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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

111

Abstract

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 76 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Mengqi Yuan and David Bourell

– This paper aims to analyze the additive manufacturing orientation effect of laser sintered polyamide 12 (PA 12) optically translucent parts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the additive manufacturing orientation effect of laser sintered polyamide 12 (PA 12) optically translucent parts.

Design/methodology/approach

Plates with small features, wedges and lithophanes were laser sintered on a SinterStation HiQ™ in different orientations using PA 12. Lithophane performance was assessed using a Picker 240050 X-ray view/light box. All parts were examined using stereomicroscopy to capture the small features.

Findings

The quality of the lithophane image was substantially improved by orienting the flat plate side to the incident backlit light. Sintering in the ZX/ZY plane significantly increased the contrast and resolution compared to sintering in the XY plane. The thinnest feature thickness possible in the SinterStation HiQ is in the XY plane 0.13 mm, and it is 0.57 mm when manufacturing in the ZX/ZY plane.

Research limitations/implications

The laser spot size and other machine parameters were not changeable, which limited the manufacturing resolution. Oblique, non-orthogonal orientations were not investigated.

Originality/value

This is a first effort to investigate the manufacturing orientation effect of laser sintered polyamide optically translucent parts. The manufacturing resolutions on different planes were defined.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Mengqi Yuan and David L. Bourell

The purpose of this paper is to report selected optical properties of laser sintered polyamide 12 blank plates under different monochromatic and white light conditions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report selected optical properties of laser sintered polyamide 12 blank plates under different monochromatic and white light conditions and to apply these properties in production of laser sintered lithophanes.

Design/methodology/approach

A UNICO 1201E spectrophotometer was used to measure the transmittance of laser sintered polyamide 12 plates as a function of plate thickness. Monochromatic light-emitting diodes were used to assess the wavelength dependence on the transmission and contrast as captured by a SONY DSC-W55 camera.

Findings

The transmittance decreased with increasing plate thickness which varied significantly depending on the monochromatic wavelength. Highest transmission was observed using green light (525 nm) and poorest transmission was measured for yellow light (589 nm).

Research limitations/implications

There is a limit to the amount of contrast obtained in polyamide lithophanes because the thickness of the plates is limited to less than about 5 mm. Greater thickness results in discernible topology on the lithophane which impairs the quality of the image.

Originality/value

Light transmittance of polyamide 12 plates under different lighting conditions is reported and applied to optically defined laser sintered lithophanes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Scott Greenhalgh

Rapid prototyping and three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the direct creation of objects from 3D computer-aided design files. To identify the effects 3D printing may…

1863

Abstract

Purpose

Rapid prototyping and three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the direct creation of objects from 3D computer-aided design files. To identify the effects 3D printing may have on student experiences and the learning of the design process, students were asked to create a design and create a prototype of that design.

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows an experimental design involving four total courses of interior design students. After conceptualizing a design, students were randomly selected to either create the prototype by hand or given access to 3D printing equipment. The models were graded by three subject experts using a rubric that focused on three key aspects of the model project, namely, craftsmanship, design quality and scale (proportion).

Findings

All three measures produced significant mean differences with a medium effect size when comparing the 3D printed models to the traditionally built models. Additional observations provided insights into the design processes approached by students using hand-constructed and 3D printed modeling. The most notable difference was the propensity for curved and rectilinear shapes by available design technologies.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment showed that the design technology (3D printing) did have an impact on the designs students conceptualized. This suggests that students do connect ideation to implementation, and the availability of enabling technology impacts the design process. This research was conducted in an interior design environment and consists of primarily female students. The experimental research may be limited to design programs with similar student populations and levels of exposure to various design technologies.

Practical implications

This research is designed to provide instructors and programs valuable information when looking at implementing new design technologies into the curriculum. Instructors are made aware that new design technologies do impact student design strategies. Additionally, although certain design technologies allow for revisions, it was apparent that students continued to be resistant to revise their initial models suggesting instructors prepare to address this issue in instruction.

Social implications

There is a strong body of research indicating inequality in education where students have differing access to technologies in schools. This research shows that 3D printing, similar to many technologies in education, can impact the cognitive processes of content being learned.

Originality/value

There is limited research on how design technologies impact design cognition and the experiences of design students. This paper looked specifically at one design technology (3D printing/rapid prototyping) and how it impacts the processes and quality of design, in addition to the quality of design products (prototypes or models). Research such as this provides instructors and faculty members an insight into how design technologies impact their curriculum.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Charles Hull, Michael Feygin, Yehudah Baron, Roy Sanders, Emanuel Sachs, Allan Lightman and Terry Wohlers

Recent developments in rapid prototyping provide evidence of the maturing of some areas of application. New applications continue to surface and new systems/processes are…

