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Questions why the choice of senior managers is so oftenunsuccessful. Considers selection of candidates is often made with toonarrow a range of criteria. Suggests that…
Questions why the choice of senior managers is so often unsuccessful. Considers selection of candidates is often made with too narrow a range of criteria. Suggests that qualities of the candidate, demands of position being filled and track record need to be enhanced by consideration of capacity to learn, personal values, executive resilience and weaknesses as well as strengths.
Explains that eliminating failures in senior‐level selection canonly be achieved by laying a solid groundwork in particular in thetransition from middle manager to general…
Explains that eliminating failures in senior‐level selection can only be achieved by laying a solid groundwork in particular in the transition from middle manager to general manager. Notes that assessment must recognise the developmental nature of executive work. Proposes an expanded methodology and concludes that we need to make selections based on systematic, continuous and multidimensional assessment.
The number of women in business has increased dramatically in the last few years. As the number of women entering business has increased, so has the number of women reaching management positions. In 1985 the number of women in management positions in America was 4.4 million, which is 36% of the total people in these positions. This is more than double the number of women managers a decade earlier. Over a third of business school graduates are now women, indicating that the number of women in business will increase. Even though women have done well in obtaining middle management positions, they have not succeeded in reaching top management positions in any great number since only 1% of top managers are women.
The recent years have been marked by the increasing participation of women in the labour force internationally. Especially in the industrialised countries of Western…
The recent years have been marked by the increasing participation of women in the labour force internationally. Especially in the industrialised countries of Western Europe and North America, this labour force participation is now well over 40%. Globally, however, the estimate is around 33%. A large number of these women are still found in the agriculture sector and the informal sector of industry. For those working in the formal industrial sector, a significant portion work in the shopfloor of assembly line operations for products ranging from electronics to textiles. Women in management comprise less than 1% of all economically active women. For the purposes of this paper, a “manager” is defined as a person who has latitude in decision making as to the allocation and use of organisational resources, including physical, financial, and human resources.
In most businesses effective leadership is still considered to be tough, competitive, rational, impersonal, strategic, etc.— in short, the traditional male model. Recently, however, sociologists and business writers have begun to challenge this model. Recognition increases that we need leaders who are participatory and supportive. Furthermore, increased world competition, new technologies, shifting markets, and other economic pressures are forcing corporations to change the way they do business. Even the old rules of management and leadership do not always hold true anymore. Fortunately, this period of change happens to coincide with the entry of more and more women into managerial positions, which works to their advantage. And it does because it puts them on the same footing as their male peers, who must learn the new rules, too.
There are racial differences in policing and treatment when people are stopped for the same crimes, and scholars have long documented and expressed concern regarding the…
There are racial differences in policing and treatment when people are stopped for the same crimes, and scholars have long documented and expressed concern regarding the police’s reactions to Black men. In this paper, we argue that racism is the root cause of police-involved killings of unarmed Black men. Utilizing several contemporary examples, we articulate the ways racism operates through cultural forces and institutional mechanisms to illustrate how this phenomenon lies at the intersection of public safety and public health. Thus, we begin by defining racism and describing how it is gendered to move the notion that the victims of police involved shootings overwhelmingly tend to be Black men from the margins of the explanation of the patterns to the center. Next, we discuss how the police have been used to promote public safety and public health throughout US history. We conclude by describing common explanations for contemporary police-involved shootings of unarmed Black males and why those arguments are flawed. Reframing the phenomena as gendered racism is critical for identifying points of intervention. Because neither intent nor purpose is a prerequisite of the ways that racism affects public safety and public health, the differential impact of policies and programs along racial lines is sufficient for racism to be a useful way to frame this pattern of outcomes. Incorporating gender into this framing of racism introduces that ways that Black men have been viewed, stereotyped, and treated implicitly in institutional practices and explicitly in institutional policies.
Why do so many African Americans get stuck near the bottom or at the middle of the corporate ladder? Why do so many continue to complain about discriminatory pay and…
Why do so many African Americans get stuck near the bottom or at the middle of the corporate ladder? Why do so many continue to complain about discriminatory pay and promotion decisions many decades after the enactment of anti-discrimination laws? Law and economics commentators who have written about the issue of employment discrimination have failed to address the complexity of the problem of implicit bias and the effects of the frequently inaccurate heuristics used by some white workers when making judgments about their black colleagues. Economic theory without context is useless. But with context, law and economic analysis can help us understand and address specific problems like workplace discrimination that persist within corporate cultures because of an overestimation of the cost of anti-discrimination efforts and an underestimation of the gravity and likelihood of workplace discrimination.
In this chapter, I explore the economic and socioeconomic reality of African American low and mid-level corporate managers in order to capture a more complete picture of the costs of discrimination in the corporate workplace. I also explore the heuristic assumptions that are made about African American professionals and the effects those assumptions have on the black community. Finally, to understand the gravity of the harm to individuals, their families and the communities to which they belong, narratives about the economic and psychological harm caused by discrimination are essential. I offer the narratives of six middle managers and low-level professionals who faced discrimination in the corporate workplace to provide an important context about discrimination's real costs.
Research funded by the Albert Shanker Institute found African-American teachers leaving teaching at higher rates than White counterparts even though the former are…
Research funded by the Albert Shanker Institute found African-American teachers leaving teaching at higher rates than White counterparts even though the former are recruited in proportionally higher numbers. Thus, while recruitment efforts appear somewhat successful, schools and school systems fail to retain teachers of color. This “revolving door” of African-American teachers portends dire consequences for school communities, creating instability of staffing that potentially upend students’ opportunities for academic success. African-American female (AAF) teachers, considered a backbone of non-White communities, are particularly sensitive to teacher mobility and turnover. Studies, however, indicate that AAF teachers are more satisfied working in urban school contexts than other teachers, suggesting that they prefer racially congruent schools which share sociocultural attributes similar to their own, and view working conditions more favorably in such environments.
Teachers’ perceptions of the workplace can be used to gauge risk for occupational stress. Commonly referred to as the transactional model, teachers’ risk for stress can be assessed by the appraising workplace resources vis-à-vis workplace demands. Stress-vulnerable teachers are associated with lower professional commitment and increased occupational burnout. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007–2008 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this chapter explored the intersections of risk for occupational stress, racial congruence, and professional commitment among AAF teachers. Findings from this chapter suggest interactions between racial congruence and AAF teachers’ perceptions of occupational stress and commitment to teaching. Implications for how these results might inform policy are discussed.