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This paper aims to describe current trends in probabilistic structural fire engineering and provides a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art of performance-based…
This paper aims to describe current trends in probabilistic structural fire engineering and provides a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art of performance-based structural fire engineering (PSFE).
PSFE has been introduced to overcome the limitations of current conventional design approaches used for the design of fire-exposed structures, which investigate assumed worst-case fire scenarios and include multiple thermal and structural analyses. PSFE permits buildings to be designed in relation to a level of life safety or economic loss that may occur in future fire events with the help of a probabilistic approach.
This paper brings together existing research on various sources of uncertainty in probabilistic structural fire engineering, such as elements affecting post-flashover fire development, material properties, fire models, fire severity, analysis methods and structural reliability.
Prediction of economic loss would depend on the extent of damage, which is further dependent on the structural response. The representative prediction of structural behaviour would depend on the precise quantification of the fire hazard. The incorporation of major uncertainty sources in probabilistic structural fire engineering is explained, and the detailed description of a pioneering analysis method called incremental fire analysis is presented.
The fire resistance of precast prestressed concrete floor systems is heavily influenced by the end connections and the stiffness of the surrounding structure, both of…
The fire resistance of precast prestressed concrete floor systems is heavily influenced by the end connections and the stiffness of the surrounding structure, both of which must be considered in any analysis. Analysing floor slabs with beam or shell elements whose end nodes share the nodes of supporting beams leads to a major problem for precast prestressed flooring systems where the steel tendons terminate at the end of the flooring units, because the approach of sharing nodes of the supporting beam and floor assumes that these tendons are anchored into the supporting beams. In order to solve this problem, a "multi-spring" connection element has been developed. Experimental data available from previous research work has been used to validate the finite element model. It is concluded that the inclusion of the multi-spring connection results in more accurate predictions of prestressed hollowcore slab behaviour in fire conditions.
This research investigated the fire performance and failure behaviour of timber-concrete composite floor systems currently under development in New Zealand, resulting in a…
This research investigated the fire performance and failure behaviour of timber-concrete composite floor systems currently under development in New Zealand, resulting in a design method for evaluating the fire resistance of these floors with different types of connections. Furnace tests were performed on two full-size floor specimens at the Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ). Both floor specimens were 4 m long and 3 m wide, consisting of 65 mm concrete topping on plywood formwork, connected to double LVL (laminated veneer lumber) floor joists. They were tested over a 4 m span, subjected to a nominal design live load of 2.5 kPa. Both floors were subjected to the ISO 834 test fire for over 60 minutes. Two separate connection types were tested; concrete notches cut into the timber beams with an incorporated shear key, and metal toothed plates pressed between the double beams.
It was found that the reduction in section of the timber beams due to the fire governed the failure mode of the floors. The test data and visual observations aided in the development of an analytical model for evaluating the fire resistance of timber-concrete composite floors. This was implemented into a spreadsheet that is able to predict the expected fire resistance of these floors, taking into account some major time dependent variable properties that can have an effect on the overall performance. Load-span tables have been produced to give the estimated fire resistance of floors with differing dimensions, span lengths and applied loads.
Over the years, India has witnessed irregular FDI inflows. Therefore, this study aims to explore the asymmetric impact of per capita income, final consumption expenditure…
Over the years, India has witnessed irregular FDI inflows. Therefore, this study aims to explore the asymmetric impact of per capita income, final consumption expenditure, globalization index and exchange rate on FDI inflows in India.
Using the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag bounds framework and unknown structural break, the study investigates the impacts of selected macroeconomic variables in driving FDI inflows in India during the study period (1979-2016).
The outcomes of the study confirm the asymmetric relationship between FDI inflows and its determinants during the study period. The results have confirmed that the improvement in per capita income, private consumption expenditure, globalization index and currency value appreciation play a crucial role in increasing FDI inflows in India. In contrast, the downside movements in the volume of consumption expenditure, globalization index and depreciation of the currency value in relation to the trade partners result in reducing the volume of FDI inflows in the long run.
For determining FDI inflows, previous studies have considered the overall impact of its potential determinants, which may provide partial information about the phenomenon. The adopted nonlinear approach highlights that both the types of fluctuations (i.e. upside and downside) in the independent variables may affect FDI inflows differently and substantially. The nonlinear association between FDI and selected determinants may be vital in formulating a long-term policy.