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Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social…
Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs and accountability of social enterprises influence social value creation in cause-related marketing (CRM) of three UK-based international charities. The study also explores how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs affect accountability of social entrepreneurship for social value creation of non-profit organizations in the UK context.
Our research aimed to inform international social entrepreneurship literature by exploring the impact of personal relationships on accountability and social value creation processes via cause-related marketing (CRM) practices using a case study method. The lack of clearly defined social value creation in social entrepreneurship, and somewhat intangible processes of relationally embedded ties, accountability, and their impact, the case study method is most suited for this study. In particular, inquiry-based investigation surrounding social value, embedded ties and accountability requires systematic and structured dissemination to capture latent constructs.
The findings show the importance of personal ties in the alignment of social mission with corporate social responsibility between UK-based international charities and commercial organizations across borders. In international social entrepreneurship, social value creation is facilitated by accountability of social goals while trust-based personal relationships assist access to commercial opportunities.
Further research could examine the role of trust in creating greater social value from an international social entrepreneurial perspective rather than from a solely non-profit social mission. It can also consider additional factors such as gender and cultural capital issues to investigate the role of personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs in the accountability and social value creation of non-profit organizations.
The need to fulfil social objectives, missions and obligations are central to the involvement of international social entrepreneurs in CRM activities with commercial organizations. Accountability through clear communications serves as the basis for brokering new ties or partnerships within the social relations of entrepreneurs, particularly weak ties rendering trust for third party endorsement and sharing of information. Although partnerships with commercial organizations may create social value in CRM, the reliance on personal relationships may expose international social entrepreneurs to unethical practice beyond immediate relationships and/or opportunistic behavior without formal contracting mechanisms. International social entrepreneurs must therefore match the core values of their social mission with potential partners in their CRM engagements.
The literature on international social entrepreneurship has not considered how social entrepreneurs' personal relationships at the individual level may impact accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation. This study builds on these studies by examining how individual level personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs with external stakeholders influence accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation at the organizational level. This study also builds on prior studies about entrepreneurial networks and network ties by examining the processes in which international social entrepreneurs use their personal relationships to access and utilize external resources for social value creation in CRM. Finally, this study contributes to previous research which provides limited insights into the international social entrepreneurship among organizations with reference to CRM where social value attributes are evaluated by embedded relational ties.
In the last two decades application of E‐commerce is evolving from technology driven to more user driven. Thus E‐commerce has become synonymous with communication…
In the last two decades application of E‐commerce is evolving from technology driven to more user driven. Thus E‐commerce has become synonymous with communication, strategy and business practices. E‐commerce aids to exchange information and execute transactions among enterprises and individuals. It facilitates electronic adaptation of communication for business process via EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). More often R&D intensive industries like the pharmaceutical industry implements innovative technologies to gain competitive advantage in the market. E‐commerce provides the pharmaceutical industry with better mode of transaction to achieve competitive advantage and sustained growth. E‐commerce has a considerable impact on the business‐to‐business application, when a diverse group of enterprises become involved in the decision making process particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. This enhances the value of the industry through key underlying processes such as, high value drug innovation, clinical development and trial, project and people management, marketing and sales. This synchronisation of E‐commerce and corporate strategy creates significant value for this industry. The achievement of real value through Ecommerce has three major impacts. First, it enhances the value of the latest clinical developments; second, it increases shareholders’ value and third, it successfully reduces the time‐cycle of research and application. These achievements add substantial value to the industry. Therefore, this article reviews the application of E‐commerce and discusses its significance in the pharmaceutical industry. The theoretical discussion used in previous studies is also presented and four major aspects are highlighted explaining the success of E‐commerce in the pharmaceutical industry.
In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when…
In recent years multi‐cultural practices and values have become significantly conspicuous in corporate business. Cultures and managerial values become co‐terminous when organisations cross boundaries. The synergy between corporate culture and managerial values institutes cross‐cultural practices garnering effective strategic options, helping to perform a set task successfully. This has a far‐fetching effect on what people in different cultures perceive and how these cultural values affect business affairs in an altogether different environment. In essence, organisational practices are based on culture and most organisations avoid cultural risks to manage their businesses. Skills, capabilities, knowledge, technology and experiences are better facilitated by a cross‐cultural approach, particularly in geo‐centric organisations. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon as a global norm, with the implication of its effect on business practices.
The approach adopted in this paper is based on the critical review and discussion of extant literature emphasising the effect of cross‐culture on business practices in a culture‐specific environment.
The paper illustrates how business practices and managerial values are functional to cultural synergy.
Irrespective of the significant effect of cross‐culture on business practices, it has been challenged by many contradictions, paradoxes and conflicts that have not been reviewed in this paper.
The paper outlines the interconectedness of cross cultural business practices and managerial values.