Search results1 – 10 of 11
Víctor Ernesto Pérez León, Flor Mª Guerrero and Rafael Caballero
This study aims to present diverse proposals for the measurement of tourism destination competitiveness that serve as alternatives to the travel and tourism…
This study aims to present diverse proposals for the measurement of tourism destination competitiveness that serve as alternatives to the travel and tourism competitiveness index (TTCI).
The proposal includes principal component analysis, the DP2-distance method, goal programming, data envelopment analysis and the Borda count. The study evaluates 17 destinations from Central America and the Caribbean.
These include the feasibility that the methodologies provide reliable competitiveness rankings and the possibility of using less information due to the strength of the statistical methodologies. International tourist arrivals, income from international tourism and travel and tourism contribution to the gross domestic product could be used as approximations of tourism destination competitiveness.
The main limitation is the absence of major destinations from the region that constitutes fierce competitors.
New aggregation methods can build composite indicators for competitiveness measurement and their presentation in a more comprehensible way.
The results serve as an alternative for countries that have yet to be considered in international tourism competitiveness comparisons.
A better explanatory power of the proposed index is given, thanks to their decomposition capacity and the reduction of the limitations of the original TTCI. Moreover, the proposals facilitate the inclusion of external information or the execution of a completely objective methodology.
该提案包括主成分分析、DP2 距离方法、目标规划、数据包络分析和 Borda 计数。 该研究评估了中美洲和加勒比地区的 17 个目的地。
结果包括这些方法提供可靠的竞争力排名的可行性, 以及由于统计方法的优势而使用较少信息的可能性。 国际旅游人数、国际旅游收入以及旅行和旅游对 GDP 的贡献可以用作旅游目的地竞争力的近似值。
由于其分解能力和原始 TTCI 限制的减少, 所提出的指数具有更好的解释力。 此外, 这些建议有助于纳入外部信息及执行完全客观的方法。
El presente estudio busca presentar diversas metodologías para medir la competitividad de los destinos turísticos, de modo que sirvan como alternativa al Índice de Competitividad de Viajes y Turismo.
La propuesta incluye Análisis de Componentes Principales, el método de distancia DP2, Programación por Metas, Análisis Envolvente de Datos y el Recuento de Borda. Se analizan 17 destinos de Centro América y el Caribe.
Estos incluyen la validez de las metodologías para obtener rankings de competitividad fiables y la posibilidad de emplear menor cantidad de información, dadas las fortalezas de los procedimientos estadísticos propuestos. Las Llegadas de Turistas Internacionales, los Ingresos por Turismo Internacional, y la Contribución del Turismo al PIB podrían ser buenas aproximaciones para medir competitividad turística
La principal limitación es la ausencia de destinos importantes de la región, que se consideran importantes competidores.
Novedosos procedimientos de agregación para crear indicadores sintéticos para medir la competitividad turística y su presentación de un modo más comprensible.
Los resultados sirven como alternativa para otros destinos que aún no han sido considerados en comparaciones internacionales de competitividad turística.
Un mejor poder explicativo de los índices propuestos, gracias a su capacidad de descomposición, y la reducción de las limitaciones del índice del WEF. Además, las propuestas facilitan la inclusión de información externa o la ejecución de un método completamente objetivo.
- Central America and the Caribbean
- Composite indicators
- Distance-based methods
- Data envelopment analysis
- Centro américa y el caribe
- Indicadores sintéticos
- Métodos basados en distancia
- Multicriterio análisis envolvente de datos
Gilberto Garcia Batista, Rosa Maria Masson Cruz and Emigdio Rodriguez Alfonso
Cuban education under the direction of the State guarantees education for all. This allows achieving equality and full social justice in order to train men and women…
Cuban education under the direction of the State guarantees education for all. This allows achieving equality and full social justice in order to train men and women capable of facing contextual demands, within a social model that aspires to form their citizenship in corresponding to the historical tradition and contemporary demands within a global system. This educational process takes place within difficult economic conditions and a complex international scenario, which affects the Nation in a particular way because it is a developing country. In this work, an evaluative analysis of Cuban educational policy in its development in the last six decades is carried out with the purpose of demonstrating its distinctive features consolidated in the historical evolution of an educational system that maintains its development in complex economic situations and improvement based on the changing demands of society. This analysis considers both the national and global levels, science, technology and the references of pedagogical sciences, without renouncing the purpose of guaranteeing by the State a free, inclusive and quality education for all its citizens throughout life.
Alejandro Garza-Caballero, Gina Idárraga-Ospina, Nora A. García-Gomez, Francisco Aurelio Pérez-González, Maribel De-la-Garza-Garza, Alfredo Artigas, Alberto Monsalve, Rafael Colás and Nelson Federico Garza-Montes-de-Oca
High silicon amorphous steels are gaining preference as the material of choice for the fabrication of the core of low and medium power electrical transformers because they…
High silicon amorphous steels are gaining preference as the material of choice for the fabrication of the core of low and medium power electrical transformers because they present a better electromagnetic behaviour compared to that offered by common grain-oriented and non-oriented high silicon steels. This study aims to investigate the effects that the environmental conditions present during the high temperature annealing of cores exert on the surface oxidation and electromagnetic changes experienced by a commercial amorphous steel alloy.
