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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Thomas Salzberger and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from…

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1913

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the suitability of the Rasch model for establishing data equivalence. The results based on a real data set are contrasted with findings from standard procedures based on CFA methods.

Design/methodology/approach

Sinkovics et al.'s data on technophobia was used and re‐evaluated using both classical test theory (CTT) (multiple‐group structural equations modelling) and Rasch measurement theory.

Findings

Data equivalence in particular and measurement in general cannot be addressed without reference to theory. While both procedures can be considered best practice approaches within their respective theoretical foundation of measurement, the Rasch model provides some theoretical virtues. Measurement derived from data that fit the Rasch model seems to be approximated by classical procedures reasonably well. However, the reverse is not necessarily true.

Practical implications

The more widespread application of Rasch models would lead to a stronger justification of measurement, in particular, in cross‐cultural studies but also whenever measures of individual respondents are of interest.

Originality/value

Measurement models outside the framework of CTT are still scarce exceptions in marketing research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Han Soo Kim, Minsoo Kang and Minjung Kim

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the…

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21

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the category function of the sport fandom questionnaire (SFQ), determine the optimal categorization of the SFQ and calibrate the measurement qualities of the newly modified rating scale option using Rasch analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on the Rasch analysis to validate the SFQ. A series of studies are performed based on analysis procedures for the responses from 244 (study 1) and 477 (study 2) participants.

Findings

The results revealed that the original SFQ consisting of the eight-category rating scale is flagged due to irregular observation distribution and disordering of thresholds, whereas both six-category and seven-category rating scales meet the guidelines for the optimal categorization. However, only the seven-category rating scale showed desirable model-data fit indices. Furthermore, the results of the Rasch calibration model showed that all items of the SFQ have large variability, and a person's ability level varied moderately along the continuum.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, examining the psychometric properties of the SFQ, the current study provides information about the optimal categorization and presents a novel reconstruction category in measuring individuals' sport fandom level. In measuring the level of sport fandom, the authors suggest the use of a seven-category rating scale that the current study found to exhibit reliability and construct validity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2017

Mona Isa, Mazlan Abu Bakar, Mohamad Sufian Hasim, Mohd Khairul Anuar, Ibrahim Sipan and Mohd Zali Mohd Nor

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to verify the quality of the survey instrument of office investors in rationalising green office building investment in the city of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to verify the quality of the survey instrument of office investors in rationalising green office building investment in the city of Kuala Lumpur using the Rasch measurement method. It investigates whether the quality of the data obtained from the survey is statistically acceptable and aims to ensure that the scales used are based on the same measurement model and fit with the Rasch model.

Design/methodology/approach

In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consisting of six sections. Some 394 questionnaires were distributed, and in total, 106 responses were received from office investors who own and lease office buildings in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The data obtained from this survey were entered into Rasch software, and the analysis aims to consider three main parameters, specifically: point measure correlation 0.32 < x < 0.8; outfit mean squared 0.5 < y < 1.5; and outfit z-standard −2 < z < 2. It also provides a separable or independent measurement instrument for the parameters of the research object.

Findings

The analysis performed using the Rasch model confirmed that all items in the questionnaire construct were statistically reliable and valid. The Rasch analysis consists of, namely, the summary statistics; item unidimensionality to provide interval measures of item endorsements and fit statistics on persons involved; and items for further investigation. Unidimensionality, as a pre-requisite to the Rasch analysis, provides statistics on whether the items are on the same latent variable intended by the instrument. The results were also supported by Cronbach’s alpha at 0.91 which showed excellent reliability for person data. The results showed that the summary statistics, unidimensionality and item fit analysis were excellent.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the application of the Rasch analysis as a provision for a new dimension and technique in examining data reliability and validity of the instrument.

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Juan Ramón Oreja‐Rodríguez and Vanessa Yanes‐Estévez

This paper aims to propose a method for the longitudinal analysis of the environment considering both firms' and environmental variables.

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4203

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a method for the longitudinal analysis of the environment considering both firms' and environmental variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a sample of firms in Canary Islands (Spain) for 2000 and 2003. Managerial perceptions are considered, based on the cognitive perspective. The measurements used are the result of applying the Rasch model and the rack and stack analyses. This approach provides information about how dynamic the firms perceive the environment and also about how the items are perceived.

