slope dip, slope aspect, slope magnitude, weathering, land use and land cover and anthropogenic activities. The present analysis is based on the rating scheme in which numerical ratings for different categories are determined on the basis of their estimated significance in causing instability.

Findings

In the study area, nine old landslides (0.238 sq.km) and five new landslides (0.086 sq.km) are recorded. On the basis of the various causative factors the study area is classified into five landslide hazard classes.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is based on the experience gained for the last seven years (1999‐2007). The period is short for developing any hypothesis but sufficient care has been taken to consider vital factors.

Practical implications

With the help of LHEF appropriate landslide hazard management tools can be adopted. Once a LHEF rating scheme in which numerical ratings for different categories are determined on the basis of their estimated significance in causing instability, is standardized it can be applied to the entire Himalayan region, which is very prone to landslide hazard.

Originality/value

Although the paper is an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of landslide hazard zonation techniques developed by various agencies in the past, some modification as per the requirement has been made in various stages of investigation.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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