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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Ranjit Singh, Ravi Pratap Singh and Rajeev Trehan

This study aims to experimentally investigate the influence of considered process parameters, i.e. pulse on time, pulse off time, peak current and gap voltage, on tool…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to experimentally investigate the influence of considered process parameters, i.e. pulse on time, pulse off time, peak current and gap voltage, on tool wear rate (TWR) in electrical discharge machining (EDM) of iron (Fe)-based shape memory alloy (SMA) through designed experiments. The parametric optimization for TWR has also been attempted using the desirability approach and genetic algorithm (GA).

Design/methodology/approach

The response surface methodology (RSM) in the form of Box–Behnken design has been used to scheme out the experiments. The influence of considered process inputs has also been observed through variance analysis. The reliability and fitness of the developed mathematical model have been established with test results. Microstructure analysis of machined samples has also been evaluated and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images revealed the surface characteristics such as micro-cracks, craters and voids on the tool electrode surface. SEM images provide information about the surface integrity and type of wear on the surface of the tool electrode.

Findings

The input parameters, namely, pulse on time and pulse off time, are major influential factors impacting the TWR. High TWR has been reported at large pulse on time and small pulse off time conditions whereas higher TWR is reported at high peak current input settings. The maximum and minimum TWR values obtained are 0.073 g/min and 0.017 g/min, respectively. The optimization with desirability approach and GA reveals the best parametric values for TWR i.e. 0.01581 g/min and 0.00875 g/min at parametric combination as pulse on time = 60.83 µs, pulse off time = 112.16 µs, peak current = 18.64 A and gap voltage = 59.55 V, and pulse on time = 60 µs, pulse off time = 120 µs, peak current = 12 A and gap voltage = 40 V, correspondingly.

Research limitations/implications

Proposed work has no limitations.

Originality/value

SMAs have been well known for their superior and excellent properties, which make them an eligible candidate of paramount importance in real-life industrial applications such as orthopedic implants, actuators, micro tools, stents, coupling, sealing elements, aerospace components, defense instruments, manufacturing elements and bio-medical appliances. However, its effective and productive processing is still a challenge. Tool wear study while processing of SMAs in EDM process is an area which has been less investigated and of major concern for exploring the various properties of the tool and wear in it. Also, the developed mathematical model for TWR through the RSM approach will be helpful in industrial revelation.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Ravi Butola, N. Yuvaraj, Ravi Pratap Singh, Lakshay Tyagi and Faim Khan

This study aims to analyse the changes in mechanical and wear performance of aluminium alloy when yttrium oxide particles are incorporated. The microstructures are studied…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the changes in mechanical and wear performance of aluminium alloy when yttrium oxide particles are incorporated. The microstructures are studied to analyse the change in the grain structures. Worn surfaces are observed via scanning electron microscope to study the wear mechanism in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

Stir casting is used to incorporate varying composition of yttrium particles, having an average particle size of 25 micrometer, in aluminium alloy 6063 matrix. Wear testing is carried out by DUCOM manufactured high temperature rotatory tribometer, and an indentation test is used for analysing the microhardness of the fabricated samples.

Findings

Microhardness of the material is increased with the increasing content of particulate addition. With the increasing content of reinforcement, more refined grains are produced. The load is transferred from the matrix to more rigid yttrium oxide particles. These factors contributed to escalated microhardness of the reinforced samples. Particulate addition enhanced the wear performance of the material; this might be attributed to increased microhardness and formation of an oxide layer.

Originality/value

Aluminium composites are finding wide applications in various industries, and there is always a requirement of material with enhanced tribological properties. Yttrium oxide particles exhibit improved mechanical properties, and their interaction with the aluminium matrix has not been studied much in the past. So, in this work, yttrium oxide incorporated aluminium matrix is studied.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Ravi Pratap Singh, Narendra Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar Gupta and Madhusudan Painuly

The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the effect of several input process factors, namely, feed rate, spindle speed, ultrasonic power and coolant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the effect of several input process factors, namely, feed rate, spindle speed, ultrasonic power and coolant pressure, on hole quality measures (penetration rate [PR] and chipping diameter [CD]) in rotary mode ultrasonic drilling of macor bioceramic material.

