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Article

Muzaffer Metin, Arif Ulu, Ozgur Demir and Aytac Arikoglu

In this study, a railway superstructure is modeled with a new approach called locally continuous supporting, and its behavior under the effect of moving load is analyzed…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a railway superstructure is modeled with a new approach called locally continuous supporting, and its behavior under the effect of moving load is analyzed by using analytical and numerical techniques. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the success of the new modeling technique.

Design/methodology/approach

In the railway superstructure, the support zones are not modeled with discrete spring-damping elements. Instead of this, it is considered to be a continuous viscoelastic structure in the local areas. To model this approach, the governing partial differential equations are derived by Hamilton’s principle and spatially discretized by the Galerkin’s method, and the time integration of the resulting ordinary differential equation system is carried out by the Newmark–Beta method.

Findings

Both the proposed model and the solution technique are verified against conventional one-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models for a specific case, and a very good agreement between the results is observed. The effects of geometric, structural, and loading parameters such as rail-pad length, rail-pad stiffness, rail-pad damping ratio, the gap between rail pads and vehicle speed on the dynamic response of railway superstructure are investigated in detail.

Originality/value

There are mainly two approaches to the modeling of rail pads. The first approach considers them as a single spring-damper connected in parallel located at the centroid of the rail pad. The second one divides the rail pad into several parts, with each of part represented by an equivalent spring-damper system. To obtain realistic results with minimum CPU time for the dynamic response of railway superstructure, the rail pads are modeled as continuous linearly viscoelastic local supports. The mechanical model of viscoelastic material is considered as a spring and damper connected in parallel.

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Article

Markus Schwaninger

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of making the systems approach fertile for the future of our world(s).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of making the systems approach fertile for the future of our world(s).

Design/methodology/approach

Underpinned by a significant case study, the idea of the paper is to show how a systems study changed the basis for deciding on an incisive interference planned for a lovely alpine valley. The study builds on a qualitative conceptual model and reverts to a quantitative, system‐dynamics simulation model, as well as standard economic evaluation methods. The decision process is explained with its outcomes and implications.

Findings

The study found, among others, the following concrete result: The optimal variant (Case B) required an additional investment for its realization. According to the calculations that were carried out, the period needed for the amortization of the pertinent amount was found to be no more than 0.9 to 1.6 years. It became clear that the most expensive variant was indeed a very good business proposition for the Austrian Republic.

Practical implications

The results of the study were integrated into the General Traffic Plan of the Austrian Ministry of Transportation, Innovation and Technology, i.e. the study's conclusions obtained legal status. This meant a shift toward a long‐term orientation. In addition, new insights for the realization of similar studies and interventions were gained.

Originality/value

The study described in the paper shows both rigor and relevance. It illuminates a methodology that combines the qualitative and the quantitative, as well as careful analysis and powerful synthesis. Beyond the methods and procedures used in the inquiry, its outcomes and impact on the concrete system under study are demonstrated.

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Article

Wang Jiawei and Sun Quansheng

Swivel construction is a new bridge construction method, which can minimize the impact on railway and highway traffic. Previous studies were based on single factor and…

Abstract

Purpose

Swivel construction is a new bridge construction method, which can minimize the impact on railway and highway traffic. Previous studies were based on single factor and static analysis, which cannot reflect the real state of structures. The purpose of this paper is to establish a dynamic model of the structure and to analyze the situation under multi-variable coupling effects to accurately simulate the real state of the structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element software ANSYS was used to establish dynamic model of turntable structure and then to analyze the effects of multiple factors on total stress, friction stress and slipping distance of the turntable structure.

Findings

It is concluded that the unbalanced weight and radius of spherical hinges have great influence on the turntable structure, so the design should be strictly considered. Friction stress and angular acceleration have little effect on the turntable structure.

