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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Raju Shukla and Pramod Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to develop eco‐friendly coatings based on low‐cost epoxide resins prepared by using a natural phenolic material such as cardanol (non‐toxic)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop eco‐friendly coatings based on low‐cost epoxide resins prepared by using a natural phenolic material such as cardanol (non‐toxic), in place of ordinary phenol (toxic), which can be self‐curable at an optimum temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

Cardanol‐formaldehyde novolac resins (CNs) were prepared by reacting cardanol with formaldehyde in different molar ratios varying from 1:0.6 to 1:0.9. Prepared CNs were epoxidised by reacting with epichlorohydrin to produce epoxide resins, which would be called as epoxidised CNs (ECNs). Further, ECNs were modified by reacting with diethanolamine (DEtOA), a secondary amine to introduce tertiary amino group(s) into the molecules, required for self‐curability of ECNs. These modified ECNs are referred to as MECNs. The molar ratio of ECNs to DEtOA was taken in accordance with epoxy functionality of epoxide resins (ECNs) which ranged from 0.5 to 2.9. Nine numbers of MECNs (MECN1 to MECN9) were prepared by using four epoxide resins. These resins viz. CNs, ECNs and MECNs were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic methods for their structure elucidatation, and by gel permeation chromatography for determining their molecular weights.

Findings

The most suitable molar ratio of ECN:DEtOA for the preparation of MECNs was found to be 1:1. The CN prepared by using cardanol and formaldehyde in the molar ratio of 1:0.7 was used for the preparation of ECN2 and MECN2. Applied films of epoxide resins, designated as MECN2, had reasonably good physical and chemical resistance properties. With a wide cure window, the films of MECN2 were found to be self‐curable at an optimum cure schedule of 160°C/30 min. Owing to self‐curability of the developed epoxide resins, the coatings based on them did not require any additional/external crosslinker to be incorporated in the coating composition.

Research limitations/implications

The prepared epoxide resins (MECNs) had good physical and chemical resistance properties, but demonstrated low stability and low resistance to xylene, in particular.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the epoxide resins were prepared by using a low‐cost phenolic material (cardanol) which is obtained from natural renewable resources, instead of petroleum, and is non‐toxic. These developed coatings can be applied as primer coat and top coat on metallic substrates. True self‐curability of the coating films has been achieved via anionic polymerization.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Maria Ahmed, Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem and Ahsen Maqsoom

The purpose of this paper is to investigate critical barriers hindering the adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) and the opportunities that can be exploited…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate critical barriers hindering the adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) and the opportunities that can be exploited with such an implementation in the construction industry of developing countries. It also devises strategies to avoid critical barriers in implementation and exploit opportunities for a better overall environmental performance of the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This research relies upon an extensive literature review; data are collected from 163 professionals and 15 interviews of field professionals from 11 developing countries are conducted. The barriers and opportunities are synthesized through literature review and then data are collected over their significance from the construction professionals through an online survey. To highlight the interconnectedness of the critical barriers and opportunities, a causal loop framework is developed. Furthermore, expert opinion is sought to develop the strategies.

Findings

This research integrates information from different sources and provides a holistic view of the current situation of GSCM in developing countries. In total, 34 barriers and 23 opportunities are extracted from literature. The top 4 barriers fall under the “involvement and support” category, whereas the top four opportunities fall under the “environmental” category. Furthermore, the strategies to implement GSCM include suitable policies by top management to incorporate practices such as innovative green design, green procurement, green packaging, green distribution and even end-of-life management, which play a vital role in emission reduction.

Originality/value

This research is a first attempt at evaluating the barriers and opportunities facing GSCM in the construction sector of the developing countries. The findings encourage the stakeholders in adopting GSCM practices by presenting a clear picture of the potential benefits that can be exploited by implementing the proposed strategies to eliminate critical barriers in the construction industry.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Osama Sam Al-Kwifi and Zafar U. Ahmed

The aim of this paper is to explore the historical development of brands and the development of literature on brand switching to define the antecedents that cause…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore the historical development of brands and the development of literature on brand switching to define the antecedents that cause switching behavior among consumers and the impact of switching on market share of companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical development of brands is tracked using different secondary sources. Then an intensive literature review is conducted on brand switching at the consumer and business levels. At each level, studies on brand switching are divided into several categories, such as household products, technological products and service providers, and the common factors behind switching for each category and between categories are determined.

