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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2016

Raphael Travis, Scott W. Bowman, Joshua Childs and Renee Villanueva

This paper builds upon a new era of research seeking to understand variability in how desirable outcomes result from engaging rap music as a health enhancing artifact…

Abstract

This paper builds upon a new era of research seeking to understand variability in how desirable outcomes result from engaging rap music as a health enhancing artifact. More specifically, the study explores the music mediated pathways to individual and community well-being. The study emphasizes female music engagement. Quantitative methods are used to examine listening habits and preferences associated with empowering rap music engagement among a female sample of 202 university students using an a priori established path analysis model. Results echo prior research that suggests the functional value of music in helping to define the self independently and articulate one’s social identity within the context of community (Dixon, Zhang, & Conrad, 2009; Hill, 2009; Travis & Bowman, 2012). Specifically, results suggest that among females in this sample, (a) their appropriation of rap music can be empowering, (b) specific factors play a significant role in determining the difference between females that feel more or less empowered from their interactions with rap music, and (c) female listeners were more likely to appropriate rap music for personal and community growth if it was their favorite music type, if they listened often, and if they tended to listen alone more often than with friends. These research findings offer promising routes for more in depth qualitative analysis to help uncover the nuances of preferred engagement strategies and to help define the subjective lived experiences that lead to feeling empowered by music to act toward positive change for oneself and others. Practical results indicate the possibility for gender-specific education, therapeutic or empowerment-based programs that utilize rap music as a rubric.

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Symbolic Interactionist Takes on Music
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-048-0

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2010

Charis E. Kubrin and Ronald Weitzer

Purpose – We review the literature on the general effects of rap music and discuss in detail those studies that purport to examine how it affects attitudes and behavior…

Abstract

Purpose – We review the literature on the general effects of rap music and discuss in detail those studies that purport to examine how it affects attitudes and behavior related to violence and misogyny.Methodology – Critical review of the popular and scholarly rap music literature.Findings – We describe four critical weaknesses in this literature that limit our ability to draw firm conclusions on rap music's effects: (1) the nonempirical nature of most writings on rap; (2) vagueness regarding the precise relationship between rap music and attitudes and behavior, and the associated lack of theoretical perspectives in rap literature; (3) the exclusion of the perspectives of rap music listeners in most studies; and (4) the drawbacks of both experimental research and existing ethnographic studies in this area.Value of chapter – Based on the deficiencies in the literature, we provide recommendations for future work and discuss why it is imperative, despite the many challenges that exist, to conduct research on rap music and its effects.

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Popular Culture, Crime and Social Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-733-2

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2016

Jonafa Banbury

This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of Christian hip hop music performed and practiced in Central Texas. I examine the emerging Christian rap scene…

Abstract

This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of Christian hip hop music performed and practiced in Central Texas. I examine the emerging Christian rap scene through the experiences of members of the local social group known as The 51210 Movement. The 51210 Movement includes various Christian rappers, singers, songwriters, musicians, producers, and sound technicians. Their activities center on the multiple uses of Christian rap within their local communities. The central Texas Christian rap scene is situated within the musically rich city of Austin, the “Live Music Capitol of the World,” and San Antonio, a culturally and religiously diverse city. I focus on how members of The 51210 Movement use Christian rap as a proselytizing and pedagogical tool, how Christian rappers work together to create a self-perpetuating Christian rap scene, and how members of The 51210 Movement negotiate the interplay between the sacred and secular forms of rap to maintain religious authenticity.

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Symbolic Interactionist Takes on Music
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-048-0

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Heidi Süß and Beatrix Kreß

This article is about the construction of masculinity in the German rap scene. After giving a short overview over the history, structure, main narratives and economic…

Abstract

This article is about the construction of masculinity in the German rap scene. After giving a short overview over the history, structure, main narratives and economic relevance of German rap, the construction of rap masculinity will be mainly discussed in the context of a transformation of the (global) gender order. For example, what impact does the rise and success of female rappers have on the gendered power relations within the German rap scene? Does the inclusion of feminine-coded moves and sounds, aesthetics or topics indicate a shift towards more alternative forms of masculinity? And what does it mean, when male rap artists currently rap about the meaning of masculinity, as if it was something that has to be (re-?) defined all at once?

