Peers and friends are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior. In this chapter, the authors investigate peer effects on post high school…
Peers and friends are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior. In this chapter, the authors investigate peer effects on post high school career decisions and on school choice. The authors define peers as students who are in the same classes and social clubs and measure peer effects as spatial dependence among them. Utilizing recent developments in spatial econometrics, the authors formalize a spatial multinomial choice model in which individuals are spatially dependent in their preferences. The authors estimate the model via pseudo maximum likelihood using data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project. The authors do find that individuals are positively correlated in their career and college preferences and examine how such dependencies impact decisions directly and indirectly as peer effects are allowed to reverberate through the social network in which students reside.
Research on strategic choices available to the firm are often modeled as a limited number of possible decision outcomes and leads to a discrete limited dependent variable…
Research on strategic choices available to the firm are often modeled as a limited number of possible decision outcomes and leads to a discrete limited dependent variable. A limited dependent variable can also arise when values of a continuous dependent variable are partially or wholly unobserved. This chapter discusses the methodological issues associated with such phenomena and the appropriate statistical methods developed to allow for consistent and efficient estimation of models that involve a limited dependent variable. The chapter also provides a road map for selecting the appropriate statistical technique and it offers guidelines for consistent interpretation and reporting of the statistical results.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with three modes of firms’ exit (voluntary liquidation, involuntary liquidation and acquisition) in a…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with three modes of firms’ exit (voluntary liquidation, involuntary liquidation and acquisition) in a mutually exclusive environment. In particular, three modes of exit are treated as independent events given that different causes and consequences exist for each exit mode. The data set is a panel of 4,408 US manufacturing firms spanning over the period 1976–1995.
The discrete choice model is used to establish a relationship between modes of exit and a set of explanatory variables, which are specific to the firm, industry and macroeconomic conditions. Use of panel data encourages us to estimate a random effects multinomial logistic regression model, which allows exit modes as mutually exclusive events and at the same time controls the firm-specific unobserved heterogeneity in the sample.
The analysis suggests that the determinants of voluntary liquidation are age, size, profitability, technology intensity and inflation level. The determinants of involuntary liquidation are size, leverage, profitability and inflation level. For acquisition, determinants are age, size, advertising intensity, Tobin’s q, GDP growth, inflation level and interest rate. The findings suggest that exit modes have a different set of determinants and the scale of effects of some common determinants such as age, size and profitability differs between exit modes.
The analysis presented in this study relies on data from US manufacturing firms only. Thus, there is a need to explore the determinants of exit modes in other countries as well using the proposed econometric model.
The findings presented in this paper are useful for managers and policymakers to design strategies/actions for avoiding particular mode of exit.
This study provides empirical evidence on the differences in factors associated with exit modes and confirms the existence of mutually exclusive nature of exit modes. Findings suggest that for future empirical studies on firm exit, the exit modes must be treated as a heterogeneous event.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the ability of hedge funds and funds of hedge funds to generate absolute returns using fund level data.
The absolute return profiles are identified using properties of the empirical distributions of fund returns. The authors use both Bayesian multinomial probit and frequentist multinomial logit regressions to examine the relationship between the return profiles and fund characteristics.
Some evidence is found that only some hedge funds strategies, but not all of them, demonstrate higher tendency to produce absolute returns. Also identified are some investment provisions and fund characteristics that can influence the chance of generating absolute returns. Finally, no evidence was found for performance persistence in terms of absolute returns for hedge funds but some limited evidence for funds of funds.
This paper is the first attempt to examine the hedge fund return profiles based on the notion of absolute return in great details. Investors and managers of funds of funds can utilize the identification method in this paper to evaluate the performance of their interested hedge funds from a new angle.
Using the properties of the empirical distribution of the hedge fund returns to classify them into different absolute return profiles is the unique contribution of this paper. The application of the multinomial probit and multinomial logit models in the fund performance and fund characteristics literature is also new since the dependent variable in the authors' regressions is multinomial.
Interest in car-sharing initiatives, as a tool for improving transport network efficiency in urban areas and on interurban links, has grown in recent years. They have…
Interest in car-sharing initiatives, as a tool for improving transport network efficiency in urban areas and on interurban links, has grown in recent years. They have often been proposed as a more cost effective alternative to other modal shift and congestion relief initiatives, such as public transport or highway improvement schemes; however, with little implementation in practice, practitioners have only limited evidence for assessing their likely impacts.
This study reports the findings of a Stated Preference (SP) study aimed at understanding the value that car drivers put on car sharing as opposed to single occupancy trips. Following an initial pilot period, 673 responses were received from a web-based survey conducted in June 2008 amongst a representative sample of car driving commuters in Scotland.
An important methodological aspect of this study was the need to account for differences in behaviour to identify those market segments with the greatest propensity to car share. To this end, we estimated a range of choice model forms and compared the ability of each to consistently identify individual behaviours. More specifically, this included a comparison of:
Standard market segmentation approaches based on multinomial logit with attribute coefficients estimated by reported characteristics (e.g. age, income, etc.);
A two-stage mixed logit approach involving the estimation of random parameters logit models followed by an examination of individual respondent's choices to arrive at estimates of their parameters, conditional on know distributions across the population (following Revelt & Train, 1999); and
A latent-class model involving the specification of C classes of respondent, each with their own coefficients, and assigning each individual a probability that they belongs to a given class based upon their observed choices, socioeconomic characteristics and their reported attitudes.
As hypothesised, there are significant variations in tastes and preferences across market segments, particularly for household car ownership, gender, age group, interest in car pooling, current journey time and sharing with a stranger (as opposed to family member/friend). Comparing the sensitivity of demand to a change from a single occupancy to a car-sharing trip, it can be seen that the latter imposes a ‘penalty’ equivalent to 29.85 IVT minutes using the mixed logit structure and 26.68 IVT minutes for the multinomial specification. Segmenting this latter value according to the number of cars owner per household results in ‘penalties’ equivalent to 46.51 and 26.42 IVT minutes for one and two plus car owning households respectively.
This paper reviews the current literature on theoretical and methodological issues in discrete choice experiments, which have been widely used in non-market value…
This paper reviews the current literature on theoretical and methodological issues in discrete choice experiments, which have been widely used in non-market value analysis, such as elicitation of residents' attitudes toward recreation or biodiversity conservation of forests.
We review the literature, and attribute the possible biases in choice experiments to theoretical and empirical aspects. Particularly, we introduce regret minimization as an alternative to random utility theory and sheds light on incentive compatibility, status quo, attributes non-attendance, cognitive load, experimental design, survey methods, estimation strategies and other issues.
The practitioners should pay attention to many issues when carrying out choice experiments in order to avoid possible biases. Many alternatives in theoretical foundations, experimental designs, estimation strategies and even explanations should be taken into account in practice in order to obtain robust results.
The paper summarizes the recent developments in methodological and empirical issues of choice experiments and points out the pitfalls and future directions both theoretically and empirically.
This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area.
Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify the decision-making process. Based on this definition, different models are reviewed. These models have assumed that individuals simplify the decision-making process by considering a subset of attributes, and/or a subset of choice alternatives and/or by disregarding small differences between attribute differences.
A body of empirical evidence has accumulated showing that under some circumstances the principle of bounded rationality better explains observed choices than the principle of utility maximization. Differences in predictive performance with utility-maximizing models are however small.
Originality and value
The chapter provides a detailed account of the different models, based on the principle of bounded rationality, that have been suggested over the years in travel behaviour analysis. The potential relevance of these models is articulated, model specifications are discussed and a selection of empirical evidence is presented. Aspects of an agenda of future research are identified.