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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Thanigavelan Jambulingam and Ravi Kathuria

The purpose of this study is to understand the antecedents that influence supply chain coordination in the pharmaceutical supply chain using the transaction cost analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the antecedents that influence supply chain coordination in the pharmaceutical supply chain using the transaction cost analysis framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 156 retail pharmacies on their relationship with the pharmaceutical wholesalers are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings of this paper show the importance of antecedents that are based on the transactional cost theory, such as asset specificity and environmental uncertainty. These antecedents impact the supply chain process coordination at different levels – transactional, operational and strategic.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may investigate additional antecedents using other theoretical lenses.

Practical implications

Pharmaceutical wholesalers are dependent on pharmaceutical manufacturers for the supply of products and face intense competition that results in lower profit margins. Given that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, the wholesaler facilitates regulatory compliance of the manufacturers in the distribution process by coordinating with them. But the wholesalers do also face a constant threat from the manufacturers, who could potentially bypass the wholesalers (disintermediation) and go directly to the pharmacies. To counterbalance the dependence, the wholesalers strive to achieve loyalty with the retail pharmacies. Through supply chain coordination, the wholesalers achieve efficiency in procurement for the pharmacies, thus reducing cost and improving their competitive advantage.

Social implications

Supply chain coordination in the pharmaceutical supply chain improves the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution system.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the supply chain coordination stream of literature. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to develop the three levels of process coordination in the pharmaceutical supply chain context. This paper shows how process coordination can be achieved between the dyad without vertical integration.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Ravi Kathuria, Stephen J. Porth, N.N. Kathuria and T.K. Kohli

The purpose of this paper is to understand the competitive priorities of manufacturers in India, and examine the level of agreement or strategic consensus between senior…

2429

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the competitive priorities of manufacturers in India, and examine the level of agreement or strategic consensus between senior executives and manufacturing managers on manufacturing competitive priorities in light of the prevalent culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data collected from 156 respondents from 78 manufacturing units based on a national sample in India are used to test the hypotheses using the paired samples t‐tests and multivariate analysis of variance.

Findings

A relatively high emphasis by both levels of managers on quality, compared to the other three competitive priorities, is noteworthy and consistent with the global trends. The emphasis on delivery is a close second. Differences in competitive priorities exist across managerial levels in India despite the high power distance and low individualism.

Research limitations/implications

The effect of ownership as private or public company was examined and no significant differences found, but data could not be collected on the ownership structure such as wholly owned domestic firms, foreign subsidiaries, or joint ventures. and whether a firm is a supplier to a multinational company. It may also be noted that a majority of the manufacturing companies in this paper came from three industries – chemicals, fabricated metals, and electronic and electrical equipment – and, hence, the findings of the paper might have been unduly influenced by the prevalent practices in these industries.

Practical implications

The paper informs global managers and firms seeking to outsource to, or invest in, India that the Indian managers place significantly high emphasis on quality and delivery, but not as much on product variety or ability to make frequent changes to product design and production volume. The managers in India need to take note of prevailing differences in managerial priorities and efforts need to be made such that the priorities are aligned and manufacturing strategy may be unified and coordinated.

Originality/value

In the Indian context, this is the first study that deployed multiple respondents to understand the manufacturing competitive priorities, and also the first to examine strategic consensus in operations strategy.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Ravi Kathuria, Maheshkumar P. Joshi and Stephen J. Porth

The purpose of this paper is to identify and define the types of organizational alignment – vertical and horizontal; to examine the evidence for the alignment‐performance…

8099

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and define the types of organizational alignment – vertical and horizontal; to examine the evidence for the alignment‐performance relationship, and propose research questions and practical implications to advance the theory and practice of managing alignment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a conceptual examination based on a thorough review of both theoretical and empirical research.

Findings

The paper finds that vertical alignment has received considerably more attention in the literature. Studies of horizontal alignment within organizations are less common. When horizontal alignment is studied, the focus tends to be dyadic – between two functional areas. The limitations posed by the dyadic approach suggest gaps in the research and opportunities for future research. As firms grow and diversify, becoming multi‐business organizations, the importance of horizontal alignment will be elevated.