The effect of environmental impact on the correct development of annealing practices during the manufacture process of amorphous steel cores used in distribution transformers was studied by the development of an oxidation reactor. With this installation, it was possible to simulate environmental conditions that could affect the surface of magnetic cores made from amorphous steel.
It was found that: the surface oxidation of amorphous steels affects their electromagnetic behaviour, environmentally induced surface degradation can be modelled at laboratory scale and oxide formation does not affect the amorphous condition of the alloy.
The effect of surface oxidation induced by the existence of water vapour in the annealing process of cores made from amorphous steels and its impact on the electromagnetic behavior of these alloys has been barely studied.
This paper aims to identify relevant innovations in Tokyo’s spatial articulation of infrastructure, building and public space, intertwining large-scale networks with local…
This paper aims to identify relevant innovations in Tokyo’s spatial articulation of infrastructure, building and public space, intertwining large-scale networks with local scale urban fabrics, to inform urban management towards sustainable urban transitions.
The research used a methodological combination of literature review, relevant case identification and analysis, on-site survey and photography, morphological interpretation through cartographic analysis and urban space and architectural redrawing and discussion under the conceptual framework.
Under Japan’s cultural construct, public/private thresholds are blurred and layered, defining a public space network which includes not only large-scale urban objects, such as railroad and commercial hubs but also small scale, hybrid and rather aweless forms of urban space, which can be of interest to the challenges of sustainable urban transition.
Adaptations in urban management and design need to consider the multi-scalar embeddedness of urban networks in local fabrics, considering public space structure and socio-cultural specificities. Limitations to growth-oriented rationale require increasingly decentralized networks and more hybrid spatial configurations in buildings, infrastructures and public space.
Tokyo represents an example of how a network-dependent metropolis, accommodates highly adaptive, inconspicuous and decentralized forms of basic service provision with an impact on the perception, use and management of public space. The main argument lies in the potential that these spatial arrangements hold as references for contemporary urban management and design in what pertains to societal challenges, low-carbon transition and network optimization.
Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti
We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…
We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.
Carlos Dávila Ladrón de Guevara, Araceli Almaraz Alvarado and Mario Cerutti
Taking as reference a sample of around a hundred biographical materials on entrepreneurs in Mexico and Colombia, the purpose of this chapter is dual. Both to show the…
Taking as reference a sample of around a hundred biographical materials on entrepreneurs in Mexico and Colombia, the purpose of this chapter is dual. Both to show the relevance and varied modalities that the biographical approach has enjoyed in business history research since the 1990s, and to display the intrinsic potential this modality of scholarship entails for entrepreneurship endeavors. In particular, it discusses the prospects to incorporate this body of empirical works into the large Latin American audience attending undergraduate, graduate and executive education programs in business, economic history and related fields. The chapter is organized into three sections. The first two are devoted to illustrate relevant patterns in the entrepreneurial trajectory of individuals and entrepreneurial families studied in each of the two countries under consideration. The last section identifies some conceptual issues that may impact current debates on Latin American business development as exemplified in recent business and economic history journal venues and scholarly conferences.
Rodolfo Hollander, Jose Alcaraz and Paulo Alves
This case study was intended for MBA/postgraduate level courses, or for high-level executive courses. It provided a complex international business context to analyse the…
This case study was intended for MBA/postgraduate level courses, or for high-level executive courses. It provided a complex international business context to analyse the intricacies and dependencies between emerging regions, wherein a company (Grupo M) established an entire manufacturing cluster and invested all its assets in a place that has never hosted any industrial activity – in a country whose culture and traditions differed significantly from those of the neighbouring country that provided the investment. The case included a discussion of the negotiations that a private company undertook with two governments (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) to secure access to the free-zone facilities granted by the importing countries.
The case could be seen as a stimulating international business context to examine central tenets around “shared value creation” (Porter and Kramer, 2011): the practice of creating economic value in a way that also creates value for society by addressing its needs and challenges. As per these authors, there are three ways to create shared value: by reconceiving products and markets, by redefining productivity in the value chain and by enabling local cluster development. The latter is the one best exemplified in this case. Additionally, the case brought intriguing insights on international business that can be related to ethics, corporate social responsibility and its many facets (Banerjee, 2007), as well as concepts around “responsible lobbying” (Anastasiadis et al., 2018).