Originality/value

This paper provides simulation of the whole process of swivel construction method. Whereas previous studies focused on static analysis, this paper focuses on the dynamic analysis of swivel construction method. The mechanics of the swivel structure under multiple factors was analyzed. According to the analysis results, the design parameters of the turntable structure are optimized.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article

S. McCartney and A.J. Arnold

The wild boom and slump of 1845‐1847 was the most important of the nineteenth century railway manias, in terms both of its scale and effects on the economy as a whole. It…

Abstract

The wild boom and slump of 1845‐1847 was the most important of the nineteenth century railway manias, in terms both of its scale and effects on the economy as a whole. It has almost invariably been seen as a market irrationality, a view fundamentally challenged by Bryer’s theorisation of it as a deliberate and collusive device of the “London wealthy”, aided by central government, to swindle provincial middle class investors. This analysis also greatly extended previous perspectives on the rôle of accounting by asserting that accounting practices were crucial to the success of the process and were thus “deeply implicated” in a great, class‐based swindle. The acceptance of such a perspective would have important implications for the way we understand the functioning of accounting and capitalism in the mid‐nineteenth century, but this paper instead argues that such notions are misconceived, looking to both the evidence that was available when Bryer’s paper was written and to recently collected data on the depreciation accounting practices of the time.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

With the view of obtaining reliable first‐hand information as to the nature and efficacy of the food laws in Great Britain, France, and Germany, Mr. ROBERT ALLEN, the…

Abstract

With the view of obtaining reliable first‐hand information as to the nature and efficacy of the food laws in Great Britain, France, and Germany, Mr. ROBERT ALLEN, the Secretary of the Pure Food Commission of Kentucky, has recently visited London, Paris, and Berlin. He has now published a report, containing a number of facts and conclusions of very considerable interest and importance, which, we presume, will be laid before the great Congress of Food Experts to be held on the occasion of the forthcoming exposition at St. Louis. Mr. ALLEN severely criticises the British system, and calls particular attention to the evils attending our feeble legislation, and still more feeble administrative methods. The criticisms are severe, but they are just. Great Britain, says Mr. ALLEN, is par excellence the dumping‐ground for adulterated, sophisticated, and impoverished foods of all kinds. France, Germany, and America, he observes, have added a superstructure to their Tariff walls in the shape of standards of purity for imported food‐products, while through Great Britain's open door are thrust the greater part of the bad goods which would be now rejected in the three countries above referred to. Whatever views may be held as to the imposition of Tariffs no sane person will deny the importance of instituting some kind of effective control over the quality of imported food products, and, while it may be admitted that an attempt—all too restricted in its nature—has been made in the Food Act of 1899 to deal with the matter, it certainly cannot be said that any really effective official control of the kind indicated is at present in existence in the British Isles. We agree with Mr. ALLEN'S statement that our food laws are inadequate and that, such as they are, those laws are poorly enforced, or not enforced at all. It is also true that there are no “standards” or “limits” in regard to the composition and quality of food products “except loose and low standards for butter and milk,” and we are compelled to admit that with the exception of the British Analytical Control there exists no organisation—either official or voluntary —which can be said to concern itself in a comprehensive and effective manner with the all‐important subject of the nature and quality of the food supply of the people. In the United States, and in some of those European countries which are entitled to call themselves civilised, the pure food question has been studied carefully and seriously in recent years—with the result that legislation and administrative machinery of far superior types to ours are rapidly being introduced. With us adulteration, sophistication, and the supply of inferior goods are still commonly regarded as matters to be treated in a sort of joking spirit, even by persons whose education and position are such as to make their adoption of so foolish an attitude most astonishing to those who have given even but slight attention to the subject. Lethargy, carelessness, and a species of feeble frivolity appear to be growing among us to such an extent as to threaten to become dangerous in a national sense. We should be thankful for outspoken criticism—if only for the bracing effect it ought to produce.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part

Lorenzo Fusaro

Commenting on the Mexican Revolution in 1938, Trotsky argued that the country might achieve “national independence,” understood as a break with dependency relations…

