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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Raija Komppula and Helen Reijonen

The purpose of this study was to identify those factors that are supposed to be the most important in terms of small business success in tourism industry. The empirical…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify those factors that are supposed to be the most important in terms of small business success in tourism industry. The empirical data is collected within one region in Finland. The respondents were asked to evaluate the importance of the given factors for the firm's success and how highly the respondent evaluated the company's expertise in each factor in their operations. Questionnaires were sent by mail to a total of 214 tourism businesses. The final response rate was 43% (92 businesses). According to the analysis of the data, the respondents emphasise the importance of customer orientation, good skills in leadership, internal marketing and a good reputation of the firm and the product. The impact of external advice (incubators, consultants, research organisations) was evaluated as the least important factor of success. So, market orientation seems to play a key role in the performance of small and micro tourism firms. Customer orientation is also well mastered according to the businesses. The greatest development needs would be in the areas of price and accessibility, as well as in customer orientation. The results of this study indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in the views held by slowly or fast growing tourism businesses regarding the importance of the success factors. The same factors are considered important and less important in both slowly and fast growing businesses. Neither were there any statistically significant differences in these businesses as to the expertise in these success factors.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Raija Komppula

This paper aims to highlight the crucial role of individual people, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders in the development of a tourist destination during its life cycle…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the crucial role of individual people, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders in the development of a tourist destination during its life cycle. The purpose is to increase our understanding of individual actors as contributors to leadership and development of tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

An intrinsic case study of a Finnish ski resort, Ruka, is presented. The primary data consist of 16 narrative interviews. Secondary sources of information such as a history book and a historical review, reports and Web pages have been used as well.

Findings

The study suggests that the leadership in a destination is attributed to individuals. It is the charismatic entrepreneurs, business managers, municipality and influential politicians that may take control of the leadership at the destination. Being local enhances the sense of identity with the place and facilitates a cooperative atmosphere between actors. Finally, the roles of stakeholders and aspects of the leadership of a destination may vary along the destination life cycle.

Research limitations/implications

As this paper presents a single case study in a Finnish context, the findings cannot be, and are not meant to be, generalized. Rather, the findings present an example of an exception to the mainstream destination management and governance literature.

Originality/value

The paper fills the research gap noted by Kennedy (2014) and presents an in-depth study analysing the role of different stakeholders in destination leadership.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Raf de Bruyn

Workshop 3 entitled “Sustainability and Growth” involved 4 speakers: Raija Komppula (Finland), Richard Prentice (England), Claude Origet du Cluzeau (France) and Luiz Trigo…

Abstract

Workshop 3 entitled “Sustainability and Growth” involved 4 speakers: Raija Komppula (Finland), Richard Prentice (England), Claude Origet du Cluzeau (France) and Luiz Trigo (Brazil). Given the broad spectrum of the workshop theme, the four speakers all focussed on different aspects. Their approach to the theme could be rather theoretical or more practical.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Helen Reijonen and Raija Komppula

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions of success and how these perceptions affect the performance of a firm. The…

6893

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions of success and how these perceptions affect the performance of a firm. The emphasis is on non‐financial measures of success and their interaction with the financial indicators of a firm's performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a comparative analysis of two separate studies conducted in the same geographical area in Finland. The studies were concerned with micro‐businesses in the industries of craft and rural tourism.

Findings

The study finds that non‐financial meters of success that are affected by the entrepreneur's motivations and goals influence the financial performance of the small firm. Making a living is important, but going beyond that is not often seen of great concern. Consequently, the entrepreneurs are likely to measure their performance by other criteria and find success, e.g. in job satisfaction and satisfied customers.

Research limitations/implications

In the data collection process, the used questions and themes were not identical. The main themes of performance, growth and success are, however, comparable.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful information about small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions and attitudes of success and growth and how these affect the management of the firm.

Originality/value

This paper brings empirical evidence to the studies of factors affecting small firm performance. In addition, it offers useful insight into the non‐financial measures of success.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Juho Pesonen, Raija Komppula, Christopher Kronenberg and Mike Peters

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences and relationships of push and pull motivations in two different rural tourism destinations.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences and relationships of push and pull motivations in two different rural tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from tourists visiting rural tourism companies in Finland and in Tyrol (Austria). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and correlation coefficients.

Findings

The results indicate significant differences of push and pull motivations in the two regions. In addition, tourists motivated by different variables obviously search for different destination attributes. For example, tourists motivated by the search of a once‐in‐a‐lifetime experience expect different destination attributes than those respondents searching for a sense of comfort or an opportunity to relax.

