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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Thomas Salzberger and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from standard procedures based on CFA methods.

Design/methodology/approach

Sinkovics et al.'s data on technophobia was used and re‐evaluated using both classical test theory (CTT) (multiple‐group structural equations modelling) and Rasch measurement theory.

Findings

Data equivalence in particular and measurement in general cannot be addressed without reference to theory. While both procedures can be considered best practice approaches within their respective theoretical foundation of measurement, the Rasch model provides some theoretical virtues. Measurement derived from data that fit the Rasch model seems to be approximated by classical procedures reasonably well. However, the reverse is not necessarily true.

Practical implications

The more widespread application of Rasch models would lead to a stronger justification of measurement, in particular, in cross‐cultural studies but also whenever measures of individual respondents are of interest.

Originality/value

Measurement models outside the framework of CTT are still scarce exceptions in marketing research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Carolin Schellhorn and Rajneesh Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate firm financial success across a broad range of performance measures and identify areas of the performance spectrum for which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate firm financial success across a broad range of performance measures and identify areas of the performance spectrum for which positive results were most difficult to achieve. Simultaneously, the authors identify the firms that most frequently ranked among the top five in terms of composite financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The dichotomous Rasch model was applied to 13 financial ratios for two industries for the years 2002‐2011. Of these ratios, the authors identify those that are consistent with the requirements of the Rasch model and suitable for ranking composite firm financial performance in each industry during the sample years. Ratio difficulty rankings are obtained, along with firm rankings reflecting managers' ability to achieve broad‐based financial success.

Findings

For the Foods and Aerospace/Defense industries during 2002‐2011, above average performance was most difficult to achieve in the areas of liquidity, financial leverage, and market valuation. Above average profitability and returns on investment seem to have been easier performance targets during this sample period. The authors also list the ticker symbols of firms with managers who consistently achieved top overall financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

The performance data for each industry and time period have to fit the requirements of the Rasch model. In addition, it must be possible to translate continuous metric readings into binary measures without losing relevant information. Future research might explore the use of more sophisticated Rasch models, measures of non‐financial firm performance dimensions, additional industries and time periods.

Practical implications

This research offers managers, investors and regulators a fresh perspective on the evaluation of firm financial performance and managerial ability.

Social implications

Rasch models are widely used in the human sciences. Application of this methodology to firms offers a more comprehensive view of firm performance and may reveal factors relevant to firm valuation that have previously been ignored, thus possibly impacting the allocation of capital across firms and industries.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this research represents a first attempt to apply the Rasch approach to an evaluation of managerial ability as reflected in a firm's overall financial performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Han Soo Kim, Minsoo Kang and Minjung Kim

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the measurement qualities of the newly modified rating scale option using Rasch analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on the Rasch analysis to validate the SFQ. A series of studies are performed based on analysis procedures for the responses from 244 (study 1) and 477 (study 2) participants.

Findings

The results revealed that the original SFQ consisting of the eight-category rating scale is flagged due to irregular observation distribution and disordering of thresholds, whereas both six-category and seven-category rating scales meet the guidelines for the optimal categorization. However, only the seven-category rating scale showed desirable model-data fit indices. Furthermore, the results of the Rasch calibration model showed that all items of the SFQ have large variability, and a person's ability level varied moderately along the continuum.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, examining the psychometric properties of the SFQ, the current study provides information about the optimal categorization and presents a novel reconstruction category in measuring individuals' sport fandom level. In measuring the level of sport fandom, the authors suggest the use of a seven-category rating scale that the current study found to exhibit reliability and construct validity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Thomas Salzberger, Hartmut H. Holzmüller and Anne Souchon

Measures are comparable if and only if measurement equivalence has been demonstrated. Although comparability and equivalence of measures are sometimes used…

Abstract

Measures are comparable if and only if measurement equivalence has been demonstrated. Although comparability and equivalence of measures are sometimes used interchangeably, we advocate a subtle but important difference in meaning. Comparability implies that measures from one group can be compared with measures from another group. It is a property of the measures, which is given or not. In particular, comparability presumes valid measures within each group compared. Measurement equivalence, by contrast, refers to the way measures are derived and estimated. It is intrinsically tied to the underlying theory of measurement. Thus, measurement equivalence cannot be dealt with in isolation. Its assessment has to be incorporated into the theoretical framework of measurement. Measurement equivalence is closely connected to construct validity for it refers to the way manifest indicators are related to the latent variable, within a particular culture and across different cultures. From this it follows that equivalence cannot, or should not, be treated as a separate issue but as a constitutive element of validity. A discussion of measurement equivalence without addressing validity would be incomplete.