2630

Abstract

Recent developments in rapid prototyping provide evidence of the maturing of some areas of application. New applications continue to surface and new systems/processes are being introduced on a regular basis. The Fifth International Conference on Rapid Prototyping (Dayton, Ohio, 1994) provided an opportunity to bring together leaders in the commercial development and application of RP technology and to hear their perspectives on the current capabilities and future directions. A “Manufacturers round table” provided the forum for the audience to submit questions. Relates participants’ responses.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Norman A. Waterman and Philip Dickens

Reviews, for the USA, Europe and Japan, the current state ofdevelopment and application of rapid prototyping techniques and theirimpact on time‐to‐market for new products…

1414

Abstract

Reviews, for the USA, Europe and Japan, the current state of development and application of rapid prototyping techniques and their impact on time‐to‐market for new products. These techniques, which are still undergoing rapid development, have already had a dramatic effect on reducing the time‐to‐market for new products by between 60 per cent and per cent and on reducing the cost‐to‐market by between 40 per cent and 70 per cent. Concludes that although the US is ahead of the rest of the world in terms of depth of experience and range of techniques, Europe and Japan are catching up fast in terms of experience and applications. Gives guidelines for the managers of manufacturing companies on the importance of the techniques, the selection of the most appropriate system and how to obtain most of the techniques adopted.

Details

World Class Design to Manufacture, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-3074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Ashok V. Kumar and Anirban Dutta

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation…

1140

Abstract

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation challenges. This technique is referred to here as the electrophotographic rapid prototyping (ERP). In this technique, powder is printed layer‐by‐layer in the shape of the cross‐sections of the part using electrophotography a very widely used non‐impact printing method. Each layer of powder is consolidated by fusing before the next layer of powder is printed. A fully automated test bed was constructed that consists of a printing system, fusing/heating plate, build platform that has two‐degrees of freedom as well as software that drives the system.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

David Bak

Rapid manufacturing – defined as the direct production of finished goods from a rapid prototyping device – remains at present more a goal than reality for industry. The…

18769

Abstract

Rapid manufacturing – defined as the direct production of finished goods from a rapid prototyping device – remains at present more a goal than reality for industry. The application of 3D printing technologies, however, promises to merge rapid prototyping capabilities with the high‐volume throughput of conventional manufacturing. Proponents believe that these processes may soon lead to the tooless production of finished goods and the mass production of individually customized parts.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Bo Li, Lifan Meng, Hongyu Wang, Jing Li and Chunmei Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of rapid prototyping eddy current sensors using 3D printing technology. Making full use of the advantages of 3D…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of rapid prototyping eddy current sensors using 3D printing technology. Making full use of the advantages of 3D printing, the authors study on a new method for fabrication of an eddy current sensor.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors establish a 3D model using SolidWorks. And the eddy current sensor is printed by the fused deposition modeling method.

Findings

Measurement results show that the 3D printing eddy current sensor has a wider linear measurement range and better linearity than the traditional manufacturing sensor. Compared to traditional eddy current sensor fabrication method, this 3D printed sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost, and the fabrication process is more convenient and faster.

Practical implications

This demonstrated 3D printing process can be applied to the 3D printing of sensors of more sophisticated structures that are difficult to fabricate using conventional techniques.

Originality/value

In this work, the process of rapid prototyping eddy current sensors using 3D printing is presented. Sensors fabricated with the 3D printing possess lots of merits than traditional manufactures. 3D printed sensors can be customized according to the configuration of the overall system, thus reducing the demand of sensor's rigid mounting interfaces. The 3D printing also reduce design costs as well as shortens the development cycle. This allows for quick translation of a design from concept to a useful device.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Victor A. Lifton, Gregory Lifton and Steve Simon

This study aims to investigate the options for additive rapid prototyping methods in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Additive rapid prototyping

3216

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the options for additive rapid prototyping methods in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Additive rapid prototyping technologies, such as stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS), all commonly known as three-dimensional (3D) printing methods, are reviewed and compared with the resolution requirements of the traditional MEMS fabrication methods.

Design/methodology/approach

In the 3D print approach, the entire assembly, parts and prototypes are built using various plastic and metal materials directly from the software file input, completely bypassing any additional processing steps. The review highlights their potential place in the overall process flow to reduce the complexity of traditional microfabrication and long processing cycles needed to test multiple prototypes before the final design is set.

Findings

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising manufacturing technique in micro-device technology.

Practical implications

In the current state of 3D printing, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices for fluid handling and manipulation appear to be the most compatible with the 3D print methods, given their fairly coarse minimum feature size of 50-500 μm. Future directions in the 3D materials and method development are identified, such as adhesion and material compatibility studies of the 3D print materials, wafer-level printing and conductive materials development. One of the most important goals should be the drive toward finer resolution and layer thickness (1-10 μm) to stimulate the use of the 3D printing in a wider array of MEMS devices.

Originality/value

The review combines two discrete disciplines, microfabrication and AM, and shows how microfabrication and micro-device commercialization may benefit from employing methods developed by the AM community.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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