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Article

Lauren Grace Moulds and Andrew Day

Adolescent violence towards parents (AVTP) has damaging impacts on family relationships, however, little is known about the characteristics of the families in which it…

Abstract

Purpose

Adolescent violence towards parents (AVTP) has damaging impacts on family relationships, however, little is known about the characteristics of the families in which it occurs. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current knowledge of the AVTP characteristics to help to inform the development of more effective community responses.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for a Rapid Evidence Assessment taking an ecological approach to organize current knowledge about the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators of AVTP. It synthesized 20 empirical studies identified from a systemic review of published literature.

Findings

The assessment concludes that adolescents who perpetrate AVTP typically experience high levels of comorbid mental health concerns, drug and alcohol use, anger difficulties and trauma. The victims (parents) are characterized as having strained relationships with other family members and trauma profiles.

Practical implications

Policy and practice responses should be tailored to systemically address needs in the identified areas. This review further illustrates the limitations of current knowledge, highlighting inconsistencies in both definitions and findings, particularly related to key characteristics.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to systemically search this literature and only include the most rigorously designed studies. It adds value to the developing field of AVTP by providing the scaffolding of the characteristics of families who have been impacted.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article

Jane Leaman, Anna Amelia Richards, Lynn Emslie and Eamonn Joseph O’Moore

The purpose of this paper is to understand the components of a high-quality prison healthcare system and the impact, ten-years on, of the transfer of accountability in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the components of a high-quality prison healthcare system and the impact, ten-years on, of the transfer of accountability in England, from a justice ministry to a health ministry.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence review was undertaken, which included a review of 82 papers and qualitative interviews with key informants. The concepts and themes identified were summarised and analysed through a framework analysis, designed to improve population outcomes and address health inequalities. The use of a rapid evidence assessment, rather than a systematic review methodology, the use of abstracts (rather than full-text articles) to extract the data, and limiting the search strategy to articles published in the English language only might mean that some relevant research papers and themes were not identified. The need for the evidence to be produced within a limited time frame and with limited resources determined these pragmatic approaches.

Findings

The review found that English prison healthcare has undergone “transformation” during this period, leading to increased quality of care through organisational engagement, professionalisation of the healthcare workforce, transparency, use of evidence-based guidance and responsiveness of services. The review also highlighted that there is still room for improvement, for example, relating to the prison regime and the lack of focus on early/preventive interventions, as well as specific challenges from limited resources.

Research limitations/implications

Time and resource constraints meant a rapid evidence review of papers in the English language was undertaken, rather than a systematic review. This might mean relevant papers have been missed. The review also only covered a small number of countries, which may limit the transferability of findings. The lack of quantitative data necessitated the use of qualitative data gathered from key informants. However, this enabled a good understanding of current practice.

Practical implications

The review findings support the World Health Organisation position on the value of integrated prison and public health systems in improving quality of healthcare. It also recommends future policy needs to take account of the “whole prison approach” recognising that healthcare in prisons cannot operate in isolation from the prison regime or the community.

Originality/value

This is unique research which has great value in supporting prison reform in England. It will also be of interest internationally due to the paucity of data in the published peer-reviewed literature on the impact of commissioning models on healthcare or health outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article

Lynn Stewart and Renée Gobeil

A Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) determined the effectiveness of correctional programmes for women offenders and examined features of programmes providing the strongest…

Abstract

Purpose

A Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) determined the effectiveness of correctional programmes for women offenders and examined features of programmes providing the strongest outcomes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic databases and web sites were reviewed to identify literature focused on interventions with female offenders published since 2006, the end point of the last REA conducted in the area. The following retention criteria were applied: participants were over age 18; sample included women and results are reported separately for women; study included an appropriate comparison group; study included recidivism as an outcome measure. Studies’ methodological design quality was assessed using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale.

Findings

In total, one meta-analysis and 22 studies reflecting 17 unique samples, published from 2006 to December 2014, were identified. Overall, the best evidence suggests that the following programmes and approaches have an evidence base: first, substance abuse treatment, in particular in-custody or hierarchical therapeutic community programmes; second, gender-responsive programmes that emphasize existing strengths and competencies, as well as skills acquisition; and third, following in-custody programme treatment with participation in community follow-up sessions. There is also promising evidence for the use of community opioid maintenance among heroin addicted women.

Originality/value

This review demonstrated that since 2006 the number of high-quality research studies assessing women’s correctional outcomes has grown considerably. The results provide guidance to programme designers and administrators on programmes for women offenders likely to be effective in promoting public safety goals and offender reintegration.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article

Anna Gekoski, Julia C. Davidson and Miranda A.H. Horvath

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA)/incest. Specifically, it aims to explore what is known about the prevalence, nature, and impact of IFCSA and where the gaps in knowledge lie.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence assessment (REA) was used, the function of which is to: search the literature as comprehensively as possible within given time constraints; collate descriptive outlines of the available evidence on a topic and critically appraise it; sift out studies of poor quality; and provide an overview of the evidence. Over 57,000 documents were scanned, and 296 ultimately systematically analysed.