Design/methodology/approach

The main experiments were planned using the response surface methodology (RSM). Scanning electron microscopy was also used to examine and study the microstructure of machined samples. This study revealed the existence of dominant brittle fracture and little plastic flow that resulted in a material loss from the base work surface. Experiment findings have shown the dependability and adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

Findings

The percentage of brittle mode deformation rises as the penetration depth of abrasives increases (at increasing levels of feed rate). This was due to the fact that at greater depths of indentation, material loss begins in the form of bigger chunks and develops inter-granular fractures. These stated causes have provided an additional advantage to increasing the CD over the machined rod of bioceramic. The desirability method was also used to optimize multi-response measured responses (PR and CD). The mathematical model created using the RSM method will be very useful in industrial revelation. Furthermore, the investigated answers’ particle swarm optimization (PSO) and teacher-learner-based optimization (TLBO) make the parametric analysis more relevant and productive for real-life industrial practices.

Originality/value

Macor bioceramic has been widely recognized as one of the most highly demanded innovative dental ceramics, receiving expanded industry approval because of its outstanding and superior characteristics. However, effective and efficient processing remains a problem. Among the available contemporary machining methods introduced for processing typical and advanced materials, rotary mode ultrasonic machining has been identified as one of the best suitable candidates for precise processing of macor bioceramics, as this process produces thermal damage-free profiles, as well as high accuracy and an increased material removal rate. The optimized combined setting obtained using PSO is feed rate = 0.16 mm/s, spindle speed = 4,500 rpm, ultrasonic power = 60% and coolant pressure = 280 kPa with the value of fitness function is 0.0508. The optimized combined setting obtained using TLBO is feed rate = 0.06 mm/s, spindle speed = 2,500 rpm, ultrasonic power = 60% and coolant pressure = 280 kPa with the value of fitness function is 0.1703.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Rakesh Chandmal Sharma, Vishal Dabra, Gurpreet Singh, Rajender Kumar, Ravi Pratap Singh and Sameer Sharma

Stainless steel is widely used in different manufacturing sectors. The purpose of this study is to optimize the process parameters of machining while processing SS316L…

Abstract

Purpose

Stainless steel is widely used in different manufacturing sectors. The purpose of this study is to optimize the process parameters of machining while processing SS316L alloy. The optimization of machining characteristics in the case of SS316L alloy greatly improves the quality and productivity economically.

Design/methodology/approach

The machining variables in current research are depth of cut, spindle speed and feed rate. The optimization of response characteristics was carried out using the intelligent approach of grey, regression and teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO) and Taguchi-Grey approach. Planning of experiments was made using Taguchi’s based L27 orthogonal array. With the implementation of grey, the response characteristics were normalized and converted into a single response. The regression analysis was used for empirical modeling of the single response induced from the grey application. TLBO is further used to investigate the combinations of machining variables and compared with grey theory.

Findings

The grey-TLBO based multi-criteria decision-making approach suggests that the optimized setting for material removal rate, mean roughness depth (Rz) and cutting force (Fz) is spindle speed (N): 720 rpm; feed rate (F): 0.3 mm/rev; depth of cut (DoC): 1.7 mm. The grey theory suggests an optimized setting as N: 720 rpm; F: 0.2 mm/rev and DoC: 1.7 mm.

