Search results

1 – 10 of 157
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Rashid Zaman, Muhammad Nadeem and Mariela Carvajal

This paper aims to provide exploratory evidence on corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) interfaces. Although there remains a voluminous…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide exploratory evidence on corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) interfaces. Although there remains a voluminous literature on CG and CSR, very little effort has been put forward to explore the nature of this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using interviews with Senior Executives of New Zealand Stock Exchange listed firms, this research assesses CG and CSR practices, identifies barriers for CG and CSR adoption and investigates the nature of the relationship between CG and CSR.

Findings

The results indicate a moderate level of CG and CSR practices, with a lack of resources and cost-time balance as common barriers for CG and CSR adoption. However, despite these barriers, we note that the majority of executives appreciate the increasing convergence between CG and CSR, and believe that a more robust CG framework will lead to more sustainable CSR practices.

Originality/value

These findings have important implications for managers and policymakers interested in understanding the CG-CSR nexus and promoting responsible business practices.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Rashid Zaman, Stephen Bahadar, Umar Nawaz Kayani and Muhammad Arslan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of corporate governance, with particular reference to the role of independent directors on boards and audit committees…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of corporate governance, with particular reference to the role of independent directors on boards and audit committees, and media coverage on corporate transparency and disclosure. In addition, the paper also investigates the role of the media on independent directors’ behaviours towards corporate transparency and disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the well-developed two-step system generalised method of moments approach on a sample of 99 Pakistan stock exchange (PSX) listed financial firms over the period 2007-2012.

Findings

The empirical analysis shows that media and independent directors on audit committees play a significant positive role in line with agenda setting and agency theories in promoting corporate transparency and disclosure. On the contrary, the boards’ independent directors are risk-averse and hold the information to protect their reputation. Nevertheless, the study does not find any significant influence of media coverage on independent directors’ behaviours in promoting corporate transparency and disclosure.

Practical implications

The findings provide some useful insight into cost benefits analysis of media coverage towards an understanding of independent directors’ behaviours for promoting transparency and disclosure in financial sector. Moreover, the study findings can be useful for both shareholders and stakeholders in taking decisions about firm activities.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that proposed and tested a multi-level framework for corporate transparency and disclosure practices. In addition, this study is also among the very few studies that use financial sectors as a sample, in particular, and media coverage, specifically, thus adding some value to the limited literature.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 5 March 2021

Muhammad Bilal Farooq, Rashid Zaman, Dania Sarraj and Fahad Khalid

This paper aims to evaluate the extent of materiality assessment disclosures in sustainability reports and their determinants. The study examines the disclosure practices…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the extent of materiality assessment disclosures in sustainability reports and their determinants. The study examines the disclosure practices of listed companies based in the member states of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, colloquially referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the materiality assessment disclosures were scored through a content analysis of sustainability reports published by listed GCC companies during a five-year period from 2013 to 2017. Second, a fixed effect ordered logic regression was used to examine the determinants of materiality assessment disclosures.

Findings

While sustainability reporting rates improved across the sample period, a significant majority of listed GCC companies do not engage in sustainability reporting. The use of internationally recognised standards has also declined. While reporters provide more information on their materiality assessment, the number of sustainability reports that offer information on how the reporter identifies material issues has declined. These trends potentially indicate the existence of managerial capture. Materiality assessment disclosure scores are positively influenced by higher financial performance (Return on Assets), lower leverage and better corporate governance. However, company size and market-to-book ratio do not influence materiality assessment disclosures.

Practical implications

The findings may prove useful to managers responsible for preparing sustainability reports who can benefit from the examples of materiality assessment disclosures. An evaluation of the materiality assessment should be included in the scope of assurance engagements and practitioners can use the examples of best practice when evaluating sustainability reports. Stock exchanges may consider developing improved corporate governance guidelines as these will lead to materiality assessment disclosures.

Social implications

The findings may assist in improving sustainability reporting quality, through better materiality assessment disclosures. This will allow corporate stakeholders to evaluate the reporting entities underlying processes, which leads to transparency and corporate accountability. Improved corporate sustainability reporting supports the GCC commitment to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and transition to sustainable development.

Originality/value

This study addresses the call for greater research examining materiality within a sustainability reporting context. This is the first paper to examine sustainability reporting quality in the GCC region, focussing particularly on materiality assessment disclosures.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Muhammad Bilal Farooq, Rashid Zaman and Muhammad Nadeem

This study aims to evaluate corporate sustainability integration by evaluating corporate practices against the sustainability principles of inclusivity, materiality…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate corporate sustainability integration by evaluating corporate practices against the sustainability principles of inclusivity, materiality, responsiveness and impact outlined in AccountAbility’s AA1000 Accountability Principles (AA1000AP) standard.

