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Article

Sherif Omar Attallah, Ahmad Senouci, Amr Kandil and Hassan Al-Derham

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for assessing, in quantifiable terms, the reduction in environmental impacts achieved by applying different credits…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for assessing, in quantifiable terms, the reduction in environmental impacts achieved by applying different credits of sustainability rating systems in building construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Sustainability rating systems are developed in various regions to evaluate construction projects with respect to their environmental performance. Although implementation of rating systems had a recognized effect on reducing environmental impact of construction projects, there is no objective and quantifiable evidence that the approaches recommended by these rating systems to achieve the required certification lead to optimum environmental results. This paper presents a methodology that utilizes life cycle analysis (LCA) as a powerful and objective tool to validate the way rating systems evaluate project performance. The Qatar Sustainability Assessment System (QSAS), recently developed in the State of Qatar by Gulf Organization for Research and Development (GORD), is chosen as a case study to illustrate application of the developed methodology. Environmental impacts due to implementation of QSAS credits are calculated for one project in Qatar, which is currently under construction.

Findings

Results reveal possible use of LCA as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness of rating systems. For the QSAS case study, findings reveal indications of over and, in some instances, under estimation of the weights assigned to some credits and the difficulty in the quantification of the impacts of other credits, which indicates the need for reconsideration of these weights to improve effectiveness of the implementation of these credits.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology stands as a step toward the enhancement and rationalization of the currently used building sustainability ratings system.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article

Shanli Yu, Guotai Chi and Xin Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to propose a system with the highest discriminatory power by selecting an indicator system based on the K–S test according to the unique…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a system with the highest discriminatory power by selecting an indicator system based on the K–S test according to the unique circumstances of small enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method relies on calculating the K–S test statistical magnitude of D iteratively to reach a system with the maximum discriminatory power.

Findings

The empirical results, demonstrated using 3,045 small businesses from a Chinese bank, show that credit rating system should focus on the indicator system’s discriminatory power rather than a single indicator’s discriminatory power, because the interaction between indicators affects the discriminatory power of the system.

Practical implications

The proposed method creates a credit rating system with the highest discriminatory power, rather than its indicators, which is a more reasonable and novel approach to credit rating.

Originality/value

The approach is unique because the final system will have high discriminatory power and has excellent potential for decision support. The authors believe that this contribution is theoretically and practically relevant because credit rating for small business is especially difficult and complicated.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Chi-Wen Chen

Recent years have witnessed the development of a variety of rating systems but the authors have little knowledge about their impact on users’ perceptions of information…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent years have witnessed the development of a variety of rating systems but the authors have little knowledge about their impact on users’ perceptions of information quality, cognitive decision effort, and enjoyment. The purpose of this paper is to understand the potential cognitive fit underlining the relationship between rating systems types (i.e. five-star, binary-visual, and binary-textual) and tasks (i.e. purchase-decision and browsing tasks) in the context of shopping websites.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 191 subjects were obtained. This study conducted an experiment with a 2×3 between-subject factorial design. The first dimension is a task that has two conditions (purchasing vs browsing). The second dimension is a type of rating system that has three different types (binary-textual, binary-visual, and five-star).

Findings

The results show that the cognitive fit may occur when individuals use a five-star rating system to help them make a purchasing decision and when they use a binary-visual rating system while browsing. This fit might increase perceived information quality while decrease cognitive decision efforts, and in turn raise intention to adopt the systems. Moreover, five-star rating systems can make users feel more fun and enjoyment than binary-textual and visual rating systems, regardless of task type.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on three main rating systems that are popular on shopping websites. Nevertheless, few other rating systems exist in the market such as unitary or ten-star rating systems. Further studies can consider other types of rating systems and address, in addition to representation, the issue of information granularity (i.e. unitary, binary, five-star, and ten-star rating systems).

Practical implications

The results of this study could provide design principles for web designers in determining which rating systems best match the websites they are developing. If the websites or specific webpages are more utilitarian oriented (hedonic oriented), five-star rating systems (binary-visual rating systems) are more appropriate.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the rating system literature by examining the cognitive fit underlining the relationship between rating systems types and tasks. Importantly, this study extends cognitive fit theory by considering affective responses, that is, perceived enjoyment and intention to continue to use.