Originality/value

The parametric optimization during the turning of SS316L using grey-TLBO based intelligent approach is not performed till now. Thus, this intelligent approach will give a path to the researchers working in this direction. However, the grey theory performs better as compared to the grey-TLBO approach.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Rajendra Kumar, Ravi Pratap Singh and Ravinder Kataria

This paper aims to investigate the flexural properties i.e. the flexural strength and the flexural modulus under the influence of selected input variables, namely; fiber…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the flexural properties i.e. the flexural strength and the flexural modulus under the influence of selected input variables, namely; fiber type, fiber loading and fiber size in fabricated natural fiber polymeric composites through using Taguchi’s design of experiment methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

The Taguchi’s design of experiment approach has been used to scheme a suitable combination to fabricate the polymeric composites. Pure polypropylene (PP) has been chosen as a matrix material, whereas two types of fibers, namely; wood powder (WP) i.e. sawdust and rice husk powder (RHP), have been used as a reinforcement in the matrix. Microstructure analysis of fabricated and tested samples has also been evaluated and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. This analysis has divulged that at moderate fiber size and higher fiber loading, no gap or cavities presented between the fillers and matrix particles, which illustrates the good interfacial bonding between the materials.

Findings

The flexural strength of the wood powder pure polypropylene (WPPP) composite decreases if the fiber content gets increased beyond 20 Wt.%. In addition, the flexural strength of hybrid composite (WPRHPPP) has been revealed to get improved more in comparison to composites with single fiber as reinforcement. Furthermore, the flexural modulus of WPPP composite has also increased with the increase in fiber loading. It has been concluded that reinforcement size plays an imperative role in influencing the flexural modulus. The optimum parametric setting for the flexural strength and the flexural modulus has been devised as; fiber type – WPRHP, fiber loading – 10 Wt.% and fiber size – 600 µm; and fiber type – WP, fiber loading – 30 Wt.% and fiber size – 1,180 µm, respectively. The microstructure images clearly revealed that during conducted flexural tests, some particles get disturbed from their bonded position that mainly represents the plastic deformation.

Social implications

The fabricated polymer materials proposed in the research work are green and environmentally friendly.

Originality/value

The natural fiber-based composites are possessing wide-spread requirements in today’s competitive structure of manufacturing and industrial applications. The fabrication of the natural fiber-based composites has also been planned through the designed experiments (namely; Taguchi Methodology- L9 orthogonal array matrix), which, further, makes the analysis more fruitful and qualitative too. The fabricated polymer materials proposed in the research work are green and environmentally friendly. Shisham WP has been rarely used in the past researches; therefore, this factor has been included for the present work. The injection molding process is used to fabricate the three different polymer composite by varying the fiber weight percentage and fiber size.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Mohd Javaid, Abid Haleem, Shanay Rab, Ravi Pratap Singh, Rajiv Suman and Sanjay Mohan

The development of new communication technology such as 5G is now a solid choice for Industry 4.0. 5G in the fifth generation replaces the presently used mobile…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of new communication technology such as 5G is now a solid choice for Industry 4.0. 5G in the fifth generation replaces the presently used mobile telecommunications networks. In every sector of modern life, this technology is designed to resolve the issue of the enormous rise in daily gadgets. 5G allows rapid data transfer and significantly improves the Internet of Things (IoT), which contains billions of devices. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential applications of 5G for Industry 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant research publications from Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were identified to accomplish the objectives of this paper. 5G for Industry 4.0 enables crucial communications such as wireless management of machines and robotics to unleash Industry 4.0’s full potential, including the considerable proliferation of IoT devices in 5G. This technology enhances quality control, increasing inspections that rely on real-time analysis for rapid and early detection.

Findings

In Industry 4.0, 5G technology provides high speed and flexibility connectivity which helps to enhance the entire manufacturing system. This paper briefs about 5G and different network technologies used in 5G. Advancements, associated features and specialties, and significant enablers of 5G for Industry 4.0 are discussed. Finally, the paper identifies and discusses eighteen 5G applications for Industry 4.0. 5 G-enabled robots are used in manufacturing to carry out extensive work to enhance connectivity.