Design/methodology/approach

Data comprise 12 semi-structured interviews with senior managers of listed New Zealand companies. Findings are evaluated against AccountAbility’s principles of inclusivity, materiality, responsiveness and impact, which are based on a normative view of stakeholder theory.

Findings

In terms of inclusivity, stakeholder engagement is primarily monologic and is directed more towards traditional stakeholder groups. However, social media, which is gaining popularity, has the potential to facilitate greater dialogic stakeholder engagement. While most companies undertake a materiality assessment (with varying degrees of rigour) to support sustainability reporting, only some use it to drive planning and decision-making. Companies demonstrate responsiveness to stakeholder concerns through corporate governance and sustainability initiatives. Companies are monitoring and measuring their impact on stakeholders using sustainability key performance indicators (KPIs). However, measuring traditional metrics is easier than measuring areas such as the community. In rare instances, the executive’s remuneration is linked to these sustainability KPIs.

Practical implications

The study findings offer useful examples of the integration of sustainability into corporate processes and systems. Practitioners may find the insights useful in understanding how sustainability is currently being integrated into corporate practices by best practice New Zealand companies. Regulators may consider incorporating AA1000AP into their corporate governance guidelines. Finally, academics may find the study useful for teaching business and accounting courses and to guide the next generation of business managers.

Originality/value

First, the study brings together four streams of research on how sustainability reports are prepared (inclusivity, materiality, responsiveness and impact) in a single study. Second, the findings offer novel insights by evaluating corporate sustainability against the requirements of a standard that has received little academic attention.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Rashid Zaman, Jamal Roudaki and Muhammad Nadeem

The purpose of this study is to present and test a conceptual framework that describes the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba, zakat and mafsadah and their influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present and test a conceptual framework that describes the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba, zakat and mafsadah and their influence on the adoption of firms’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied structural equation modelling to empirically test the proposed model on a sample of 109 Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) listed firms.

Findings

The study finds that the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba and mafsadah have a positive influence on the adoption of CSR practices, thus confirming the two study hypotheses. However, the authors did not find any significant influence of the zakat parameter on the adoption of firms’ CSR practices.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the Islamic religious concept and only surveyed one stakeholder group, i.e. firms’ managers in the Pakistani context. The authors recommend that future studies should look beyond a single religion with the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in a cross-country setting.

Practical implications

The findings possess important policy implication for regulators, stakeholders and practitioners, as the authors demonstrate that different parameters of religiosity are related to CSR practices and these parameters can be used as a substitute for and complement legal institutions in promoting and developing CSR practices.

Social implications

The stakeholders’ particular investors and other market participants should be aware of the degree of religiousness and the CSR nexus, as surveyed manger responses in PSX listed firms indicate that better religious firms seem to place more emphasis on social responsibility obligations.

Originality/value

This study is among few studies that propose a comprehensive conceptual Islamic religiosity framework to evaluate the influence of a firm’s Islamic religiosity on CSR best practices. It differs from the past studies that were either on Islamic financial institutes or examined the religious influence on a firm’s economic behaviours.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Muhammad Nadeem, Tracy-Anne De Silva, Christopher Gan and Rashid Zaman

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between boardroom gender diversity and intellectual capital (IC) efficiency in China – while the previous literature…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between boardroom gender diversity and intellectual capital (IC) efficiency in China – while the previous literature focuses only on traditional accounting-based performance measures such as return on assets or Tobin’s Q.

Design/methodology/approach

A well-developed Arrelano–Bond generalised method of moment (GMM) is applied to account for endogeneity – mainly because of simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. Moreover, this study uses an adjusted-value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) model to measure the IC efficiency of 906 Chinese listed firms for 2010-2014.

Findings

The empirical analysis shows a significant relationship between gender diversity and IC efficiency, in static ordinary least square estimation, but this disappears when endogeneity is accounted for using dynamic GMM. This insignificant relationship remains consistent, even when two alternative proxies of gender diversity, i.e. the Blau index and the women dummy, are used.

Practical implications

This study provides some useful insights into the traditional Chinese corporate structure where females cannot use their powers to bring corporate changes in firms. The findings show that gender-related stereotypical attitudes continue to exist in China. The regulators, therefore, should look into strengthening gender related regulations – which are currently non-existent in China.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to investigate the relationship between gender diversity and IC efficiency in China using the A-VAIC model and GMM to mitigate endogeneity.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Sudhakar Patra