The field study works with different data material from the rap scene, lyrics, interviews, but also multimodal signs as album covers, photos, video material, etc. Through discourse analysis, major discursive lines and threads are pointed out to draw a picture of gender order in this distinctive social and artistic setting.

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Art in Diverse Social Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-897-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Robert M. Cleary

Rap music subordinates music to language. It is this emphasis on language that can make rap a vehicle for many ideas, if that is the rapper's intention. Playthell…

Abstract

Rap music subordinates music to language. It is this emphasis on language that can make rap a vehicle for many ideas, if that is the rapper's intention. Playthell Benjamin, former academic and freelance writer for such magazines as the Village Voice and Emerge, believes that rappers can be divided into distinct groups, based on the message or non‐message conveyed. He groups rappers as “Narcissists, didactics, party‐time rappers, or gangsters” based on the content of their rapping. Any rapper who falls into one of these groups can have political significance for blacks, whites, women, liberals, conservatives, Jews, Muslims, and Christians. Narcissists frequently refer to women as mere sex objects, the worst example being the group 2 Live Crew, and less offensive examples being L.L. Cool J. and Big Daddy Kane. Didactics are the chief proponents of Afrocentric thinking and revisionist history. Representatives of this style would be Public Enemy, KRS‐One, and X‐Clan. Party‐time rappers, such as Heavy D and the Boyz or Biz Markie, are rarely serious, but sexism and homophobia can be elements in their raps. Gangster rappers N.W.A., Ice‐T, and Ice Cube are currently receiving a lot of attention from the press, and violent behavior characterizes their lyrics.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Ramirose Attebury, Nancy Sprague and Nancy J. Young

The University of Idaho Library's Research Assistance Program has offered personalized research consultations to more than 1,150 students over ten years. This article aims…

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Abstract

Purpose

The University of Idaho Library's Research Assistance Program has offered personalized research consultations to more than 1,150 students over ten years. This article aims to study the usage data compiled over the past decade to determine if the service still meets the needs of users effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten years' worth of quantitative and qualitative data were examined, using Excel to generate comparative figures/tables and to categorize user comments.

Findings

Issues explored include consistencies in usage patterns (e.g. female to male ratio, undergraduate to graduate student ratio, on‐campus to off‐campus users), the average amount of librarian time spent in preparation for and in discussion with the RAP users, the point in the research process that RAP was requested, the types of assignments and sources, and challenges such as “no‐shows” and communication problems. The assessment revealed that students from a wide range of departments and classes continue to benefit from this program, and it is sustainable.

Practical implications

Other libraries can use this study to realistically estimate staff time and effort involved in individual appointments with a librarian in order to decide if they can offer such a service.

Originality/value

No other study of individual research assistance programs in academic libraries has studied ten years' worth of continuous data.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

William C. Gibbons

This paper aims to identify a variety of titles and resources to offer both public and academic librarians guidance in establishing and maintaining a definitive core…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify a variety of titles and resources to offer both public and academic librarians guidance in establishing and maintaining a definitive core collection of past and present materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The annotated bibliography includes CD recordings, films, documentaries, serials, monographs and web sites on rap music and hip‐hop culture. The entries chosen were culled from rap music periodicals, reference works, catalogs and journals.

Findings

These resources showcase the innovation of rap's formative years. They trace the broad scope of rap musical styles and document and critique hip‐hop culture.

Originality/value

These selected titles capture distinctive periods in hip‐hop history and help librarians stay current and conscious of what to include in their collections as rap becomes more mainstream and more respectable.