Research limitations/implications

The low sample size in both Tyrol and Finland reduces the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

The findings can be used by rural tourism companies and practitioners to understand how push and pull motivations affect tourist behaviour. Based on this information, marketing initiatives can be customized for various target segments in this particular market.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the inter‐relationship between push and pull motivations in rural tourism and one of the most detailed studies on rural tourist motivations. Additionally, the comparison of the two countries underlines the assumption, that cultural or macro‐economic variables strongly influence push and pull motivations of consumers.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Raija Komppula and Jarno Suni

This study is an attempt to increase the understanding of the hunting tourism customer. The purpose of the paper is to explore the characteristics, motivations, values and…

1020

Abstract

Purpose

This study is an attempt to increase the understanding of the hunting tourism customer. The purpose of the paper is to explore the characteristics, motivations, values and expectations of Finnish hunting tourists, and to try to distinguish between different types among them.

Design/methodology/approach

Twelve semi‐structured, narrative, face‐to‐face interviews were conducted. The study was conceived within an interpretive paradigm, in which a central aim is to understand the subjective world of the human experience. Constant comparison was used as a method of data analysis.

Findings

Several common features were distinguished among the interviewees. First, hunters' attitudes towards shooting and the importance of a bag have changed during the years. Second, a difference between an ordinary hunting experience and a hunting tourism experience was perceptible. Third, willingness to experience something new related to hunting was the most important hunting tourism motivation. The fourth common feature was the importance of the social component hunting tourism. Three different types of hunting tourists could be identified: responsible hunting tourists, adaptable hunting tourists and achievement‐oriented hunting tourists. The major distinguishing factors were the hunters' attitudes towards shooting, game farming and social relationships during the hunting trip.

Originality/value

The study is one of the few to investigate hunters as tourists.

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Helen Reijonen, Szandra Párdányi, Sasu Tuominen, Tommi Laukkanen and Raija Komppula

The purpose of this paper is to examine how SMEs with varying growth intentions differ from each other with regard to market orientation and brand orientation. Both of…

1371

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how SMEs with varying growth intentions differ from each other with regard to market orientation and brand orientation. Both of these strategic orientations are seen to lead to enhanced market performance. Consequently, the authors investigate whether those small firms that regard growth as an important goal have adopted market or brand orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses from 492 SMEs were analysed. They were clustered into four groups according to their growth intentions. These groups included firms that have low growth intention, capital adequacy growth intention, expansion growth intention and high growth intention. ANOVA was used to explore whether these groups differed in their market or brand orientation.

Findings

The results indicate that the higher growth intention group the SME belonged to the more market and brand oriented it is. The biggest differences between the SMEs were found with regards to brand orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that SMEs have acknowledged the positive effect of market and brand orientations on firm growth, thus highlighting the importance of supporting growth-oriented SMEs in their quest to become more market or brand oriented.

Originality/value

The study sheds more light on the little researched themes of market and brand orientations in the context of SMEs. It also offers insights into how growth intentions affect the adoption of different strategic orientations.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Johanna Kokkomäki, Tommi Laukkanen and Raija Komppula

The objective of this paper is to identify the factors determining a business organisation's use of an intermediary when buying convention packages and meeting services.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to identify the factors determining a business organisation's use of an intermediary when buying convention packages and meeting services.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are based on a case, a public organisation responsible for promoting and intermediating meetings, incentives, contentions and events (MICE) services provided by small and medium‐sized tourism organisations in southern Finland. An online questionnaire was used for the data collection and a total of 223 valid responses were collected. Explorative factor analysis was used to analyse the research results.

Findings

Based on explorative factor analysis it is suggested there are three distinct factors as determinants of the phenomenon, namely “Attractive convention packages”, “Know‐how of the personnel”, and “Ease of buying a convention package”. The results of the structural equation modelling reveal that ease of buying a convention package is the primary reason for using the intermediary, while attractive convention packages and know‐how of the personnel have a much lower effect.

Research limitations/implications

More research is needed to explore if there are more attributes affecting the use of an intermediary in the buying process.

Practical implications

Intermediaries of meeting services can develop their services by paying more attention to how to make the buying process easier and more flexible for the customer.

Originality/value

Earlier studies have not analysed the structure of the interrelationships among variables affecting the use of an intermediary in the purchase of meeting services, or empirically verified constructs to measure these factors.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Christian Laesser

397

Abstract

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Thomas Bieger and Christian Laesser

286

Abstract

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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