Originality/value

5G is the next-generation communication technology, allowing numerous examples of inventive usage, including Industry 4.0. In line with its long-term vision of digitisation, 5G benefit the whole value chain, including consumers and businesses.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Mohd Javaid, Ibrahim Haleem Khan, Ravi Pratap Singh, Shanay Rab and Rajiv Suman

Unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly known as UAVs and drones. Nowadays, industries have begun to realise the operational and economic benefits of drone-enabled tasks…

Abstract

Purpose

Unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly known as UAVs and drones. Nowadays, industries have begun to realise the operational and economic benefits of drone-enabled tasks. The Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, drones, etc., represent implementable advanced technologies intended to accomplish Industry 4.0. The purpose of this study is to discuss the significant contributions of drones for Industry 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

Nowadays, drones are used for inspections, mapping and surveying in difficult or hazardous locations. For writing this paper, relevant research papers on drone for Industry 4.0 are identified from various research platforms such as Scopus, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and ScienceDirect. Given the enormous extent of the topic, this work analyses many papers, reports and news stories in an attempt to comprehend and clarify Industry 4.0.

Findings

Drones are being implemented in manufacturing, entertainment industries (cinematography, etc.) and machinery across the world. Thermal-imaging devices attached to drones can detect variable heat levels emanating from a facility, trigger the sprinkler system and inform emergency authorities. Due partly to their utility and adaptability in industrial areas such as energy, transportation, engineering and more, autonomous drones significantly impact Industry 4.0. This paper discusses drones and their types. Several technological advances and primary extents of drones for Industry 4.0 are diagrammatically elaborated. Further, the authors identified and discussed 19 major applications of drones for Industry 4.0.

Originality/value

This paper’s originality lies in its discussion and exploration of the capabilities of drones for Industry 4.0, especially in manufacturing organisations. In addition to improving efficiency and site productivity, drones can easily undertake routine inspections and check streamlines operations and maintenance procedures. This work contributes to creating a common foundation for comprehending Industry 4.0 outcomes from many disciplinary viewpoints, allowing for more research and development for industrial innovation and technological progress.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Mohd Javaid, Abid Haleem, Ravi Pratap Singh, Shanay Rab, Rajiv Suman and Shahbaz Khan

Over the past few decades, lean manufacturing has focussed on being customer-centred and now Lean 4.0 technologies have made it possible for manufacturers to have a deeper…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past few decades, lean manufacturing has focussed on being customer-centred and now Lean 4.0 technologies have made it possible for manufacturers to have a deeper view of waste reduction. Technologies such as the internet of things, artificial intelligence, three-dimensional printing, robotics, real-time data, cloud computing, predictive analytics and augmented reality, are helpful to achieve Lean 4.0. This study aims to develop the conceptual understanding of Lean 4.0, related tools and linkage with Industry 4.0. Further, it provides the strategies for implementing Lean 4.0, developing lean culture and highlights the Lean 4.0 application in the manufacturing context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relates to Lean 4.0 and its technologies. Prominent research is identified through Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar and studied as per the objective of this study. This lean revolution provides customers desire for personalisation, connectedness, high-quality and valuable products. Lean 4.0 provides valuable information on the value chain and production process. This revolution has significantly impacted refining production processes for a greater level of adaptability and cost reduction.

Findings

This paper is brief about Lean 4.0 and its capabilities for the reduction of waste. The authors discussed different tools used in Lean 4.0 and its relationship with Industry 4.0. The classical strategies and progressive features of Lean 4.0 for overall enhancing the manufacturing sphere are discussed diagrammatically. Finally, it identified and discussed 14 significant applications of Lean 4.0 for manufacturing industries.

Originality/value

This study provides a comprehensive understanding of Lean 4.0 and related tools and strategies that help the upcoming manufacturing industries.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Sachin Ambade, Chetan Tembhurkar, Awanikumar P. Patil, Prakash Pantawane and Ravi Pratap Singh

The purpose of this study is on AISI 409 M ferritic stainless steel (FSS) which is developing a preferred choice for railway carriages, storage tanks and reactors in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is on AISI 409 M ferritic stainless steel (FSS) which is developing a preferred choice for railway carriages, storage tanks and reactors in chemical plants. The intergranular corrosion behavior of welded SS 409 M has been studied in H2SO4 solution (0.5 M) with the addition of NH4SCN (0.01 M) with different heat input. As this study is very important in context of various chemical and petrochemical industries.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure, mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion properties of AISI 409 M FSS using shielded metal arc welding were investigated. Shielded metal arc welding with different welding current values are used to change the heat input in the joints resulted in the microstructural variations. The microstructure of the welded steel was carefully inspected along the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the transverse-section of the thin plate.