Details

New Challenges to International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-469-6

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Xinghua Wang

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mobile social networking service (SNS) addiction scale to measure respondents’ addiction levels.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mobile social networking service (SNS) addiction scale to measure respondents’ addiction levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the existing literature on the components model of addiction by Griffiths (2005) and mobile SNS addiction, an initial scale in a five-point Likert-format was developed. It was refined through the pilot study with 100 participants and the main study with 423 participants utilizing factor analysis and Rasch analysis.

Findings

Mobile SNS addiction as a behavioral addiction, demonstrated six addiction symptoms: modification, salience, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse, which were interrelated with each other. The mobile SNS addiction scale developed in this study was found to be psychometrically robust and unidimensional.

Practical implications

The mobile SNS addiction scale consists of nine items, thus making it easier and more convenient to be applied to academic research and clinical practice.

Originality/value

The combined use of factor analysis and the Rasch model could largely reduce potential negative effects associated with limitations of classical test theory and improve the chance of developing a psychometrically robust instrument. The mobile SNS addiction scale covers a range of types of SNSs, thus being more generic. The items in the scale are unidimensionally loaded on the latent construct of mobile SNS addiction and demonstrate measurement invariance across respondents of different demographics.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Juan Ramón Oreja‐Rodríguez and Vanessa Yanes‐Estévez

This paper aims to propose a method for the longitudinal analysis of the environment considering both firms' and environmental variables.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a method for the longitudinal analysis of the environment considering both firms' and environmental variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a sample of firms in Canary Islands (Spain) for 2000 and 2003. Managerial perceptions are considered, based on the cognitive perspective. The measurements used are the result of applying the Rasch model and the rack and stack analyses. This approach provides information about how dynamic the firms perceive the environment and also about how the items are perceived.

Findings

The results show that most firms perceive that dynamism increased between 2000 and 2003. From the perspective of the environmental variables, the most dynamic are perceived to be competition, demand, consumer motivation and technological resources.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a longitudinal method for environmental scanning that include both firms' and environmental variables. It considers managerial perceptions, that is the information entering the decision making process. It is one of the first papers to study environmental scanning with Rasch model and one of the few about longitudinal environmental analyses. It opens a field of research and applications of the Rasch model in the management literature.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Joseph Chow, Ada Tse and Christine Armatas

The purpose of this paper is to report undergraduate students’ learning gains in six areas of generic skills. The paper reports on students’ responses to the First Year…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report undergraduate students’ learning gains in six areas of generic skills. The paper reports on students’ responses to the First Year Experience (FYE) Survey completed at the end of their first year and Graduating Student Survey (GSS) in the final semester of their final year.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a longitudinal design was applied in data collection, analysis and reporting of assessment if student learning gains. The undergraduate students who were the first cohort of four-year curriculum students in a Hong Kong university were selected as the sample. Repeated measures of reported learning gains of a longitudinal sample based on stacking of both FYE and GSS data were analysed using the Rasch model.

Findings

The results showed that the scale for measuring the six areas of generic skills had high reliability and good person separation. Comparison of repeated measures from the same group of students at the two time points were examined to explore whether there is growth in the generic skills during their university studies.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study was the relatively small sample size of 359 students in one higher education institution.

Practical implications

The findings of the study provide insight into conceptual understanding and measurement of university student learning gains.

