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An analysis of radioactivity in organisms inhabiting the intertidalregion of the Island of Skye revealed accumulation of gammaradioactivity by specific organisms, such as…
An analysis of radioactivity in organisms inhabiting the intertidal region of the Island of Skye revealed accumulation of gamma radioactivity by specific organisms, such as lichens, to be markedly enhanced as compared with other autotrophs. The movement of radioactivity through trophic levels culminating in organisms such as the predator Nucella lapillus is described. A comparison with previous work indicates a marked decrease in the gamma count in these organisms due to a variety of factors as discussed. The importance of the position of the organism on the shore during the post‐Chernobyl contaminated rainfall is reiterated.
This paper compares the gamma‐radioactivity values determined in an intertidal ecosystem on the Atlantic island of Barra in the Western Isles of Scotland in 1989 and 1994…
This paper compares the gamma‐radioactivity values determined in an intertidal ecosystem on the Atlantic island of Barra in the Western Isles of Scotland in 1989 and 1994. Distinct differences in the accumulation values in different trophic levels were detected on each occasion, but, in the intervening five years between surveys, there have also been marked reductions in the gamma counts in many different organisms of each trophic level. Gamma‐radioactivity has continued to move through the sandy soils of the machair coastal dunes system, and hence away from the rooting zone of the vegetation. The decreasing gamma‐radioactivities noted point to a shoreline ecosystem that is recovering from the input of Chernobyl fallout.
Investigates the assimilation and persistency of 14C‐parathionin an aqueous culture system. The radioactive pesticide was added to thenutrient medium of both soybean and…
Investigates the assimilation and persistency of 14C‐parathion in an aqueous culture system. The radioactive pesticide was added to the nutrient medium of both soybean and wheat plants grown under aseptic and controlled conditions. Total applied radioactivity to the nutrient solution of both soybean and wheat were 1670 and 418 Bg, respectively. After 48 hours a balance sheet for the transported and recovered radioactivity was calculated. Turnover rate of the studied pesticide was concluded on the basis of its conversion to polar and non‐polar metabolites, in addition to the non‐extractable residues. Indicates that parathion has moderate persistence in the studied aqueous culture system; most of the applied radioactivity was transported from the nutrient solution and detected in the grown plants; polar metabolites were the predominant fraction in the nutrient solution as well as plant tissues; and in general, p‐nitrophenol was found in comparatively higher proportions as end product rather than paraoxon. Minor differences were evident regarding the metabolic behaviour of the pesticide under investigation in both soybean and wheat cultivating systems.
Since international relations are highly developed in radiological protection, many of the sources of information are international agencies or organisations overseas…
Since international relations are highly developed in radiological protection, many of the sources of information are international agencies or organisations overseas. This paper explains the role of the more important agencies, particularly the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Atomic Energy Agency. For the UK it describes the distribution of responsibilities within government and industry, and summarises the role of the National Radiological Protection Board. Finally, it points to factors which are likely to generate even more work for librarians.
An environmental radioactivity monitoring programme has beenestablished around the Tuwaitha nuclear site, Baghdad, Iraq, to ensurethe safety of the public living around…
An environmental radioactivity monitoring programme has been established around the Tuwaitha nuclear site, Baghdad, Iraq, to ensure the safety of the public living around the site and to prove that the nuclear facilities operate within the limits set by competent Iraqi Authorities and international environmental protection standards. Exposure rate measurements were carried out with portable monitors. Gamma spectrometric analysis of environmental samples (soil, vegetables, fruits, and water) was carried out to ensure that radionuclides expected to be released from the site are not concentrated in the environment. The results of the monitoring programme indicated that the average exposure rate was similar to that of the background radiation in Iraq. Furthermore, some environmental samples contained very low‐activity concentrations of Cs‐137.
Eight or ten years ago the risks which the population might experience from the contamination of foodstuffs with radioactivity were frequently mentioned in the press. Lately there has been little comment on this subject. This is due partly, but by no means entirely, to the suspension of nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere which led to a reduction in environmental contamination. Another, and important, reason is that many of the earlier fears were excessive. A discussion of this question may help us to see in better perspective the true nature of the problems which the peaceful uses of atomic energy might create and the attention they deserve if we are to safeguard our environment while at the same time meeting the needs of an increasing world population.
Myth is a story of archetypical personas who behave in ways and with motives that we recognize in ourselves. We use myth as a way of reminding ourselves of the…
Myth is a story of archetypical personas who behave in ways and with motives that we recognize in ourselves. We use myth as a way of reminding ourselves of the relationship between motives, actions, and consequences. Myths can serve either as inspirational or cautionary tales, and sometimes as both. But “myth” can also mean a fabricated story intended to create a false impression, and to achieve storytellers’ ends when they have decided the truth will not suffice. We apply the myth of Cassandra to the millennium-long recorded history of giant tsunamis in Japan. After each of these catastrophes, survivors sought to warn future generations of their recurrences. But, each time, their progeny eventually lost the memory of these lessons, and lost their lives when the next monster wave overwhelmed them. Only when they kept the lessons as living knowledge in everyday life, could they manage to escape from monster tsunamis. In this chapter, we use the myth of Cassandra in conjunction with the myth of Prometheus, the bringer of fire to humankind, as a metaphor for Japan’s growing reliance on nuclear power. Government and utility companies built powerful but inherently dangerous cauldrons in the nation’s disaster-prone landscapes, assuring the public they could control the fire’s fury and defend it against nature’s. As images of atomic bomb victims were still vivid and widely shared in Japan, they had to overcome the public fear of radioactivity by fabricating a “myth of safety.” The nuclear disaster made the public distrust the government and utility companies, which lingers in the process of reconstruction from the disaster. Myths can either reveal hidden truths or mask hidden lies. The Japanese people must now learn to distinguish one from the other.