Research limitations/implications

Research on vertical alignment should focus on developing larger sets of moderating variables, such as the morale of the workforce, or the life cycle of the firm or industry. Research on horizontal alignment should explore multi‐point horizontal alignment.

Practical implications

Managers in organizations with multiple strategic business units could use the application questions in the study to assess the state of alignment in their respective units and the organization as a whole.

Originality/value

The paper documents existing literature on the concept of organizational alignment and identifies new opportunities to continue to build and expand the research stream. It also provides a list of application questions that may be used to assess organizational alignment in organizations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Ravi Kathuria, Fariborz Y. Partovi and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of manufacturing leadership in enhancing manufacturing performance for different manufacturing configurations.

3438

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of manufacturing leadership in enhancing manufacturing performance for different manufacturing configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data collected from three levels of respondents in excess of 480, from 98 manufacturing units in the USA are used to test the study hypothesis using the cluster analysis and regression models.

Findings

Effective leadership is positively associated with overall manufacturing performance beyond the fixed effects of organizational variables, such as competitive orientation and industry membership. The manufacturing leadership, however, does not seem to affect customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The paper illustrates the use of behavioral theory of leadership in the context of managing operations with varying competitive orientations in different industries. Future research should, however, attempt to match different leadership practices/styles to different competitive orientations, and include employee characteristics, such as subordinates' prior experience, training, or skills that may influence the need for demonstrating the leadership practices differently for different competitive orientations.

Practical implications

As manufacturers pursue a combination of priorities, their manufacturing managers need to use a gamut of effective leadership practices, such as planning, delegating, inspiring, etc. Manufacturers may also note that effective manufacturing leadership enhances performance on a host of measures, such as quality, timeliness, efficiency, etc. which are directly influenced by the manufacturing group. For measures, such as customer satisfaction, manufacturing leadership needs to be augmented by managing customer expectations and by being more flexible in accommodating customers' requirements.

Originality/value

This is the first study to deploy multiple respondents to simultaneously examine the effects of competitive orientation and leadership practices on manufacturing performance.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Ravi Kathuria, Maheshkumar P. Joshi and Stephanie Dellande

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in growth strategies – domestic and international – of manufacturing and service firms. Hardly any literature…

3213

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences in growth strategies – domestic and international – of manufacturing and service firms. Hardly any literature exists that empirically investigates the differences on account of the distinctive characteristics of goods and services, and such studies rarely draw from the operations management field.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple analysis of variance is used to analyze longitudinal data from multiple secondary sources.

Findings

Mixed services, such as banks, focus more on domestic growth and less on international growth. Manufacturers, such as chemical firms, focus more on international activities as compared to domestic activities. Mixed service firms seem to prefer collaborative approaches, whereas goods producers prefer wholly owned ventures.

Research limitations/implications

The data collection methodology applied in this study may be applicable to many other topics of operations management. Future researchers may examine internationalization of services from front and back office perspectives, and compare information‐processing, possession‐processing, and people‐processing services in their choices of mode of entry and resultant performance differences.

Practical implications

The findings are relevant for developing operations strategy, including location alternatives, for both manufacturing and service firms as different nations become a part of the global village. Appropriate modes of entry in an international arena for both service and manufacturing firms are identified.