Findings

It was found that: there is wide variation in prevalence rates between studies; girls are more likely to be victims than boys; the onset of abuse is typically school age; abuse in minority groups is under-reported; sibling abuse may be more common than that by fathers; female perpetrated abuse may be under-reported; families where abuse occurs are often dysfunctional; and IFCSA has significant adverse effects on victims.

Research limitations/implications

A REA is not a full systematic review, differing in the scope and depth of the searches and depending almost exclusively on electronic databases, not accompanied by searching journals by hand.

Practical implications

This work found numerous gaps in current knowledge about IFCSA, which the authors recommend be addressed by further research, including: the scale and nature of IFCSA in disabled victims, research on BME children’s experiences; the prevalence of abuse by stepfathers as compared to biological fathers; the experiences of male victims; the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered child victims; the short-term impact of IFCSA based on child victims’ experiences; and more widely, further research on the prevalence of abuse in clinical populations and the relationship between that and prevalence in wider society. In addition to such questions, the OCC inquiry will also investigate issues surrounding child protection and criminal justice responses to (IF)CSA and how these might be improved. The evidence base for this section of the inquiry is reported in Gekoski et al. (2016).

Originality/value

The findings of this research provide the evidence base for a new two-year inquiry into the subject of IFCSA by the OCC.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article

Sally Marlow, Daniel Stahl and Gail Gilchrist

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the factors related to women’s ability to achieve and maintain abstinence from alcohol.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the factors related to women’s ability to achieve and maintain abstinence from alcohol.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence assessment was carried out in four stages: definitions and research questions were agreed, search and selection were completed, data were extracted, quality of studies was assessed, and findings were synthesised and presented.

Findings

Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA were searched for cohort studies published in English during January 2000–February 2015. Expanded search terms for Women, Alcohol and Abstinence, and Cohort were used to identify relevant studies for inclusion, resulting in 1,040 records. Of these, 32 manuscripts from 31 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Alcohol-related factors such as increased quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption were related to lower likelihood of achieving and maintaining abstinence; treatment factors such as type of treatment and number of treatment episodes were related to higher and lower likelihood; demographic factors such as financial problems and poor housing status were related to lower likelihood; and psychological factors such as craving, other drug use and comorbid health problems were linked to lower likelihood.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time the factors related to the specific outcome of abstinence in women have been synthesised. Many of the factors found are also known to contribute to vulnerability for developing alcohol problems. The review revealed the paucity of studies with female only samples, or where results for women were reported separately.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article

Mark McKeague, Sam Norton and Martha Canfield

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors associated with drinking patterns during pregnancy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors associated with drinking patterns during pregnancy.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence assessment was undertaken, scanning multiple databases for studies examining factors associated with alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Studies were included if they stratified data according to quantity of alcohol consumed and identified relevant associated factors. Drinking patterns were classified as light/moderate and heavy/binge.

Findings

In total, 15 studies were included (N=7 light/moderate; N=15 heavy/binge drinking). Factors associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy included: smoking, age, SES, marital status, pre-pregnancy substance use and parity. While few studies reported an association between heavy/binge drinking and maternal mental health, none of the studies included explored the association between mental health and light/moderate drinking.

Research limitations/implications

Relatively few studies have looked at the association between psychological characteristics of women and their drinking patterns. There is a lack of articles examining light/moderate drinking in pregnancy compared to heavy/binge drinking. Moreover, there is marked variation in how alcohol use is measured. Further studies are needed to increase understanding of the association between psychological factors and patterns of drinking during pregnancy, and how health professionals might support women in this context.

Originality/value

The authors expand on previous work by examining two different patterns of alcohol consumption in pregnancy, rather than alcohol use simply as an isolated concept. The two groups were found to differ in a number of demographic and social factors. This information could be used to aid healthcare professionals in targeting specific interventions to those women most at risk.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article

Anna Gekoski, Miranda A.H Horvath and Julia C Davidson

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA)/incest. Specifically, it aims to explore the evidence about child protection and criminal justice responses to victims of IFCSA in the UK and where the gaps in these approaches lie.

Design/methodology/approach

A Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was used, the function of which is to: search the literature as comprehensively as possible within given time constraints; collate descriptive outlines of the available evidence on a topic and critically appraise it; sift out studies of poor quality; and provide an overview of the evidence. Over 57,000 documents were scanned, and 296 ultimately systematically analysed.

Findings

It was found that children may be re-victimised by various aspects of “the system” and professionals within it, including social workers, police officers, and lawyers.