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Article

Guotai Chi and Bin Meng

The purpose of this paper is to propose a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that significantly distinguishes the default state. This debt rating

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that significantly distinguishes the default state. This debt rating system is constructed using the F-test and correlation analysis method, with the small industrial enterprise loans of a Chinese commercial bank as the data sample. This study establishes the weighting principle for the debt scoring model: “the more significant the default state, the larger is the weight.” The debt rating system for small industrial enterprises is constructed based on the standard “the higher the debt rating, the lower is the loss given default.”

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors selected indexes that pass the homogeneity of variance test based on the principle that a greater deviation of the default sample’s mean from the whole sample’s mean leads to greater significance in distinguishing the default samples from the non-default samples. The authors removed correlated indexes based on the results of the correlation analysis and constructed a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that included 23 indexes.

Findings

Among the 23 indexes, the weights of 12 quantitative indexes add up to 0.547, while the weights of the remaining 11 qualitative indexes add up to 0.453. That is, in the debt rating of the small industry enterprises, the financial indexes are not capable of reflecting all the debt situations, and the qualitative indexes play a more important role in debt rating. The weights of indexes “X17 Outstanding loans to all assets ratio” and “X59 Date of the enterprise establishment” are 0.146 and 0.133, respectively; both these are greater than 0.1, and the indexes are ranked first and second, respectively. The weights of indexes “X6 EBIT-to- current liabilities ratio,” “X13 Ratio of capital to fixed” and “X78 Legal dispute number” are between 0.07 and 0.09, these indexes are ranked third to fifth. The weights of indexes “X3 Quick ratio” and “X50 Per capital year-end savings balance of Urban and rural residents” are both 0.013, and these are the lowest ranked indexes.

Originality/value

The data of index i are divided into two categories: default and non-default. A greater deviation in the mean of the default sample from that of the whole sample leads to greater deviation from the non-default sample’s mean as well; thus, the index can easily distinguish the default and the non-default samples. Following this line of thought, the authors select indexes that pass the F-test for the debt rating system that identifies whether or not the sample is default. This avoids the disadvantages of the existing research in which the standard for selecting the index has nothing to do with the default state; further, this presents a new way of debt rating. When the correlation coefficient of two indexes is greater than 0.8, the index with the smaller F-value is removed because of its weaker prediction capacity. This avoids the mistake of eliminating an index that has strong ability to distinguish default and non-default samples. The greater the deviation of the default sample’s mean from the whole sample’s mean, the greater is the capability of the index to distinguish the default state. According to this rule, the authors assign a larger weight to the index that exhibits the ability to identify the default state. This is different from the existing index system, which does not take into account the ability to identify the default state.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Abstract

Details

Modelling the Riskiness in Country Risk Ratings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-837-8

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Book part

Paul E. Levy, Steven T. Tseng, Christopher C. Rosen and Sarah B. Lueke

In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed…

Abstract

In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed. In this chapter, we review criticisms of traditional PM practices that have been mentioned by journalists and practitioners and we consider the solutions that they have presented for addressing these concerns. We then consider these problems and solutions within the context of extant scholarly research and identify (a) what organizations should do going forward to improve PM practices (i.e., focus on feedback processes, ensure accountability throughout the PM system, and align the PM system with organizational strategy) and (b) what scholars should focus research attention on (i.e., technology, strategic alignment, and peer-to-peer accountability) in order to reduce the science-practice gap in this domain.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-709-6

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Article

Phannakan Tengkiattrakul, Saranya Maneeroj and Atsuhiro Takasu

This paper aims to propose a trust-based ant-colony recommender system. It achieves high accuracy and coverage by integrating the importance level of friends. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a trust-based ant-colony recommender system. It achieves high accuracy and coverage by integrating the importance level of friends. This paper has two main contributions, namely, selecting higher-quality raters and improving the prediction step. From these two contributions, the proposed trust-based ant-colony recommender system could provide more accurate and wider-coverage prediction than existing systems.

Design/methodology/approach

To obtain higher-quality raters, the data set was preprocessed, and then, trust values were calculated. The depth of search was increased to obtain higher coverage levels. This work also focuses on the importance level of friends in the system. Because the levels of influence on the active user of all friends are not equal, the importance level of friends is integrated into the system by transposing rater’s rating to the active user’s perspective and then assigning a weight to each rater.

Findings

The experimental evaluation clearly demonstrates that the proposed method achieves better results in terms of both accuracy and coverage than existing trust-based recommender systems. It was found that integrating the importance level of friends into the system, which transposes ratings and assigns weight to each user, can increase accuracy and coverage.

