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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

D. B Short, A. Sirinterlikci, P. Badger and B. Artieri

This study aims to investigate the potential impacts of rapid prototyping systems on the health and safety of operators and the environment, a growing concern given its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the potential impacts of rapid prototyping systems on the health and safety of operators and the environment, a growing concern given its wide-spread use in industry and academia.

Design/methodology/approach

Materials, processing and equipment features were used to identify potential health and safety risks and hazards, as well as environmental effects.

Findings

The study concludes with a “best practices” guide for rapid prototyping laboratories and service bureaus.

Originality/value

A thorough literature search revealed that Stephen M. Deak, the Rapid Prototyping Department Manager at Hasbro Inc., is the pioneer of the safety and health concerns in the rapid prototyping area. He is the only person to publish papers in this field in addition to these authors’ recent publications. His papers focused on the rapid prototyping laboratory safety guidelines and safe work practices in the rapid prototyping area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

David Bak

Rapid manufacturing – defined as the direct production of finished goods from a rapid prototyping device – remains at present more a goal than reality for industry. The…

Abstract

Rapid manufacturing – defined as the direct production of finished goods from a rapid prototyping device – remains at present more a goal than reality for industry. The application of 3D printing technologies, however, promises to merge rapid prototyping capabilities with the high‐volume throughput of conventional manufacturing. Proponents believe that these processes may soon lead to the tooless production of finished goods and the mass production of individually customized parts.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

R.S. Evans, D.L. Bourell, J.J. Beaman and M.I. Campbell

To review the initial phase of research for realizing an SLS‐based rapid manufacturing method for silicon carbide composites. The research was oriented toward actual…

Abstract

Purpose

To review the initial phase of research for realizing an SLS‐based rapid manufacturing method for silicon carbide composites. The research was oriented toward actual commercial fabrication of fully functional parts.

Design/methodology/approach

A screening method for materials in SLS was established using the operating parameters of the SLS machine, polymer analysis, heat transfer analysis and powder mechanics. The quality and potential application of the parts made during the research were assessed by rapid prototyping industry experts.

Findings

Thermosetting materials can be used as binders in SLS. Free‐standing metal infiltration is possible and yields near‐net shape parts. Polymer matrix composites can also be produced readily. The part quality in terms of dimensional stability, detail and surface finish were commensurate with current commercially available rapid prototyping materials.

Research limitations/implications

Although several binders were initially screened, only phenolic was explored as a binder material. The curing aspects were examined, but not the melt rheology. Glass and silicon carbide base materials were examined. Future work will include addition base, binder and infiltrant materials. Pursuing thermosets as neat resin systems on SLS is another future research element.

Practical implications

The search for new SLS materials should not be limited to thermoplastic materials. Indirect SLS processing offers a low cost means of achieving fully functional parts in support of rapid manufacturing.

Originality/value

This paper reports on what may be considered a platform technology for producing fully functional parts from SLS, a prominent rapid prototyping technique. It will be valuable to researchers and industrial practitioners of rapid prototyping technologies, particularly those interested in realizing commercially viable manufacturing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Shih-Hsuan Chiu, Ivan Ivan, Cheng-Lung Wu, Kun-Ting Chen, Sigit Tri Wicaksono and Hitoshi Takagi

Stereolithography is a well-established technique for producing complex part for rapid prototyping purpose by using UV or laser as a source for curing process. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Stereolithography is a well-established technique for producing complex part for rapid prototyping purpose by using UV or laser as a source for curing process. This technique has been implemented in a lot of industrial sectors. However, the parts fabricated by this technique exhibit low mechanical and thermal properties hindering a fast-growing application. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of digital light rapid prototyping (DLRP) system and investigate the effect of the addition of bamboo fiber with surface modification on improvement of mechanical properties of urethane diacrylate/bamboo composite.