Abstract

Commenting on the Mexican Revolution in 1938, Trotsky argued that the country might achieve “national independence,” understood as a break with dependency relations. Whether this might occur depended – Trotsky continued – on “international factors.” Though not engaging with Mexico, Antonio Gramsci made a similar theoretical point. It is hence from this perspective that this chapter analyses the Mexican Revolution, asking whether it led to a break in dependency relations and the attainment of “national independence” or what I refer to as “relative geopolitical autonomy.” Presenting a framework of analysis largely based on the work of Gramsci that highlights its continuity with the thought of Marx, the chapter will answer negatively to this question. The chapter starts from the idea that Porfirio Díaz’s regime was unable to adapt the economic structure (still pre-capitalist) to the complex superstructures (capitalist), that is, to realize an historic bloc. It would be this job that the emergent Mexican bourgeoisie sought to finish. However, the situation is complicated by the powerful emergence of social movements from below, constituted largely by landless peasants, and to a lesser extent, the industrial proletariat. I will therefore argue that the revolution has been both “passive” and “bounded.” The term passive revolution will be applied to the last phase of the revolution as the emerging bourgeoisie successfully coopted the demands of the popular masses thereby “passivizing” them. But crucially, the revolution was also “bounded” because international factors, and especially US influence, played a conditioning role throughout the revolutionary process. At the same time, it would be the very “passive” nature of the revolution that would contribute to the reproduction of relations of dependency. Hence the chapter concludes that the period Trotsky commented upon (the Cárdenas period) is the highest level of “independence” Mexico achieved, only to decrease again over the years.

Details

Class History and Class Practices in the Periphery of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-592-5

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Article

Robert C. Guyer and Jeffrey A. Laman

Limited funding to maintain and preserve short‐line railroad (SLRR) bridge infrastructure requires that important priority decisions be made on an annual basis. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Limited funding to maintain and preserve short‐line railroad (SLRR) bridge infrastructure requires that important priority decisions be made on an annual basis. The compartmentalized, dispersed, and diverse nature of many SLRR owners and operators is such that there is a need for a coordinated and centralized effort to evaluate the state‐wide system as a whole, to ensure the most effective overall resource allocation and also identify assets that either outperform predictions or consume disproportionate levels of resources for maintenance and operation, allowing for review of design and construction practices. The purpose of this paper is to examine the state of the art for railroad bridge population management and resource allocation decisions and to develop a state‐wide SLRR bridge prioritization methodology, to be used as a tool by a state agency to assist in allocating limited public funding for bridge maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review examining the state of the art of railroad bridge population management and resource allocation decisions was conducted, which provided the foundation for the development of a bridge prioritization algorithm. A state‐wide survey was conducted to develop a bridge database. A detailed evaluation of a statistically significant sample of bridges was conducted, to determine the structural and maintenance needs and preservation status of sub‐populations. The research team developed methodologies, applicable to the entire population, to develop a ranking of bridge preservation candidates.

Findings

A risk‐based prioritization algorithm is proposed to assign a relative risk score to each bridge in the population. The algorithm provides a management tool for making more effective maintenance and preservation decisions. Additionally, the bridge database allows managers to examine sub‐populations according to structural parameters to evaluate performance.

Originality/value

The revisable, modular framework of the prioritization algorithm provides a simple, effective and versatile tool for asset management and evaluation. The present proposal of this new prioritization methodology for SLRR bridges is a valuable tool for agencies faced with making rational decisions with limited information. Such a methodology does not currently exist in the literature and is of significant interest to short‐line owners/operators and state transportation agencies.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Content available
Book part

James D. White

While working on the final draft of Das Kapital Volume I, Marx discovered that the assumption that he had previously held: as it circulated capital extended its sphere of…

