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We hypothesize that a CEO’s responsiveness to security analysts’ demands for information about the firm is influenced by the structure of the CEO’s compensation package…
We hypothesize that a CEO’s responsiveness to security analysts’ demands for information about the firm is influenced by the structure of the CEO’s compensation package. Our analysis is based on a sample of 469 CEO presentations to security analyst societies by 149 firms during the period 1984‐1988. Consistent with the argu ments of Nagar (1999; 1998) that CEO shareholdings and golden parachutes reduce the cost to the CEO of disclosing proprietary information, we find that CEO share holdings and the presence of golden parachutes are positively associated with the total amount of information that a CEO discloses at an analyst society presentation. Consistent with the argument that CEOs whose cash compensation is sensitive to firm performance have incentives to release bad news so as to lower expectations about future performance and, hence, bonus targets, CEO cash compensation performance sensitivities are positively associated with the CEO’s willingness to disclose bad news.
In 2001 Enron filed amended financial statements setting off a chain of events starting with its bankruptcy filing and including the conviction of Arthur Andersen for…
In 2001 Enron filed amended financial statements setting off a chain of events starting with its bankruptcy filing and including the conviction of Arthur Andersen for obstruction of justice. The end of 2001 and the first half of 2002 included a heightened level of publicity for the accounting practices of listed companies. This paper addresses whether there was a detectable change in the incidence of earnings management around this time period. Earnings reports released in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed. The results showed that revenue numbers were subject to upwards management. Benford's Law was used to detect such manipulations. Earnings Per Share (EPS) numbers showed a marked discontinuity in the distribution around zero which is consistent with upwards management. The results also showed a tendency towards neat round EPS numbers such as 0.10, 0.20, etc. The overall results are consistent with a small but noticeable increase in earnings management in 2002. Enron's reported numbers are reviewed and these show a strong tendency towards making financial thresholds.
Service quality is becoming more critical for banks to maintain their market shares. This paper develops a modified SERVQUAL for measuring service quality in the United…
Service quality is becoming more critical for banks to maintain their market shares. This paper develops a modified SERVQUAL for measuring service quality in the United Arab Emirates commercial banks. The instrument includes thirty items that belong to the five dimensions of SERVQUAL. The developed instrument was tested for reliability and validity and the results indicated that the instrument had only three dimensions. This paper also investigates the difference in significance between the instrument's dimensions. This is supposed to help managers focus their attention on the service quality dimension that matters most to customers.
The case explores information technology (IT) company Mindtree’s journey of 20 years from the time it was founded in 1999 to be different from others, and how it became a…
The case explores information technology (IT) company Mindtree’s journey of 20 years from the time it was founded in 1999 to be different from others, and how it became a target for acquisition by an Indian diversified conglomerate in 2019. It offers insights into developing organizational culture and values in an organization, threats faced by a company when promoters dilute their shareholding, and the strategies followed by the acquirer and the target firm. It also deals with the challenges in the acquisition of a knowledge service digital firm. After working through the case and assignment questions, students will be able to: identify the circumstances under which a company can become a target for hostile takeover; describe motivations of the acquirer firm in an acquisition; distinguish between acquisition and hostile takeover, and discuss salient features of Securities and Exchange Board of India (substantial acquisition of shares and takeover) regulations, 2011; list the defenses a target firm can adopt to ward off hostile acquirer; explore strategies followed by acquirer and target firms; analyze important ingredients of organization culture, and importance of cultural congruence in an acquisition; and discuss challenges faced by an acquirer in India, namely, legal, retention of clients and key people in the target firm particularly in hostile environment.
The case explores how ten IT professionals founded mid-tier IT services company Mindtree in 1999 in Bengaluru, India (home to Infosys and Wipro) to be different from others – by inserting themselves at a higher level in the value chain, being philanthropic as a part of broader business strategy to attract a certain kind of employee and customer. It developed a culture of equality, consideration and respect. Its attrition rate of 12 to 13 per cent was significantly lower than the Industries. Mindtree crossed annual revenue of US$1bn for FY 2019 and was growing at twice the industry’s growth rate. The most attractive part was that its proportion of revenue from digital services was about 50 per cent as compared to 25-35 per cent of other services vendors. With time, the share of promoters/founders declined and increased one investor’s shareholding of V. G. Siddhartha and his related entities. In early March 2019, the promoters’ stake was 13.32 per cent while Siddhartha had 20.32 per cent. Larsen and Toubro (L&T) one of India’s conglomerate entered into a share purchase agreement on March 18, 2019 with Siddhartha to acquire his 20.32 per cent stake. Immediately, L&T asked its broker to purchase up to 15 per cent of share capital of Mindtree at a price not exceeding INR 980 per share (each share of face value INR 10). This would trigger an open offer by L&T to purchase additional 31 per cent shares of Mindtree. The action of hostile takeover bid by L&T evoked emotional criticism from Mindtree founders. Mindtree efforts to defend itself could not materialize. L&T’s stake crossed 26 per cent on May 16, 2019. After Indian regulator SEBI’s approval, L&T’s open offer to buy shares from Mindtree shareholders commenced on June 17, 2019. The case examines motivation of the acquirer firm particularly when it is a conglomerate, and how a well-performing company became a target for hostile takeover. It looks at vulnerabilities of a target firm, and defensive steps a firm can take to fence itself against such takeover. The case also explores how organizational culture is built in a people-oriented business, namely, digital services, and what role it plays in a merger of two firms.
Complexity academic level
The case is suited for postgraduate students of management, as well as those undergoing executive courses in management.
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CSS 11: Strategy.
The purpose of this paper is to present a full 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field through hydraulic directional proportional valves, in order…
The purpose of this paper is to present a full 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field through hydraulic directional proportional valves, in order to accurately predict the flow forces acting on the spool and to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) and simplified three-dimensional (3D) models.
A full 3D CAD representation is proposed as a general approach to reproduce the geometry of an existing valve in full detail; then, unstructured computational grids, which identify peculiar positions of the spool travel, are generated by means of the mesh generation tool Gambit. The computational grids are imported into the commercial CFD code Fluent, where the flow equations are solved assuming that the flow is steady and incompressible. To validate the proposed computational procedure, the predicted flow rates and flow forces are compared with the corresponding experimental data.
The superposition between numerical and experimental curves demonstrates that the proposed full 3D numerical analysis is more effective than the simplified 3D flow model that was previously proposed by the same authors.
The presented full 3D fluid dynamic analysis can be employed for the fluid-dynamic design optimization of the sliding spool and, more generally, of the internal profiles of the valve, with the objective of reducing the flow forces and thus the required control force.
The paper proposes a new computational strategy that is capable of recognizing all 3D geometrical details of a hydraulic directional proportional valve and that provides a significant improvement with respect to 2D and partially 3D approaches.