This case presented the expansion challenges of CODEVI, a Dominican company, which established and operated an industrial (free zone) park in Haiti. Grupo M decided to move its operations when The World Trade Organization eliminated the quota system for apparel imported from the Far East Countries, and its CEO, Fernando Capellán, foresaw that the Dominican Republic would soon become non-competitive. At the time, an agreement between the US and Haiti, which gave preferential access to production from this extremely poor country, was being negotiated. In 2003, there were two sleepy towns at the Haitian-Dominican border: Dajabón, with about 18,000 inhabitants in the Dominican side, and Ounaminthe in Haiti, with about 40,000 inhabitants (with 90 per cent unemployment and over 80 per cent living below the extreme poverty line) on the Haitan side. These two locations were at the heart of a case that narrated how a complex international business operation resulted in an industrial park that has enjoyed considerable economic success, while simultaneously improving dramatically the living conditions of both border towns: Dajabón now has about 35,000 inhabitants and was a booming town, with a prosperous middle class; Ounaminthe now had 170,000 inhabitants (17,000 work directly at CODEVI), and was a city that essentially remained outside the chaos that often plagues the rest of Haiti. Additionally, a major impact of CODEVI was that it stopped the area’s illegal emigration of Haitians to the Dominican Republic, one of the Dominican Republic’s most pressing problems. But as the CODEVI industrial park has no area to expand, a decision must be made to either expand next to the present park, or at one of the three sister towns along the border. Such a park would have to be built from nothing, as was the case for CODEVI almost two decades ago.
Complexity academic level
MBA, executive and postgraduate.
Teaching notes are available for educators only.
CSS 5: International Business.
The growing displacement of theory and other forms of wide-ranging knowledge of social phenomena by empirical research methods in economics is widely noted by economists…
The growing displacement of theory and other forms of wide-ranging knowledge of social phenomena by empirical research methods in economics is widely noted by economists and historians of economic knowledge. Less attention has been devoted, however, to understand the materialization of such changes in the scientific practices. This article studies the recent transformations in the epistemological practices at CEDE, a research center in Colombia. I use a machine learning technique called Topic Modeling, interviews to CEDE researchers, and exegesis of papers to characterize a shift in the production of knowledge in microeconometrics at CEDE during the years 2000 and 2018. I explain this shift by characterizing two sets of epistemological practices that implies a recent tendency to disdain research that cannot make a “strong” causal inference.
Vanessa Campos‐Climent, Andreea Apetrei and Rafael Chaves‐Ávila
Agricultural cooperatives have been able to become a strong and consolidated organizational form, although the new challenges of globalization and trade liberalization…
Agricultural cooperatives have been able to become a strong and consolidated organizational form, although the new challenges of globalization and trade liberalization require changes in the strategic approach. The requirements of the distribution companies, consumers and government about the concentration of demand, traceability, food safety and respect for the environment had led to a thorough reorganization of agricultural food systems. So it is necessary to undertake a strategic review of horticultural cooperatives in order to conduct a strategic assessment and hence identify the strategic actions to be followed in the coming years. This paper seeks to address these issues.
An empirical study has been carried out during the first half of 2011 consisting in the application of the Delphi method and sending a questionnaire to experts whose purpose was to gain a view of the strategic situation of horticultural cooperatives in Spain. The Delphi method is a projection technique of the qualitative and subjective type which is appropriate for studies where there is little information on the subject to be analysed, and also for exploratory studies, as it is the case study of examining the role of agricultural cooperatives in coming out of the crisis of Mediterranean agriculture.
The performed Delphi analysis revealed that Mediterranean agriculture suffers from a severe crisis for which the solutions are hard to find, although the existence of the agricultural cooperatives and certain specific forms of performance and financing can partly improve the described situation. The application of the SWOT analysis based on the opinions of the experts provided sufficient detailed insights of the actual situation of the cooperatives. Thus, from the Delphi SWOT applied to Mediterranean agriculture and agricultural cooperatives, the authors can make some important assessments which are included in their paper.
It is a forward‐looking analysis that tries to give measures to the sector, but measures that come from the sector, in order to face the Mediterranean agriculture crisis.
During these past years, contemporary urban entertainment economy has been increasingly driven by social and spatial inequality and segmentation of consumer markets. This…
During these past years, contemporary urban entertainment economy has been increasingly driven by social and spatial inequality and segmentation of consumer markets. This dominant mode of production has involved a displacement of older modes of working-class nightlife. However, social resistances mainly played by suburban young working classes are being especially (re)produced during their nighttime leisure activities. In the case of Barcelona (Catalonia), youth policies carried out by local administration during these past three decades have intended to reinforce social sanitation through the re-catalanization of its suburbs and by marginalizing social and cultural practices of the young suburban working classes. Focusing on the Catalan capital, this chapter explores how a suburban otherness is mainly built up through the (re)production of highly politicized suburban nightscapes, which are largely related to the claiming of a Spanished ‘suburban’ identity, clashing with the Catalan official one. This chapter ends up opening a debate about the relationship of the re-bordering of postcrisis urban inequalities, the collapse of social cohesion in suburbs, and the emergence of new topographies of urban and suburban power in Barcelona.