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Article

Muhamad Ramdzan Buyong, Farhad Larki, Celine Elie Caille, Norazreen Abd Aziz, Ahamad Ghadafi Ismail, Azrul Azlan Hamzah and Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis

This paper aims to present the dielectrophoresis (DEP) force (FDEP), defined as microelectrofluidics mechanism capabilities in performing selective detection and rapid

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the dielectrophoresis (DEP) force (FDEP), defined as microelectrofluidics mechanism capabilities in performing selective detection and rapid manipulation of blood components such as red blood cells (RBC) and platelets. The purpose of this investigation is to understand FDEP correlation to the variation of dynamic dielectric properties of cells under an applied voltage bias.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, tapered design DEP microelectrodes are used and explained. To perform the characterization and optimization by analysing the DEP polarization factor, the change in dynamic dielectric properties of blood components are observed according to the crossover frequency (fxo) and adjustment frequency (fadj) variation for selective detection and rapid manipulation.

Findings

Experimental observation of dynamic dielectric properties change shows clear correlation to DEP polarization factor when performing selective detection and rapid manipulation. These tapered DEP microelectrodes demonstrate an in situ DEP patterning efficiency more than 95%.

Research limitations/implications

The capabilities of tapered DEP microelectrode devices are introduced in this paper. However, they are not yet mature in medical research studies for various purposes such as identifying cells and bio-molecules for detection, isolation and manipulation application. This is because of biological property variations that require further DEP characterization and optimization.

Practical implications

The introduction of microelectrofluidics using DEP microelectrodes operate by selective detecting and rapid manipulating via lateral and vertical forces. This can be implemented on precision health-care development for lab-on-a-chip application in microfluidic diagnostic and prognostic devices.

Originality/value

This study introduces a new concept to understand the dynamic dielectric properties change. This is useful for rapid, label free and precise methods to conduct selective detection and rapid manipulation of mixtures of RBC and platelets. Further, potential applications that can be considered are for protein, toxin, cancer cell and bacteria detections and manipulation. Implementation of tapered DEP microelectrodes can be used based on the understanding of dynamic dielectric properties of polarization factor analysis.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the capacitance characterization of tapered dielectrophoresis (DEP) microelectrodes as micro-electro-mechanical system sensor and actuator device. The application of DEP-on-a-chip (DOC) can be used to evaluate and correlate the capacitive sensing measurement at an actual position and end station of liquid suspended targeted particles by DEP force actuator manipulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The capability of both, sensing and manipulation was analysed based on capacitance changes corresponding to the particle positioning and stationing of the targeted particles at regions of interest. The mechanisms of DEP sensor and actuator, designed in DOC applications were energized by electric field of tapered DEP microelectrodes. The actual DEP forces behaviour has been also studied via quantitative analysis of capacitance measurement value and its correlation with qualitative analysis of positioning and stationing of targeted particles.

Findings

The significance of the present work is the ability of using tapered DEP microelectrodes in a closed mode system to simultaneously sense and vary the magnitude of manipulation.

Originality/value

The integration of DOC platform for contactless electrical-driven with selective detection and rapid manipulation can provide better efficiency in in situ selective biosensors or bio-detection and rapid bio-manipulation for DOC diagnostic and prognostic devices.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article

Changbae Roh, Sung-Ryong Hong and Won Shik Na

This paper suggested a model for sensing security at the cloud computing environment using the cognitive radio (CR) system. The proposed sensing security technique at the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper suggested a model for sensing security at the cloud computing environment using the cognitive radio (CR) system. The proposed sensing security technique at the cloud situation enables the authors to estimate the distance of the IT equipment by means of the perceived information, namely the value of interfering temperature from the spectrum sensing. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, how IT devices can communicate within the current frequency is studied. Based on this, techniques for CR cloud network system of the sensing security are proposed.

Findings

Based on the information of this value of distance, the user of the electric wave cognition could maintain security up to the maximum level within the range beyond intervention influence, deciding the maximum transmission of electricity which is available.