Originality/value

Existing trust-based ant-colony recommender systems do not consider the importance level of friends in the prediction step. Most of them only focus on finding raters and then using the rater’s real ratings in the prediction step. A new method is proposed that integrates the importance level of friends into the system by transposing a rater’s rating to match the active user’s perspective and assigning a weight for each rater. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method achieves better accuracy and coverage than existing systems.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article

Thara Angskun and Jitimon Angskun

This paper aims to introduce a hierarchical fuzzy system for an online review analysis named FLORA. FLORA enables tourists to decide their destination without reading…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a hierarchical fuzzy system for an online review analysis named FLORA. FLORA enables tourists to decide their destination without reading numerous reviews from experienced tourists. It summarizes reviews and visualizes them through a hierarchical structure. The visualization does not only present overall quality of an accommodation, but it also presents the condition of the bed, hospitality of the front desk receptionist and much more in a snap.

Design/methodology/approach

FLORA is a complete system which acquires online reviews, analyzes sentiments, computes feature scores and summarizes results in a hierarchical view. FLORA is designed to use an overall score, rated by real tourists as a baseline for accuracy comparison. The accuracy of FLORA has achieved by a novel sentiment analysis process (as part of a knowledge acquisition engine) based on semantic analysis and a novel rating technique, called hierarchical fuzzy calculation, in the knowledge inference engine.

Findings

The performance comparison of FLORA against related work has been assessed in two aspects. The first aspect focuses on review analysis with binary format representation. The results reveal that the hierarchical fuzzy method, with probability weighting of FLORA, is achieved with the highest values in precision, recall and F-measure. The second aspect looks at review analysis with a five-point rating scale rating by comparing with one of the most advanced research methods, called fuzzy domain ontology. The results reveal that the hierarchical fuzzy method, with probability weighting of FLORA, returns the closest results to the tourist-defined rating.

Research limitations/implications

This research advances knowledge of online review analysis by contributing a novel sentiment analysis process and a novel rating technique. The FLORA system has two limitations. First, the reviews are based on individual expression, which is an arbitrary distinction and not always grammatically correct. Consequently, some opinions may not be extracted because the context free grammar rules are insufficient. Second, natural languages evolve and diversify all the time. Many emerging words or phrases, including idioms, proverbs and slang, are often used in online reviews. Thus, those words or phrases need to be manually updated in the knowledge base.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the tourism business and assists travelers by introducing comprehensive and easy to understand information about each accommodation to travelers. Although the FLORA system was originally designed and tested with accommodation reviews, it can also be used with reviews of any products or services by updating data in the knowledge base. Thus, businesses, which have online reviews for their products or services, can benefit from the FLORA system.

Originality/value

This research proposes a FLORA system which analyzes sentiments from online reviews, computes feature scores and summarizes results in a hierarchical view. Moreover, this work is able to use the overall score, rated by real tourists, as a baseline for accuracy comparison. The main theoretical implication is a novel sentiment analysis process based on semantic analysis and a novel rating technique called hierarchical fuzzy calculation.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sustainability Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-481-3

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Article

Caitlyn A. Miller, Nancy D. Albers-Miller and Tami L. Knotts

Both television and movie rating systems are used to inform parents, caregivers and prospective viewers about the content which will appear in a program. While rating

Abstract

Purpose

Both television and movie rating systems are used to inform parents, caregivers and prospective viewers about the content which will appear in a program. While rating systems are fallible, they do provide information prior to viewing. Unfortunately, television advertisements are not rated. Can a parent or caregiver feel confident that a child restricted to a particular level of viewing content will avoid being exposed to advertising content which exceeds the program rating? The purpose of this paper is to explore the content of advertisements relative to an established rating system.

Design/methodology/approach

Advertisements were assigned ratings based on the TV rating criteria. Comparisons between advertisement ratings and program ratings are provided. Additionally, advertisements are examined for unrated mature themes.

Findings

More than half of the advertisements analyzed across all program ratings were deemed appropriate for all audiences. However, it was discovered that advertisement content exceeded the content rating of the program during which it aired over 20 per cent of the time.

Originality/value

The findings show that the content of about one in every five television advertisements will have content that exceeds the content rating of the program in which the advertisement appears. This has the potential to undermine parental or caregiver restrictions on a child’s viewing content.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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