Findings

The results show that most firms perceive that dynamism increased between 2000 and 2003. From the perspective of the environmental variables, the most dynamic are perceived to be competition, demand, consumer motivation and technological resources.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a longitudinal method for environmental scanning that include both firms' and environmental variables. It considers managerial perceptions, that is the information entering the decision making process. It is one of the first papers to study environmental scanning with Rasch model and one of the few about longitudinal environmental analyses. It opens a field of research and applications of the Rasch model in the management literature.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Xinghua Wang

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mobile social networking service (SNS) addiction scale to measure respondents’ addiction levels.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mobile social networking service (SNS) addiction scale to measure respondents’ addiction levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the existing literature on the components model of addiction by Griffiths (2005) and mobile SNS addiction, an initial scale in a five-point Likert-format was developed. It was refined through the pilot study with 100 participants and the main study with 423 participants utilizing factor analysis and Rasch analysis.

Findings

Mobile SNS addiction as a behavioral addiction, demonstrated six addiction symptoms: modification, salience, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse, which were interrelated with each other. The mobile SNS addiction scale developed in this study was found to be psychometrically robust and unidimensional.

Practical implications

The mobile SNS addiction scale consists of nine items, thus making it easier and more convenient to be applied to academic research and clinical practice.

Originality/value

The combined use of factor analysis and the Rasch model could largely reduce potential negative effects associated with limitations of classical test theory and improve the chance of developing a psychometrically robust instrument. The mobile SNS addiction scale covers a range of types of SNSs, thus being more generic. The items in the scale are unidimensionally loaded on the latent construct of mobile SNS addiction and demonstrate measurement invariance across respondents of different demographics.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Annika Linsner, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann and Popi Sotiriadou

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a practical tool (the Athlete Brand Identity Scale) to measure how closely an athlete's personal brand identity is aligned with their perceived brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

Reference to existing athlete branding measurement tools and consultation with ten athlete experts generated (74) items considered important to an athlete brand. Two different response scales were then used to test those items in wider surveys of athletes and consumers. This allowed for further scale development and measurement of congruence between an athlete's self-image and the brand image held by consumers (within the same survey). Factor analysis and Rasch analysis were carried out to refine the item pool and assess item measurement properties to establish a concise scale for determining athlete brand identity.

Findings

Results show successful identification of four dimensions of athlete brand identity measurement: athletic integrity, athletic success, fan engagement and character traits, informed development of the Athlete Brand Identity Scale (ABIdS). The unique and significant aspect of the ABIdS is its capacity to incorporate the athlete's perspective into brand management.

Practical implications

The ABIdS can be utilised by early-career athletes to plan and prioritise branding efforts whilst established athletes can identify incongruence between self-image and consumer perceptions. Such gaps can be evaluated and branding activities modified accordingly. This will enable athletes to better access corporate support/sponsorship thereby reducing reliance on public funds.

Originality/value

The major difference between the ABIdS and other existing scales in the athlete brand research domain is the focus on the athlete perspective, as opposed to the consumer perspectives. Evaluating consumer perspectives does not explain how athletes perceive their own brand or how their own perception of their brand compares to that of people external to the brand (fans and consumers). The ABIdS developed in this study has the potential to achieve this objective as its design was driven by athlete perceptions but tested on both athletes and consumers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Linda Koopmans, Claire Bernaards, Vincent Hildebrandt, Stef van Buuren, Allard J. van der Beek and Henrica C.W. de Vet

The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance…

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11341

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four‐dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

After pilot‐testing, the 47‐item IWPQ was field‐tested amongst a representative sample of 1,181 Dutch blue, pink, and white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to examine whether the four‐dimensional conceptual framework could be confirmed. Rasch analysis was used to examine the functioning of the items in more detail. Finally, it was examined whether generic scales could be constructed.

Findings

A generic, three‐dimensional conceptual framework was identified, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior. Generic, short scales could be constructed that fitted the Rasch model.

Research limitations/implications

A generic, short questionnaire can be used to measure individual work performance across occupational sectors. In future versions of the IWPQ, more difficult items should be added to improve discriminative ability at the high ranges of the scale.