Findings

The width of heat affected zone (3.1,4.2 and 5.8 mm) increases on increasing the welding heat input. Due to change in grain size (grain coarsening) as HAZ increased. From the microstructure, it was observed that the large grain growth which is dendritic and the structure become finer to increase in welding heat input. For lower heat input, the maximum microhardness value (388HV) was observed compared with medium (351 HV) and higher heat input (344 HV), which is caused by a rapid cooling rate and the depleted area of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). The increase in weld heat input decreases tensile strength, i.e. 465 MPa, 440 MPa and 418 MPa for low, medium and high heat input, respectively. This is because of grain coarsening and chromium carbide precipitation in sensitized zone and wider HAZ. The degree of sensitization increases (27.04%, 31.86% and 36.08%) to increase welding heat input because of chromium carbide deposition at the grain boundaries. The results revealed that the higher degree of sensitization and the difference in intergranular corrosion behavior under high heat input are related to the grain growth in the HAZ and the weld zone.

Originality/value

The study is based on intergranular corrosion behavior of welded SS 409 M in H2SO4 solution (0.5 M) with the addition of NH4SCN (0.01 M) with different heat input which is rarely found in literature.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Furkan Ulu, Ravi Pratap Singh Tomar and Ram Mohan

PolyJet technology allows printing complex multi-material composite configurations using Voxel digital designs' capability, thus allowing rapid prototyping of 3D printed…

Abstract

Purpose

PolyJet technology allows printing complex multi-material composite configurations using Voxel digital designs' capability, thus allowing rapid prototyping of 3D printed structural parts. This paper aims to investigate the processing and mechanical characteristics of composite material configurations formed from soft and hard materials with different distributions and sizes via voxel digital print design.

Design/methodology/approach

Voxels are extruded representations of pixels and represent different material information similar to each pixel representing colors in digital images. Each geometric region of a digitally designed part represented by a voxel can be printed with a different material. Multi-material composite part configurations were formed and rapidly prototyped using a PolyJet printer Stratasys J750. A design of experiments composite part configuration of a soft material (Tango Plus) within a hard material matrix (Vero Black) was studied. Composite structures with different hard and soft material distributions, but at the same volume fractions of hard and soft materials, were rapidly prototyped via PolyJet printing through developed Voxel digital printing designs. The tensile behavior of these formed composite material configurations was studied.

Findings

Processing and mechanical behavior characteristics depend on materials in different regions and their distributions. Tensile characterization obtained the fracture energy, tensile strength, modulus and failure strength of different hard-soft composite systems. Mechanical properties and behavior of all different composite material systems are compared.

Practical implications

Tensile characteristics correlate to digital voxel designs that play a critical role in additive manufacturing, in addition to the formed material composition and distributions.

Originality/value

Results clearly indicate that multi-material composite systems with various tensile mechanical properties could be created using voxel printing by engineering the design of material distributions, and sizes. The important parameters such as inclusion size and distribution can easily be controlled within all slices via voxel digital designs in PolyJet printing. Therefore, engineers and designers can manipulate entire morphology and material at each voxel level, and different prototype morphologies can be created with the same voxel digital design. In addition, difficulties from AM process with voxel printing for such material designs is addressed, and effective digital solutions were used for successful prototypes. Some of these difficulties are extra support material or printing the part with different dimension than it designed to achieve the final part dimension fidelity. Present work addressed and resolved such issued and provided cyber based software solutions using CAD and voxel discretization. All these increase broad adaptability of PolyJet AM in industry for prototyping and end-use.

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