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Collection Building, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Abdelrahman Moukhtar Naser, Hamada Abd El - Wahab, Mohamed Abd El Fattah Moustafa El Nady, Abdelzaher E.A. Mostafa, Long Lin and Ahmed Galal Sakr

This paper aims to investigate the best methods of utilisation of reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) in Egypt, to determine the effect of using 100% RAP instead of using…

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101

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the best methods of utilisation of reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) in Egypt, to determine the effect of using 100% RAP instead of using virgin aggregates and asphalt; investigate the effect of thermoplastic elastomer polymer as asphalt modifier; and also improve the mechanical and physical characteristics and consequently improving the quality of asphalt paving, increasing service life of asphalt-paving and reducing costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Nano acrylate terpolymers were prepared with different % (Wt.) of and were characterised by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), for molecular weight (Mw), by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 4% (Wt.) of the prepared nanoemulsion terpolymer was mixed with virgin asphalt as a polymer modifier, to improve and reuse of the RAP. The modified binder was tested. The tests conducted include penetration, kinematic viscosity, softening point and specific gravity. Application of Marshall mix design types; hot mix asphalt (HMA), warm mix asphalt (WMA) and cold in place recycled (CIR). Four different mix designs used; control mix contained virgin asphalt by HMA, and the other three mix designs were polymermodified asphalt sample by HMA, WMA and CIR.

Findings

The research results showed that using 4 Wt.% of the prepared nanoemulsion terpolymer to produce hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) achieved higher stability compared to the control mix and cold in place recycled (CIR).

Research limitations/implications

This paper discusses the preparation and the characterisation of nanoemulsion and its application in RAPs to enhance and improve the RAP quality.

Practical implications

Nano-acrylate terpolymer can be used as a new polymer to modify asphalt to achieve the required specifications for RAP.

Originality/value

According to the most recent surveys, Europe produced 265 tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available RAP was more than 50 tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat asphalt, making RAP recycling economically attractive.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

D. Mills

This paper has been presented in two parts. Part 1, after an introduction to thin film resistor technology, gave a review of thin films and other resistors, followed by…

Abstract

This paper has been presented in two parts. Part 1, after an introduction to thin film resistor technology, gave a review of thin films and other resistors, followed by designer's considerations when using resistors and networks. Part 2 will deal with assembly problems.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Nicola Bozzi

Purpose: This chapter outlines a cultural critique of the Gangsta as an exemplary figure to investigate the performance of social media identity. The main goal of the…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter outlines a cultural critique of the Gangsta as an exemplary figure to investigate the performance of social media identity. The main goal of the chapter is to illustrate some of the implications that social media have on the contemporary dramatization of the criminal, here framed as a collective techno-cultural process at the threshold between social stigma and branding. Despite using the term “Gangsta,” the author’s intent is not to “fix” this figure as an identity or a class of people, but rather to identify a broad cultural context that emerges from a glocalized hip-hop imaginary, stemming from gangsta rap and evolving alongside trap and drill.

Methodology/approach: The contribution is not intended as an empirical sociological study, but a critical cultural exploration of convergent media that bring together a glocalized gang culture and everyday social media interactions. In the second section, the author outlines his theoretical framework by identifying a point of convergence between recent studies of Instagram celebrities and criminological takes on the selective nature of gang identity. The author also explores the relationship between the “dissing,” a cultural form that is very relevant to the more aggressive sub-genres of rap, and the practice of tagging, a key affordance of social media platforms. In so doing, the author frames social media tagging as a form of identity labeling.

Findings: In light of the theory previously outlined, the author explains how tagging is used alternately to enforce social stigma and engage in recursive branding. The final section examines the aforementioned forms of tagging more in detail, in relation to specific media ecologies of YouTube videos that feature compilations of Instagram Stories originally posted by emerging Italian rappers.

Research limitations: Although it is aimed at offering an interdisciplinary contribution, this chapter adopts an admittedly media-focused perspective. Rather than producing more evidence about the use of social media by gangs, the author comments on existing sociological insight in relation to the affordances and esthetics of social media ecologies, re-problematizing certain forms of online interaction.

Originality/value: By focusing on the commonplace practice of tagging in relation to the figure of the Gangsta, the author emphasizes how online labeling practices can be more fraught that they appear, emphasizing the need for further critical reflections on the stereotyping potential of social media branding practices.

Details

Theorizing Criminality and Policing in the Digital Media Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-112-4

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