Design/methodology/approach

Test specimens were fabricated using aliphatic urethane diacrylate photopolymer as matrix material and bamboo fiber as reinforce material. Adhesion between matrix and reinforce materials is a big issue in compositing, especially when handling bamboo as hydrophilic material and urethane diacrylate as hydrophobic material. To overcome this problem, two surface modifications of bamboo fiber, alkali treatment and silane treatment, were implemented.

Findings

As a result, bamboo fiber can increase mechanical properties of urethane diacrylate photopolymer fabricated by rapid prototyping system.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors investigate the effect of the addition of bamboo powder with surface modification on mechanical properties. Test specimens were fabricated using aliphatic urethane diacrylate photopolymer as matrix material and bamboo powder as reinforce material.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Uichung Cho, Kristin L. Wood and Richard H. Crawford

Functional testing with rapid prototypes is confined to certain areas due to a number of issues: the lack of a reliable similarity method that can solve distorted…

Abstract

Functional testing with rapid prototypes is confined to certain areas due to a number of issues: the lack of a reliable similarity method that can solve distorted similarity problems; limited material choices; range of prototype sizes; and distinct material structures between prototypes and actual products. Methods are thus needed to expand the application of functional testing with rapid prototypes, and thus potentially impact the performance and cycle times of current product development processes. In this context, an improved similarity method that utilizes a geometrically simple specimen pair is developed in this paper. A realistic numerical simulation and an experimental mold design example (using a selective laser sintering prototype) demonstrate the validity and impact of the new method.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Marlon Wesley Machado Cunico, Carlos Marcus Gomes da Silva Cruz, Miriam Machado Cunico and Neri Volpato

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a new rapid prototyping process, which involves layer‐by‐layer deposition of liquid‐state material and at the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a new rapid prototyping process, which involves layer‐by‐layer deposition of liquid‐state material and at the same time using an ultraviolet line source to cure the deposited material. This paper reports studies about the behaviour of filaments, deposition accuracy, filaments interaction and functional feasibility of system. Additionally, the author describes the process which has been proposed, the equipment that has been used for these studies and the material which was developed in this application.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has been separated into three study areas in accordance with their goals. In the first, both the behaviour of filament and deposition accuracy was studied. The design of the experiment is described with focus on four response factors (bead width, filament quality, deposition accuracy and deposition continuity) along with function of three control factors (deposition height, deposition velocity and extrusion velocity). The author also studied the interaction between filaments as a function of bead centre distance. In addition, two test samples were prepared to serve as a proof of the methodology and to verify the functional feasibility of the process which has been studied.

Findings

The results show that the proposed process is functionally feasible, and that it is possible to identify the main effects of control factors over response factors. That analysis is used to predict the condition of process as a function of the parameters which control the process. Also identified were distances of centre beads which result in a specific behaviour. The types of interaction between filaments were analysed and sorted into: union, separation and indeterminate. At the end, the functional feasibility of process was proved whereby two test parts could be built.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new rapid prototyping process and also presents test studies related to this proposition. The author has focused on the filament behaviour, deposition accuracy, interaction between filaments and studied the functional feasibility of process to provide new information about this process, which at the same time is useful to the development of other rapid prototyping processes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Janaka Chandraguptha Rajaguru, Mike Duke and ChiKit Au

This paper aims to investigate the layer of material deposited on a sample of acrylic resin by electroless nickel plating process. Acrylic resin is a popular material in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the layer of material deposited on a sample of acrylic resin by electroless nickel plating process. Acrylic resin is a popular material in rapid prototyping (RP) which uses the additive manufacturing technique to build prototypes for visual inspection, assembly, etc. Metallization of the RP materials can extend application envelop of RP techniques, as they can be used in decorative or functional applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike electroless nickel plating on a metal substrate, the plating process for an acrylic resin substrate is different, as there is no metal ion for the auto-catalytic electroless reaction. Pre-treatment processes are performed on an acrylic resin sample to initiate electroless nickel plating. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the layer deposited on the sample are examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

Findings

The investigation shows that a nickel phosphorous alloy layer is plated on to the substrate surface of the acrylic resin sample.