Originality/value

The proposed technique in this paper may lead the user perceiving the electric wave to select the adapted modulation level by considering the transmitted electricity and the interference temperature level of the given channel situation.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article

Adrian Eley

We are now very much aware of the hazards associated withsalmonella and listeria in foodstuffs. Newer methodologies are comparedwith conventional techniques for their rapid

Abstract

We are now very much aware of the hazards associated with salmonella and listeria in foodstuffs. Newer methodologies are compared with conventional techniques for their rapid detection. Recent developments in culture media are discussed, as is a new rapid culture test kit for salmonella. Novel techniques such as ELISA, nucleic acid probes and flow cytometry are described, and a comparative assessment is made of reported findings. Nucleic acid probe and ELISA assays are considerably quicker than traditional culture techniques but they would benefit from increased sensitivity; they show inferior specificity with listeria and are still dependent on an enrichment stage. Recent DNA amplification techniques could provide a solution to the problem of poor probe sensitivity and allow the direct detection of pathogens from food samples. Flow cytometry may have the potential for high sensitivity and specificity and could be useful for on‐line monitoring in factories.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Swati Singh, Ankur Kaushal and Ashok Kumar

There is an immense concern in the international community about controlling the outburst of infectious diseases. An essential step towards diminishing it is the…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an immense concern in the international community about controlling the outburst of infectious diseases. An essential step towards diminishing it is the development of an adequate detection system. Among the huge plethora of microorganisms which may infect the human body, Streptococcus pyogenes is important one which infects the upper respiratory tract leading to sore throat, which eventually develops into rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the absence of timely treatment. A major process in controlling the infection is to detect it at an early stage. Hence, there is a need to develop detection tools which are both rapid and reliable.

Design/methodology/approach

Different types of diagnostic methods are available for identification, but the most commonly used are culturing, staining and rapid antigen detection tests. For better sensitivity and specificity, this review describes the development of biosensor. Compared with the current available methods, which are usually cumbersome, time-consuming and expensive, this approach features sequence specificity, cost efficiency, rapid and ease of use.

Findings

This review outlines various sensors which are available for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes which causes human RHD. The working scheme of the sensors, their sensitivity and limitation of detection has been described in the review.

Originality/value

The review fulfills an acknowledged the need to study various sensors that are available for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes, causing human RHD.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Andrea G Capodaglio, Arianna Callegari and Daniele Molognoni

Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the…

Abstract

Purpose

Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the establishment of Member States’ water resources monitoring, presence of hazardous contaminants in effluents, and perception of vulnerability of water distribution system to attacks, have spurred technical and economic interests. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

As alternative to traditional analyzers, chemosensors, operate according to physical principles, without sample collection (online), and are capable of supplying parameter values continuously and in real-time. Their low selectivity and stability issues have been overcome by technological developments. This review paper contains a comprehensive survey of existing and expected online monitoring technologies for measurement/detection of pollutants in water.

Findings

The state-of-the-art in online water monitoring is presented. Application examples are reported. Monitoring costs will become a lesser part of a water utility budget due to the fact that automation and technological simplification will abate human cost factors, and reduce the complexity of laboratory procedures.

Originality/value

An overview of applicable instrumentation, and forthcoming developments, is given. Technological development in this field is very rapid, and astonishing advances are anticipated in several areas (fingerprinting, optochemical sensors, biosensors, molecular techniques). Online monitoring is becoming an ever-important tool not only for compliance control or plant management purposes, but also as a useful approach to pollution control and reduction, minimizing the environmental impact of discharges.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Liya Wang, Yang Zhao, Yaoming Zhou and Jingbin Hao

The purpose of this paper is to present a detection method based on computer vision for automatic flexible printed circuit (FPC) defect detection.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a detection method based on computer vision for automatic flexible printed circuit (FPC) defect detection.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a new method of watershed segmentation based on morphology. A dimensional increment matrix calculation method and an image segmentation method combined with a fuzzy clustering algorithm are provided. The visibility of the segmented image and the segmentation accuracy of a defective image are guaranteed.

Findings

Compared with the traditional one, the segmentation result obtained in this study is superior in aspects of noise control and defect segmentation. It completely proves that the segmentation method proposed in this study is better matches the requirements of FPC defect extraction and can more effectively provide the segmentation result. Compared with traditional human operators, this system ensures greater accuracy and more objective detection results.