Findings

An examination of the historical development of brands shows that brands appeared on products a long time ago and evolved through a number of stages based on the economic and social environment. The literature reveals that no single model can explain brand switching behavior of consumers or businesses across different industries and products. Each study uses a specific set of factors to explain brand switching. However, brand attractiveness can be counted as the most common factor behind brand switching.

Research limitations/implications

There is little understanding of the historical mutations of brand switching behavior and the influence of mutation on branding strategies. The study suggests that continuous exploration of consumer’s preferences is needed to create and sustain attractive brands.

Practical implications

Managers increasingly recognize brands as one of the most valuable assets of an organization, and, therefore, an informed knowledge of the factors underpinning brand switching may help managers build attractive brands and prevent brand switching. This condition imposes significant challenges in a highly innovative environment, where technological changes can quickly make attractive brands obsolete.

Originality/value

This paper highlights that the factors behind brand switching should be monitored constantly, even for the same brand, to define an appropriate strategy that helps sustain brand attractiveness.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Paurav Shukla

The consumer culture in recent times has evolved into one of the most powerful ingredients shaping individuals and societies. Although the behavioural intentions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The consumer culture in recent times has evolved into one of the most powerful ingredients shaping individuals and societies. Although the behavioural intentions and purchase decisions related models continue to dominate research and managerial practice, a deeper look indicates that most studies do not take the complete picture in account and study parts of the above mentioned phenomena. Furthermore, consumers operate in a dynamic and ever‐changing environment which in itself demands a re‐examination of their behavioural intentions and purchase decision influences from time to time. This paper aims to focus on these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the context of the young adults market, this study looks into how contextual factors vis‐à‐vis loyalty and switching impact consumer purchase intentions. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative research methodology.

Findings

The findings suggest that contextual factors have the strongest influence on purchase decisions. Furthermore, contextual factors influence the brand loyalty and switching behaviour.

Practical implications

The findings provide important insights with regards to the factors on which practitioners should focus to better tailor their content and approaches.

Originality/value

The study supplies unique learning to managers and researchers alike, through conceptualising and subsequently empirically verifying the issue of purchase decision, brand loyalty and switching with regard to contextual factors.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2007

Abd El Hakeem Abd El Naby and M.F. Abd El Kareem

The peristaltic motion for Carreau fluid by means of an infinite train of sinusoidal waves traveling along the walls of a circular cylindrical flexible tube is…

Abstract

The peristaltic motion for Carreau fluid by means of an infinite train of sinusoidal waves traveling along the walls of a circular cylindrical flexible tube is investigated. The fluid is subjected to a constant transverse magnetic field. A perturbation solution is obtained for the case in which Weissenberg number is small. The effects of Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, power‐law index and amplitude ratio on the pressure rise and the friction force are discussed. The trapping limit and the trapping occurrence region at the centerline decrease by increasing Hartmann number but they are independent approximately of Weissenberg number and power‐law index.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Joel Lööw

Using a theory of translation of ideas, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the mining industry has implemented and practices lean production as well as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a theory of translation of ideas, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the mining industry has implemented and practices lean production as well as the form of this practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviewed the scientific literature on lean production in the mining industry, as well as in the reported practice of the concept in a mining company. The results were then analyzed using content analysis.

Findings

Lean production has not seen a full implementation in the mining industry. Rather, select practices are focused, though the literature covers several more. The findings suggest that the form and extension of lean production in mining differ from other industries owing to characteristics of the industry itself.

Research limitations/implications

The scientific literature on the subject is limited. Additional material was used to attempt to offset this. However, there are still blind spots relating to practice that is not reported in the type of material investigated.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to understanding the evolution of lean production in a unique industry. It suggests why lean implementation may be unsuccessful in this type of industry while also identifying the focal point of its lean production practice.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Martin Fraering and Michael S. Minor

– This paper aims to discuss the first effort to examine the relationships between satisfaction, the four loyalty phases, fortitude, and a sense of virtual community.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the first effort to examine the relationships between satisfaction, the four loyalty phases, fortitude, and a sense of virtual community.

Design/methodology/approach

Oliver proposed an innovative framework to explain the relationships between satisfaction, loyalty, fortitude, and a sense of community.

Findings

Analysis of questionnaire responses of 493 customers of banks and credit unions indicated that satisfaction, cognitive, affective, conative, and action loyalty are positively related to fortitude.

Research limitations/implications

The Beyond Loyalty Model (BLM) does not address important strategic issues often associated with loyalty, such as firm profitability, complaint resolution, and firm profitability.

