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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

Ramona Rupeika-Apoga and Irina Solovjova

The availability of funding is one of the key problems in the small and medium-sized business not only in Europe but also all over the world economic space. The lack of…

Abstract

The availability of funding is one of the key problems in the small and medium-sized business not only in Europe but also all over the world economic space. The lack of funds results in the starvation of the economy preventing it from full-fledged development. The aim of the research is to analyze the factors that interfere with the availability of funding to the small and medium-sized companies, by developing the profiles of SMEs and to give recommendations for the more effective raising of funds. During the research the following research methods were used: the generally accepted quantitative and qualitative research methods in economics, including the comparative analysis and synthesis and graphical depiction. The results of the analyses will be discussed and recommendation will be provided for policy makers and academician in the last section.

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Contemporary Issues in Finance: Current Challenges from Across Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-907-0

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Ramona Rupeika-Apoga, Inna Romānova and Simon Grima

Introduction – Stability of commercial banks is on the back stone of a country’s economy and its development, making bank stability one of the main concerns of financial…

Abstract

Introduction – Stability of commercial banks is on the back stone of a country’s economy and its development, making bank stability one of the main concerns of financial regulators. The bank stability models for large and small economies differ significantly.

Purpose – In this chapter we examine the determinants of bank stability in a small post-transition economy, based on the case of Latvia. Latvia has a well-organized banking system, providing a wide range of services to local and international customers. Besides, the Latvian banking sector is quite unique in Europe as it comprises two sets of banks with radically different target groups of customers and sources of revenue.

Methodology – To carry out this study we analysed panel data of the quarterly financial statements of Latvian banks operating during the period 2012-2017.

Findings – We found evidence of a negative significant relationship between size and bank stability, negative significant impact of liquidity risk on bank stability, a positive significant relationship between capital adequacy and bank stability, as well as a positive significant relationship between credit risk and stability. These results increase the importance of a sufficient level of capital adequacy ratio and liquidity to maintain bank stability. In general, the results of the study confirm the results of other studies on bank stability of small economies, with some exceptions due to the unique situation in term bank business models applied by Latvian banks. The current study provides valuable policy implications to small post-transition economies and stakeholders in general.

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Contemporary Issues in Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-604-4

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Alessandra Girlando, Simon Grima, Engin Boztepe, Sharon Seychell, Ramona Rupeika-Apoga and Inna Romanova

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on…

Abstract

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on limited perception rather than the full value and meaning of what risk is, as a result, the way it is being tackled is incorrect. The individuals are often limited in their perceptions and ideas and do not embrace the full multifaceted nature of risk. Regulators and individuals want to follow norms and checklists or overuse models, simulations, and templates, thereby reducing responsibility for decision-making. At the same time, the wider use of technology and rules reduces the critical thinking of individuals. We advance the automation process by building robots that follow protocols and forget about the part of risk assessment that cannot be programed. Therefore, with this study, the objective of this study was to discover how people define risk, the influencing factors of risk perception and how they behave toward this perception. The authors also determine how the perception differed with age, gender, marital status, education level and region. The novelty of the research is related to individual risk perception during COVID-19, as this is a new and unknown phenomenon. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of the self-administered purposely designed questionnaires we distributed across different social media platforms between February and June 2020 in Europe and in some cases was carried out as a interview over communication platforms such as “Skype,” “Zoom” and “Microsoft Teams.” The questionnaire was divided into four parts: Section 1 was designed to collect demographic information from the participants; Section 2 included risk definition statements obtained from literature and a preliminary discussion with peers; Section 3 included risk behavior statements; and Section 4 included statements on risk perception experiences. A five-point Likert Scale was provided, and participants were required to answer along a scale of “1” for “Strongly Agree” to “5” for “Strongly Disagree.” Participants also had the option to elaborate further and provide additional comments in an open-ended box provided at the end of the section. 466 valid responses were received. Thematic analysis was carried out to analyze the interviews and the open-ended questions, while the questionnaire responses were analyzed using various quantitative methods on IBM SPSS (version 23). Findings: The results of the analysis indicate that individuals evaluate the risk before making a decision and view risk as both a loss and opportunity. The study identifies nine factors influencing risk perception. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that we can continue to develop models and rules, but as long as the risk is not understood, we will never achieve anything.

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Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

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Contemporary Issues in Finance: Current Challenges from Across Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-907-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

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Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

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Contemporary Issues in Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-604-4

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2020

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Global Street Economy and Micro Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-503-0

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

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Contemporary Issues in Finance: Current Challenges from Across Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-907-0

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2020

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Contemporary Issues in Audit Management and Forensic Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-636-0

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2021

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A New Social Street Economy: An Effect of The COVID-19 Pandemic
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-124-3

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