Originality/value

Plating a layer of nickel phosphorous alloy layer on an acrylic resin RP material can widen the application of RP technology. An application of nickel plated acrylic resin sample to rapid tooling for low-volume production plastic parts is presented.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Ashok V. Kumar and Anirban Dutta

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation…

Abstract

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation challenges. This technique is referred to here as the electrophotographic rapid prototyping (ERP). In this technique, powder is printed layer‐by‐layer in the shape of the cross‐sections of the part using electrophotography a very widely used non‐impact printing method. Each layer of powder is consolidated by fusing before the next layer of powder is printed. A fully automated test bed was constructed that consists of a printing system, fusing/heating plate, build platform that has two‐degrees of freedom as well as software that drives the system.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Umar Ibrahim and Mohammad A. Irfan

The purpose of this paper is to find the response of micro‐layered rapid prototyping material under impact loading.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the response of micro‐layered rapid prototyping material under impact loading.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified Hopkinson Bar was used to impart impact loading in velocities ranging from 2‐7 m/s. Strain gages and stress wave theory were employed to calculate the load‐point force and displacement. Hence the dynamic crack initiation and propagation energies were calculated.

Findings

It was found that the crack deflection and inter layer delamination mechanisms lead to greater absorption of crack propagation energy and hence offer better resistance to crack propagation as compared to monolithic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).

Practical implications

The finding will lead to greater confidence for the use of rapid prototypes as direct‐use parts subjected to low velocity impact.

Originality/value

Although the static properties of ABS material used in rapid prototyping are well documented, this paper is one of the first reported researches in measuring the impact response of the micro layered ABS.

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Furkan Ulu, Ravi Pratap Singh Tomar and Ram Mohan

PolyJet technology allows printing complex multi-material composite configurations using Voxel digital designs' capability, thus allowing rapid prototyping of 3D printed…

Abstract

Purpose

PolyJet technology allows printing complex multi-material composite configurations using Voxel digital designs' capability, thus allowing rapid prototyping of 3D printed structural parts. This paper aims to investigate the processing and mechanical characteristics of composite material configurations formed from soft and hard materials with different distributions and sizes via voxel digital print design.

Design/methodology/approach

Voxels are extruded representations of pixels and represent different material information similar to each pixel representing colors in digital images. Each geometric region of a digitally designed part represented by a voxel can be printed with a different material. Multi-material composite part configurations were formed and rapidly prototyped using a PolyJet printer Stratasys J750. A design of experiments composite part configuration of a soft material (Tango Plus) within a hard material matrix (Vero Black) was studied. Composite structures with different hard and soft material distributions, but at the same volume fractions of hard and soft materials, were rapidly prototyped via PolyJet printing through developed Voxel digital printing designs. The tensile behavior of these formed composite material configurations was studied.

Findings

Processing and mechanical behavior characteristics depend on materials in different regions and their distributions. Tensile characterization obtained the fracture energy, tensile strength, modulus and failure strength of different hard-soft composite systems. Mechanical properties and behavior of all different composite material systems are compared.

Practical implications

Tensile characteristics correlate to digital voxel designs that play a critical role in additive manufacturing, in addition to the formed material composition and distributions.

Originality/value

Results clearly indicate that multi-material composite systems with various tensile mechanical properties could be created using voxel printing by engineering the design of material distributions, and sizes. The important parameters such as inclusion size and distribution can easily be controlled within all slices via voxel digital designs in PolyJet printing. Therefore, engineers and designers can manipulate entire morphology and material at each voxel level, and different prototype morphologies can be created with the same voxel digital design. In addition, difficulties from AM process with voxel printing for such material designs is addressed, and effective digital solutions were used for successful prototypes. Some of these difficulties are extra support material or printing the part with different dimension than it designed to achieve the final part dimension fidelity. Present work addressed and resolved such issued and provided cyber based software solutions using CAD and voxel discretization. All these increase broad adaptability of PolyJet AM in industry for prototyping and end-use.

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