Research limitations/implications

The extraction of FPC defect characteristics contains some obvious characteristics as well as many implied characteristics. These characteristics can be extracted through specific space conversion and arithmetical operation. Therefore, more images are required for analysis and foresight to establish a more widely used FPC defect detection sorting algorithm.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new method of watershed segmentation based on morphology. It combines a traditional edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphology. The FPC surface defect detection system can meet the requirements of online detection through constant design and improvement. Therefore, human operators will be replaced by machine vision, which can preferably reduce the production costs and improve the efficiency of FPC production.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article

Thi-Thanh-Hiên Pham, Philippe Apparicio, Christopher Gomez, Christiane Weber and Dominique Mathon

Satellite and airborne images are increasingly used at different stages of disaster management, especially in the detection of infrastructure damage. Although semi- or…

Abstract

Purpose

Satellite and airborne images are increasingly used at different stages of disaster management, especially in the detection of infrastructure damage. Although semi- or full automatic techniques to detect damage have been proposed, they have not been used in emergency situations. Damage maps produced by international organisations are still based on visual interpretation of images, which is time- and labour-consuming. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how an automatic mapping of damage can be helpful for a first and rapid assessment of building damage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study area is located in Port-au-Prince (Haiti) stricken by an earthquake in January 2010. To detect building damage, the paper uses optical images (15 cm of spatial resolution) coupled with height data (LiDAR, 1 m of spatial resolution). By undertaking an automatic object-oriented classification, the paper identifies three categories of building damages: intact buildings, collapsed buildings and debris.

Findings

Data processing for the study area covering 11 km2 took about 15 hours. The accuracy of the classification varies from 70 to 79 per cent depending to the methods of assessment. Causes of errors are numerous: limited spectral information of the optical images, resolution difference between the two data, high density of buildings but most importantly, certain types of building collapses could not be detected by vertically taken images (the case of data in this study).

Originality/value

The automatic damage mapping developed in this paper proves to be reliable and could be used in emergency situations. It could also be combined with manual visual interpretation to accelerate the planning of humanitarian rescues and reconstruction.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Content available
Article

Xudong Lu, Shipeng Wang, Fengjian Kang, Shijun Liu, Hui Li, Xiangzhen Xu and Lizhen Cui

The purpose of this paper is to detect abnormal data of complex and sophisticated industrial equipment with sensors quickly and accurately. Due to the rapid development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect abnormal data of complex and sophisticated industrial equipment with sensors quickly and accurately. Due to the rapid development of the Internet of Things, more and more equipment is equipped with sensors, especially more complex and sophisticated industrial equipment is installed with a large number of sensors. A large amount of monitoring data is quickly collected to monitor the operation of the equipment. How to detect abnormal data quickly and accurately has become a challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors propose an approach called Multiple Group Correlation-based Anomaly Detection (MGCAD), which can detect equipment anomaly quickly and accurately. The single-point anomaly degree of equipment and the correlation of each kind of data sequence are modeled by using multi-group correlation probability model (a probability distribution model which is helpful to the anomaly detection of equipment), and the anomaly detection of equipment is realized.

Findings

The simulation data set experiments based on real data show that MGCAD has better performance than existing methods in processing multiple monitoring data sequences.

Originality/value

The MGCAD method can detect abnormal data quickly and accurately, promote the intelligent level of smart articles and ultimately help to project the real world into cyber space in CrowdIntell Network.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

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Article

Adrian Eley

In order to maintain food safety standards, conventionalmicrobiological methods are still being used to detect bacteria andother organisms in food. However, these…

Abstract

In order to maintain food safety standards, conventional microbiological methods are still being used to detect bacteria and other organisms in food. However, these techniques are not ideal, as often it can be many days before results are known‐which may be of particular economic importance for those foods with a short shelf‐life. The introduction of newer technology, such as nucleic acid probe and related amplification technology in other fields, has transformed the detection of many organisms. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows nucleic acid probes, with their inherent specificity, to be used to detect organisms present in very low numbers within a short period of time. However, at present, in food microbiology, there are technical problems with using the PCR, as certain components in food interfere with the reaction. When these problems are resolved and with prospects for semi‐automation of the PCR technique, there should be enormous potential for the rapid detection of bacteria in foods, with consequent benefits to the food industry and to consumers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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