This chapter analyzes the impact of terrorism in South Asian countries. The study is based on secondary data collected from South Asian Report, crime records, South Asia…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the impact of terrorism in South Asian countries. The study is based on secondary data collected from South Asian Report, crime records, South Asia Terrorism Portal, and other reports. Descriptive statistics of South Asia shows that out of the total deaths due to terrorism, 52.63 percent of the deaths occurred among terrorists, 35.22 percent civilians, and only 12.15 percent among the security forces (SFs). Human Development Index (HDI) and total number of fatalities in the region are highly correlated with an expected negative sign. This means that terrorist activities have adversely affected human development in the South Asian region. Besides, human development of the SFs has been highly hampered by their fatalities, with that of terrorists being relatively low. Civilians are relatively less affected by the fatalities as the correlation results show a moderate (−0.543) value. Total number of deaths due to terrorism in India was 21,942 between 2005 and 2018 but was 57,840 in Pakistan, which is substantially higher compared to India. The number of deaths of civilians, SFs, and terrorists in Pakistan is almost double that of India during the same period. In India, civilian deaths due to terrorism have significantly reduced over time. In Pakistan, civilian deaths have increased from 2005 to 2013, thereafter reducing. Terrorist groups have been subjected to major loss due to more deaths among them. With regard to terrorism, Pakistan is the most critical country in the South Asian region. Regional cooperation in South Asia and multilateral discussions can reduce terrorism in this region.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Sasmoko, Muhammad Saeed Lodhi, Abdul Rashid Abdul Aziz, Nur Fatihah Abdullah Bandar, Rahimah Embong, Mohd Khata Jabor, Siti Nisrin Mohd Anis and Khalid Zaman

The study aims to analyze the role of coronavirus testing capacity to possibly reduce the case fatality ratio (CFR) in a large cross-section of countries. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyze the role of coronavirus testing capacity to possibly reduce the case fatality ratio (CFR) in a large cross-section of countries. The study controlled health-care expenditures, logistics performance index (LPI), carbon damages, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) to understand the nature of causation between the CFR and stated factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a cross-sectional regression apparatus for coefficient estimates and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) for forecasting relationships between the variables over time.

Findings

The results confirmed the W-shaped relationship between CFR and case-to-test ratio (CTR) in the presence of a LPI that exacerbates the CFR cases across countries. The VDA estimates suggest that carbon damages, logistics activities, and CSR are likely to influence CFR over time.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study is believed to be the first study that assesses the W-shaped relationship between the CFR and CTR in the presence of dynamic variables, which helps to formulate long-term sustainable health-care policies worldwide.

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Abdul Rashid, Farooq Ahmad, Sarir Ud Din and Shar Zaman

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a panel quantile regression approach for a sample of 50 developing countries. The study also applies panel co-integration (Kao residual co-integration test) in order to examine the long-run relationship between CP and IN.

Findings

This paper using a panel quantile regression approach shows that the high incidence of IFS in an economy marginalizes CP's positive effect because it works as a source of poor peoples' livelihood and skillful individuals. The spread of IFSs in the developing economies may raise earnings among groups and individuals who remain unemployed. Moreover, the results show that CP creates asymmetry in income distribution; fascinatingly, the asymmetric income distribution is high when CP is at higher percentiles.

Research limitations/implications

Due to non-availability of IFS, we restrict our analysis up to 50 developing countries.

Practical implications

CP devastates the effectiveness of institutions over time. Therefore, the government should have to take bold steps to reduce CP in society. Another policy implication of this study is that the government should reduce CP to decrease IN in less developing countries. Moreover, to increase the net base, the authorities need to bring IFS under the umbrella of regulation to avoid inequality in society. In developing economies, a higher part of labor force is related to IFS; therefore, our findings suggest a dire need to reduce labor exploitation in IFS. The policymakers can reduce labor exploitation by reducing the size of IFS, which ultimately reduces IN.

Social implications

On the basis of the authors’ findings, this paper further suggests that it is mandatory for government to reduce CP in order to reduce IN. Moreover, to reduce IN, one needs to reduce the size of IFS.

Originality/value

This study is unique as it is the first that examined the role of IFS in establishing the effect of CP on IN for developing countries at different percentiles.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Rita Yi Man Li, Li Meng, Tat Ho Leung, Jian Zuo, Beiqi Tang and Yuan Wang

The circular economy (CE) proposes that all materials flow in a close-looped system. Waste generated by one production stage may be useful in another. Thus, the idea of a…

Abstract

The circular economy (CE) proposes that all materials flow in a close-looped system. Waste generated by one production stage may be useful in another. Thus, the idea of a CE is linked to the goal of zero waste (ZW) and promotes a range of sustainable economic, social and environmental benefits in each sector. When we apply this to construction waste management, waste can be managed through reducing, recycling, upcycling and reusing. However, there is an inevitable cost implication associated with this process due to the additional requirement of inventory and waste processing, and this becomes a disincentive to implementing the CE. Formal institutions, referring here to legal rules and regulations, play a critical role in motivating firms and individuals towards a CE. As different countries have different government rules and regulations, and there is limited research on their differences, we review Asia’s and Europe’s legal rules and regulations relevant to the goal of ZW and CE in the construction sector.

Details

Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-620-4

Keywords

1 – 10 of 157