Practical implications

This research is the first to find that customers of financial institutions acquire satisfaction and strong loyalty ties with their bank or credit union after dealing with their financial services provider for a relatively short period of time. Thus financial institutions should consistently seek relationship-building opportunities from the outset of their relationships with their customers.

Originality/value

The resulting Beyond Loyalty Model (BLM) improves upon the American Bankers Association ' s ABA Financial Client Satisfaction Index, and is a means by which financial institutions can monitor and enhance the satisfaction, loyalty, and fortitude of the customers of financial institutions. Further, the increasing acceptance of virtual banking calls for additional study of this area.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Caroline Lacroix, Lova Rajaobelina and Anik St-Onge

This article proposes two studies to demonstrate the impact of three dimensions of perceived experiential advertising – cognitive/affective/sensory advertising, relate…

Abstract

Purpose

This article proposes two studies to demonstrate the impact of three dimensions of perceived experiential advertising – cognitive/affective/sensory advertising, relate advertising and behavioural advertising – on consumer behaviour (brand credibility, affective commitment and emotions) in the banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

For study 1, a total of 506 online panellists of a recognized Canadian research firm were asked to evaluate a local bank advertisement using an online self-reported questionnaire. For study 2, a total of 65 Canadian respondents recruited through Facebook and Google adverts were asked to watch two video advertisements (one more experiential and the other less experiential). After viewing the advertisements on a computer equipped with FaceReader software by Noldus, participants completed a short online questionnaire.

Findings

Using structural equations modelling, the first study shows that brand credibility explains the positive impact of perceived cognitive/affective/sensory advertising (complementary mediation) and perceived behavioural advertising (indirect mediation only) on affective commitment. The second study illustrates that the cognitive/affective/sensory dimension is more important for experiential advertising than experiential advertising. Employing FaceReader facial expression recognition software results indicate that the bank advertisement with a higher score of perceived cognitive/affective/sensory advertising produces a higher level of happiness among respondents.

Originality/value

Both studies provide new insights into perceived experiential advertising and the impact of the latter on consumers. Benefits to scholars and practitioners include an enhanced understanding of advertising effectiveness in the banking sector.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Farzana Quoquab, Jihad Mohammad, Norjaya Md Yasin and Nor Liza Abdullah

This study sheds some light on factors that affect customer switching intention in the Malaysian mobile phone service industry. More particularly, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sheds some light on factors that affect customer switching intention in the Malaysian mobile phone service industry. More particularly, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of service quality (SQ), customer satisfaction, switching cost and consumer innovativeness (CI) on service switching intention (SWI); the mediating role of customer satisfaction; and the moderating role of service switching cost on the relationship between CI and SWI.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire survey that yielded 535 responses. Using structural equation modelling approach, the partial least square software, version 3 was utilised to test the study hypotheses.

Findings

Results reveal that customer satisfaction, service switching cost and CI directly affect SWI. However, no significant relationship was found between SQ and SWI. Again, data supported the mediating effect of customer satisfaction as well as the moderating effect of service switching cost.

Research limitations/implications

It is expected that the findings from this study will enable policymakers, managers and marketers to formulate better strategies and effectively implement loyalty programs, preventing their customers from switching.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by testing switching costs as the quasi moderator. Moreover, this is a pioneer study to consider CI as the antecedent of SWI.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Hsuan-Yi Chou and Tuan-Yu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by combining concepts from consumer attitude change, resistance to persuasion and construal level theory (CLT).

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted to test the propositions.

Findings

Consumers perceived the low-price (low-quality) characteristic of private-label products as a high-level (low-level) construal consideration when forming purchase decisions. Product relevance negatively affected consumers’ perceived product distance. Compared with store brands, separate brands enhanced consumer product attitudes and purchase intentions. Brand strategies and product distance affected consumer message-processing mindset (i.e. resistant to persuasion or open to persuasion) when processing advertisements, ultimately moderating the effect of spokesperson expertise.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for hypermarkets seeking to implement brand strategies and select spokespersons for private-label products. Additionally, the findings show that advertisers should design advertising elements to match consumers’ construal approaches to product-related information.

Originality/value

This study contrasts two common hypermarket brand strategies, identifies the construal levels corresponding to the dual roles of private-label products and expands CLT dimensions. Additionally, the results bridge two research approaches (persuasion and resistance to persuasion) and demonstrate the pivotal influence of brand strategies. The findings also advance understanding of the effects of spokesperson expertise and contribute to resistance theory by showing how to effectively reduce attitude certainty after resistance to persuasion.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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