Originality/value

This study shows that, using Rasch analysis, a generic and short questionnaire can be used to measure individual work performance.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

John Ehrich, Steven Howard, James Tognolini and Sahar Bokosmaty

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of failing to psychometrically test questionnaire instruments when measuring university students’ attitudes towards…

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1127

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of failing to psychometrically test questionnaire instruments when measuring university students’ attitudes towards plagiarism. These issues are highlighted by a psychometric evaluation of a commonly used (but previously untested) plagiarism attitudinal scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The importance of psychometric testing is shown through an analysis of a commonly used scale using modern techniques (e.g. Rasch analysis) on 131 undergraduate education students at an Australian university.

Findings

Psychometric analysis revealed the scale to be unreliable in its present form. However, when reduced to an eight-item subscale it became marginally reliable.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of this paper is that questionnaire instruments cannot be assumed to function as they are intended without thorough psychometric testing.

Practical implications

The paper offers valuable insight into the psychometric properties of a previously untested but commonly used plagiarism attitudinal scale.

Originality/value

The paper offers a straightforward and easy to understand introduction to researchers in higher education who use questionnaires/surveys in their research but lack an understanding of why psychometric testing is so critical. While similar papers have been written in other fields which advocate psychometric approaches, such as Rasch analysis, this has not been the case in higher educational research (or mainstream educational research for that matter).

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Demetris Vrontis, Alkis Thrassou and Iasonas Lamprianou

The purpose of this paper is to position multinational companies on a linear continuum indicating their overall attitude towards standardisation/adaptation, examines the…

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42398

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to position multinational companies on a linear continuum indicating their overall attitude towards standardisation/adaptation, examines the reasons influencing multinational companies' tactical (7Ps – marketing mix) behaviour towards it, and finally presents the underlying managerial implications of the results.

Design/methodology/approach

A rating scale Rasch model is used in order to place the multinational companies' attitude towards standardisation and adaptation on a linear continuum. Structural equation modelling is subsequently used in order to investigate the relationship between the adaptation and standardisation variable against other variables. An extensive literature review is also undertaken to provide the theoretical foundation.

Findings

The paper corroborates the findings of past research by placing multinational companies on a linear continuum; by identifying their overall attitude towards adaptation/standardization; and by describing the relationship between AdaptStand and other variables. Furthermore, it categorises the reasons pulling towards adaptation or standardisation into “significant” and “peripheral”; and provides valuable insights towards practical application.

Practical implications

The paper provides marketing researchers and practitioners with an overview of the main factors that influence marketing tactical behaviour in international markets. Additionally, the research transcends descriptive analysis to identify vital behavioural issues and to prescribe marketing approaches regarding internationalisation.

Originality/value

Though the subject of “adaptation versus standardisation” has been extensively researched, this paper provides original work through in‐depth quantitative analysis of a sufficient sample of multinational companies. The paper reaches specific and explicit conclusions that scientifically test existing theory on the subject, categorise factors according to their significance in the adaptation/standardisation decision process and offer valuable prescriptions of marketing tactics based on the findings.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Chin Mun Wong, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Rozita Hod, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh and Sazaly Abu Bakar

This study aims to validate the English version of a WHO-adapted questionnaire: Zika infection awareness/knowledge questionnaire using a unique dual-approach validation model.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to validate the English version of a WHO-adapted questionnaire: Zika infection awareness/knowledge questionnaire using a unique dual-approach validation model.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional pilot study of 30 adult respondents in Malaysia completed the self-administered questionnaire on knowledge and perception to Zika infection. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of SPSS and Rasch partial credit. Reliability is tested using pKR20 and Cronbach’s alpha.

Findings

Knowledge construct was unidimensional, good model fit, easy to endorse and well discriminative. Five-rating Likert scale for perception domain was appropriate. Knowledge domain should be separated into 6 level of difficulties. Perception domain should remain as one construct. Knowledge domain was highly reliability (pKR20 = 0.96), perception domain was fairly reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.641). Respondent's ability to answer knowledge domain and perception domain were separated into 3 and 4 levels.

Research limitations/implications

Small sample size may affect factor analysis.

Practical implications

The questionnaire has good psychometric properties to measure the knowledge and perception of Zika infection among Malaysian community.

Social implications

The questionnaire helped to gauge knowledge and perception of the general community in Malaysia to aid preparation of health education tool for Zika infection.

Originality/value

This paper validated questionnaire with two biostatistical software programs in bidirectional approach – items difficulty and respondents' ability – is the first field test of WHO questionnaire among general population in Southeast Asia.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

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