Research limitations/implications

A REA is not a full systematic review, differing in the scope and depth of the searches and depending almost exclusively on electronic databases, not accompanied by searching journals by hand.

Originality/value

The findings of this research provide the evidence-base for a new two-year inquiry into the subject of IFCSA by the OCC.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article

Nick Johns, Alison Green and Martin Powell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the business case for ethnic diversity in the British National Health Service (NHS). It seeks to contextualise issues around…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the business case for ethnic diversity in the British National Health Service (NHS). It seeks to contextualise issues around diversity within the current political environment, and identify the barriers to diversity in the NHS. The business case has been very strongly argued as justification for introducing both managing diversity and equal opportunity initiatives – here the paper examines the inconsistencies of using that argument, and maintains that the only justification worth presenting is that based on (deontological) moral arguments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual in nature exploring the respective cases for diversity using a broad range of the available literature brought together as part of a rapid evidence assessment. It does so in order to make some far‐reaching claims about the future justifications for active diversification of senior management in key public sector institutions.

Findings

The distinctions between the business and moral cases are false, in that both have ethical reference points. However, the business case is not only difficult to translate to public sector institutions; there are also evidential problems with its adoption. In light of this the conclusion here is that the moral (deontological) case is the only one that has any long term value for proponents of diversity.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it examines the confusion that surrounds different cases for advancing diversity as a policy aim and presents a clear delineation of them. It also draws out some of the – perhaps deliberate – blurring of the cases and underlines the huge problems with this all too common approach. Ultimately, it suggests that morality (deontological) arguments have most purchase in public sector organisations.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

Anna Gekoski, Jacqueline M. Gray, Joanna R. Adler and Miranda A.H. Horvath

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the British Transport Police and the Department for Transport for England and Wales…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the British Transport Police and the Department for Transport for England and Wales concerning sexual offences and harassment on public transport worldwide. Specifically, it aims to explore the prevalence of such behaviours, through a review of existing survey and interview data regarding women and girls’ experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence assessment (REA) was used, the function of which is to: search the literature as comprehensively as possible within given time constraints; collate descriptive outlines of the available evidence on a topic and critically appraise it; sift out studies of poor quality; and provide an overview of the evidence.

Findings

It was found that prevalence rates range from 15 to 95 per cent, with the UK having the lowest rates. Emerging economies had higher rates of harassment and assault, which may relate to differing cultural and gender norms, where public space is regarded as a male domain.

Research limitations/implications

A REA is not a full systematic review, differing in the scope and depth of the searches and depending almost exclusively on electronic databases, not accompanied by searching journals by hand.

Practical implications

More research of high methodological rigour needs to be carried out on prevalence rates of sexual harassment and offending on public transport worldwide. The high prevalence rates found suggest the need for more work around the area of interventions to curtail offending in this setting. The findings suggest that emerging economies, in particular, need to do more to address the problem of sexual harassment and assault on public transport. More fundamentally, cultural norms around women’s roles in society need to be addressed and challenged.

Originality/value

Women may become “transit captive” and socially excluded if they are afraid to travel on public transport and do not have access to private transport. This would be an unacceptable situation which must be addressed by transport authorities and police.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article

Javeria Waseem, Rutaba Muneer, Syeda Hoor-Ul-Ain, Rutaba Tariq and Anam Minhas

This study aims to review the psychosocial determinants of divorce and their effects on women for a social reform in Pakistan. Enigmatic societal standards vandalize…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the psychosocial determinants of divorce and their effects on women for a social reform in Pakistan. Enigmatic societal standards vandalize social status of divorced women and stress them to experience psychological trauma that triggers psychosocial disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is categorized into three major determinants: the human emotional, the formal legal and societal aspect(s) in association with the deferential social status of divorced women. Rapid evidence assessment methodology was used to search the all-inclusive literature, collate the available descriptive evidences, critically analyze and evaluate it, sieve out studies of penurious quality and provide an aperçu of the evidence.

Findings

The research evinces domestic violence and abuse as an endemic cause of divorce in Pakistan; emotional and psychological consequences of domestic abuse damage women’s self-worth and well-being. Literature reported that all these determinants impacted the mental health stability of the divorced women. Divorce rates are climbing at a faster pace in the country and Punjab has been identified as a province of rocketing divorce rate. Lamentably, in various villages of other provinces, women risk face mutilation if they show courage to seek divorce.

Practical implications

More research needs to be carried out on the issue nationwide. Fundamentally, cultural norms around women’s roles in society need to be addressed and challenged where this research may become an impetus for further research.

Originality/value

The paper contributes towards the redressal of the domestic abuse, social exclusion, marginalization and vilification of divorced women in Pakistan. The rising rates indicate an urgent need for social reforms to curtail offending behaviors toward them, to safeguard their mental health and well-being and to empower them with their legal rights to enjoy deferential social status in life.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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