Originality/value

Whilst several studies have investigated university student learning gains, there is limited research which explores the use Rasch modelling in assessment of student learning gains in multiple areas towards completion of their undergraduate studies.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Demetris Vrontis, Alkis Thrassou and Iasonas Lamprianou

The purpose of this paper is to position multinational companies on a linear continuum indicating their overall attitude towards standardisation/adaptation, examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to position multinational companies on a linear continuum indicating their overall attitude towards standardisation/adaptation, examines the reasons influencing multinational companies' tactical (7Ps – marketing mix) behaviour towards it, and finally presents the underlying managerial implications of the results.

Design/methodology/approach

A rating scale Rasch model is used in order to place the multinational companies' attitude towards standardisation and adaptation on a linear continuum. Structural equation modelling is subsequently used in order to investigate the relationship between the adaptation and standardisation variable against other variables. An extensive literature review is also undertaken to provide the theoretical foundation.

Findings

The paper corroborates the findings of past research by placing multinational companies on a linear continuum; by identifying their overall attitude towards adaptation/standardization; and by describing the relationship between AdaptStand and other variables. Furthermore, it categorises the reasons pulling towards adaptation or standardisation into “significant” and “peripheral”; and provides valuable insights towards practical application.

Practical implications

The paper provides marketing researchers and practitioners with an overview of the main factors that influence marketing tactical behaviour in international markets. Additionally, the research transcends descriptive analysis to identify vital behavioural issues and to prescribe marketing approaches regarding internationalisation.

Originality/value

Though the subject of “adaptation versus standardisation” has been extensively researched, this paper provides original work through in‐depth quantitative analysis of a sufficient sample of multinational companies. The paper reaches specific and explicit conclusions that scientifically test existing theory on the subject, categorise factors according to their significance in the adaptation/standardisation decision process and offer valuable prescriptions of marketing tactics based on the findings.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Hsin-Li Chang and Jinn-Guang Wu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to measure the difficulties of items required to achieve Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) validation and investigated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to measure the difficulties of items required to achieve Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) validation and investigated companies’ abilities to obtain AEO certification based on an empirical analysis of 201 supply chain-related companies in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

The Rasch model was applied to convert the ordinal raw data collected from questionnaire surveys into values on an interval scale to measure companies’ abilities and item difficulties for AEO validation. The model was estimated using WINSTEP, which is an iterative computer program.

Findings

The study results show that self-risk assessment and the formulation of security policies are the most difficult items to accomplish for AEO validation, whereas establishing security facilities is the easiest task to accomplish. Additionally, a company’s ability to obtain AEO validation was found to be positively correlated with a company’s turnover volume and its number of staff.

Research limitations/implications

This research focusses on supply chain-related companies in Taiwan. Thus, the findings may not be transferable directly to other companies, circumstances, or countries.

Practical implications

Using the Rasch analysis, both company’s abilities and item difficulties could be measured numerically and compared meaningfully. The study results could be used as references for the government to create polices to guide companies to meet the requirements of AEO validation in the future.

Social implications

According to the study results, only 43.28 percent of the respondent companies have sufficient confidence to completely comply with all 26 security items for AEO validation; this implies that AEO validation criteria should be adjusted or some programs should be provided by the government to improve companies’ abilities for AEO validation, if the government genuinely wants to effectively encourage companies to obtain AEO certification.

Originality/value

This study introduced a method to estimate items’ difficulties and companies’ abilities for AEO validation with values on a consistent interval scale. Thus, a comparison between companies’ abilities and items’ difficulties could be graphically illustrated. The results of this study provide a useful tool to investigate whether the AEO validation criteria are appropriate for the potential companies that can apply for AEO validation.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2012

David V. Day and Matthew F. Barney

This chapter presents Infosys’ approach to leader development that includes the practical benefits of psychometric and statistical methods commonly used by other…

Abstract

This chapter presents Infosys’ approach to leader development that includes the practical benefits of psychometric and statistical methods commonly used by other disciplines, such as Rasch measurement and latent growth modeling. Infosys is beginning to use these with other individualized leader development practices such as coaching, intervention bundling, and evaluation. When combined, these elements have the potential to personalize developmental processes to each leader and improve microlevel leadership theory with the overarching purpose of enhancing global leadership at Infosys and promoting the science of individual leader development.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-002-5

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