Originality/value

A cross‐functional study that uses longitudinal data from secondary sources in an innovative way with significant implications for operations managers and researchers.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Ravi Kathuria

This paper investigates managerial practices that are conducive to the management of flexibility. Using data from manufacturing plants in the USA, this paper identifies…

1506

Abstract

This paper investigates managerial practices that are conducive to the management of flexibility. Using data from manufacturing plants in the USA, this paper identifies managerial practices that manufacturing managers strongly demonstrate in plants that place a high emphasis on flexibility. The results indicate that managers who pursue flexibility, emphatically engage in team building, employee empowerment, and other relationship oriented practices that generate enthusiasm among employees. These practices seemingly motivate workers to deal with the uncertainty and changes, in the form of product mix, customer delivery schedule, capacity adjustments, etc., that characterize manufacturing flexibility. Furthermore, workers are entrusted with the traditional responsibilities of manufacturing managers, such as monitoring and problem solving.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 98 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Ravi Kathuria and Stephen J. Porth

Prior research of the influence of “upper echelon” managers has confirmed the importance of matching the characteristics of senior executives with the requirements of…

2340

Abstract

Prior research of the influence of “upper echelon” managers has confirmed the importance of matching the characteristics of senior executives with the requirements of their organizations’ strategies. Firms that achieved higher levels of strategy‐manager alignment at both the corporate and business unit levels were found to have correspondingly higher levels of organizational performance. This study extends prior research of the strategy‐managerial characteristics relationship to the functional level of the organization. Specifically, based on a sample of 196 managers from 98 companies, this study investigates whether manufacturing units pursuing dissimilar strategies are led by manufacturing managers with dissimilar attributes, and whether the strategy‐manager alignment is related to the performance of the manufacturing unit. Results provide evidence to support these hypothesized relationships.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Ravi Kathuria and Magid Igbaria

Presents an integrated framework that would help manufacturing managers to select IT applications (manufacturing management systems) that are best suited to a given…

1217

Abstract

Presents an integrated framework that would help manufacturing managers to select IT applications (manufacturing management systems) that are best suited to a given process structure and the intended competitive priorities of a firm. The proposed framework is based on the premiss that the process of matching IT applications to competitive priorities involves identification of key manufacturing tasks underlying different priorities and the corresponding process structures. The theoretic‐deductive approach is used to link the three vital elements ‐ competitive priorities, process structures and IT applications ‐ in the following application areas: product design, demand management, capacity planning, inventory management, shopfloor systems, quality management and distribution.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Thani Jambulingam, Ravi Kathuria and John R. Nevin

The purpose of this paper is to understand how fairness garners loyalty by breeding trust in the pharmaceutical wholesaler‐pharmacy relationship. Specifically, the paper…

2162

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how fairness garners loyalty by breeding trust in the pharmaceutical wholesaler‐pharmacy relationship. Specifically, the paper seeks to understand if the two dimensions of fairness – procedural and distributive – contribute differently in fostering the two types of trust – credibility and benevolence. The paper further aims to examine how the two dimensions of trust mediate the fairness‐loyalty relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 156 retail pharmacies on their relationship with the pharmaceutical wholesalers are used to test the hypotheses. The mediation models are tested using the Barron and Kenny procedure.

Findings

The findings of this paper show the importance of both procedural and distributive aspects of fairness on the part of pharmaceutical wholesalers as perceived by the pharmacies. Each aspect of fairness plays a more prominent role for fostering a particular type of trust, which, in turn, leads to loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may investigate the antecedents to fairness to unearth additional insights as to how organizations can manage their customers' perceptions of fairness and thereby enhance their trust and loyalty.

Practical implications

Pharmaceutical wholesale is a competitive business to retain pharmacies by building loyalty thus balancing pharmacies' dependence on the more powerful pharmaceutical manufacturers in the pharmaceutical supply chain. Given the intense competition, the wholesaler that does a superior job in creating a competitive advantage leveraging fairness to engender trust will get to benefit in recruiting and retaining more pharmacies.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the fairness‐trust‐loyalty stream of literature by examining the mediation effects at the sub‐dimension level of the fairness and trust constructs. The paper also has practical implications, especially given the low gross margins for pharmaceutical wholesalers and the growing threat of direct distribution of pharmaceuticals or disintermediation by the manufacturers using third party logistics companies, such as united parcel service. The paper shows how wholesalers may be able to build loyalty with the pharmacies by signaling fairness and fostering trust.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Avinandan Mukherjee

643

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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