Abstract

While working on the final draft of Das Kapital Volume I, Marx discovered that the assumption that he had previously held: as it circulated capital extended its sphere of operation and at the same time absorbed earlier forms of economic organization was not supported by empirical evidence. From 1869 he began to study how in fact capital began to circulate in Russia, a country which had begun to create a capitalist economy after the liberation of the peasantry in 1861. Marx was aided in this project by Nikolai Danielson, who sent him materials on the Russian economy and who himself made a study of contemporary trends in Russian economic development. Marx contributed to the article Danielson published in 1880 on this subject. One of the works Marx acquired was the book by Vorontsov, who concurred with Danielson that only some features of capitalism were present in the Russian economy and that peasants were dispossessed without being re-deployed in capitalist enterprises. Marx died without incorporating his Russian material into the second volume of Das Kapital. Engels failed to see any problem with the circulation of capital and published the manuscripts as he found them, dispersing Marx’s Russian materials. Unlike Danielson, Engels was convinced that Russia’s economic development did not differ in any way from that of Western Europe, a conviction shared by Plekhanov and Lenin, who classed Danielson and Vorontsov as “narodniki.” Lenin’s book The Development of Capitalism in Russia is a polemic against Danielson and Vorontsov, but does not directly address the points they made.

Details

Class History and Class Practices in the Periphery of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-592-5

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Article

Jane Andrew and Max Baker

The authors critique Modell's proposition that critical realism is useful in elucidating and creating possibilities for emancipation.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors critique Modell's proposition that critical realism is useful in elucidating and creating possibilities for emancipation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors begin by outlining Modell's conception of enabling structures. If ‘activated’ by reflexive individuals, these are theorised to be a mechanism through which agents can begin to emancipate themselves. However, the authors argue that emancipation must be contextualised within the material realities of global capitalism, paying particular attention to the shape of inequality and the subjects of exploitation. In doing this, they draw on Marx to pose an alternative view of structure.

Findings

In offering a Marxist critique of critical realism, the authors show how capitalist superstructure and base work together to reinforce inequality. In doing this, they highlight the enduring importance of collective action as the engine of emancipation. It is for this reason that they advocate for an emancipatory politics, which is collectively informed outside of, and in conflict with, the logics of capitalism.

Research limitations/implications

The authors argue that explicit discussions of capitalism and its structures must be at the centre of critical accounting research, especially when it pertains to emancipation.

Originality/value

Given the importance of the conceptual framing of critical accounting research, this article suggests that critical realism has much to offer. That said, the authors draw on Marx to raise a number of important questions about both the nature of structure and the identity of reflexive agents within critical realism. They do this to encourage further debate about the emancipatory possibilities of the critical accounting project and the ideas proposed by Modell (2020).

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Thomas John McCloughlin

This paper aims to examine a range of unintended consequences in Irish society both historical and present-day, with a view of presenting the structure of society as a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine a range of unintended consequences in Irish society both historical and present-day, with a view of presenting the structure of society as a dynamic system with both homeostatic or autopoietic aspects.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in this work is in the examination of the concept of institutionalisation and whether the public perception of life in Ireland can be compared between two widely separated periods, in this case, 1800s and 2000s, and then taking one example from this model and determining the validity of single case isolation: autism units in mainstream primary schools.

Findings

Even initiatives in society for the “common good” appear to have unforeseen consequences which are negative. Irish society has the appearance of a homeostatic system but on closer examination is autopoietic. The term “better” is misplaced when comparing two time frames, and argument can be made to agree or disagree.

Research limitations/implications

There are serious limitations in using historical data in the first place, but secondarily problematic when correlating with the equivalent modern data, for example, how questions are termed and answers given, how data are collected and validated are different across different time frames. Even when one finds comparable data, it is difficult to validate and selection does itself create a bias.

Originality/value

The value of this work is to evaluate the commonplace distinction policymakers make when comparing two periods in time; for the lay person, this is a means to say whether modern Irish society could be said to be “better” than that in the nineteenth century.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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