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Article

Alison Cook and Christy M. Glass

The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions under which racial/ethnic minorities are promoted to top leadership positions in American corporations. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions under which racial/ethnic minorities are promoted to top leadership positions in American corporations. In addition to testing the glass cliff theory for racial/ethnic minorities, the paper also develops and test two additional theoretical mechanisms: bold moves and the savior effect. While the glass cliff theory predicts racial/ethnic minorities will be promoted to struggling firms, the bold moves theory predicts the opposite, that racial/ethnic minorities will be promoted to strong firms. The savior effect predicts that minority CEOs will be replaced by white male leaders if firm performance struggles during their tenure.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on conditional logistic regression to analyze all CEO transitions among Fortune 500 companies over a 15-year period.

Findings

Consistent with the bold moves thesis but contrary to the predictions of glass cliff theory, the results suggest that racial/ethnic minorities are more likely than white executives to be promoted CEO in strongly performing firms. As predicted by the savior effect theory, the paper also finds that when firm performance struggles under the leadership of racial/minority CEOs, these leaders are likely to be replaced by white CEOs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contradict theory of the glass cliff and suggest additional mechanisms that shape the promotion probability of minority leaders.

Practical implications

Race and ethnicity shape promotion and replacement decisions for top leadership positions in important ways. While minority leaders are not set up to fail, as glass cliff theory would predict, the authors do find that confidence in the leadership of minority leaders may be tenuous. To overcome the risks of replacement of minority leaders, firms should seek to eliminate bias by allowing minority leaders enough time and resources to overcome declines in firm performance and increase the transparency of replacement decisions.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to test the glass cliff thesis with regard to racial/ethnic minorities. The paper also develops and tests two new mechanisms related to leader succession: bold moves and the savior effect.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

John Shjarback, Scott Decker, Jeff J. Rojek and Rod K. Brunson

Increasing minority representation in law enforcement has long been viewed as a primary means to improve police-citizen relations. The recommendation to diversify police…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing minority representation in law enforcement has long been viewed as a primary means to improve police-citizen relations. The recommendation to diversify police departments was endorsed by the Kerner Commission and, most recently, the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. While these recommendations make intuitive sense, little scholarly attention has examined whether greater levels of minority representation translate into positive police-community relations. The purpose of this paper is to use the representative bureaucracy and minority threat frameworks to assess the impact of the racial/ethnic composition of both police departments and municipalities on disparities in traffic stops.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of ordinary least squares regression analyses are tested using a sample of more than 150 local police agencies from Illinois and Missouri.

Findings

Higher levels of departmental representativeness are not associated with fewer racial/ethnic disparities in stops. Instead, the racial/ethnic composition of municipalities is more predictive of racial patterns of traffic stops.

Originality/value

This study provides one of the few investigations of representative bureaucracy in law enforcement using individual departments as the unit of analysis. It examines Hispanic as well as black disparities in traffic stops, employing a more representative sample of different size agencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part

Patrick F. McKay and Derek R. Avery

Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing…

Abstract

Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing diversity to enhance business performance. To date, research evidence has failed to provide consistent support for the value of diversity to organizational effectiveness. Accordingly, scholars have shifted their attention to diversity management as a means to fully realize the potential benefits of diversity in organizations. The principal aim of this chapter is to review the current wisdom on the study of diversity climate in organizations. Defined as the extent that employees view an organization as utilizing fair personnel practices and socially integrating all personnel into the work environment, diversity climate has been proposed as a catalyst for unlocking the full value of diversity in organizations. During our review, we discuss the existent individual- and aggregate-level research, describe the theoretical foundations of such work, summarize the key research findings and themes gleaned from work in each domain, and note the limitations of diversity climate research. Finally, we highlight the domains of uncertainty regarding diversity climate research, and offer recommendations for future work that can enhance knowledge of diversity climate effects on organizational outcomes.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article

Megan Covington, Terry Chavis and April Perry

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to present the existing research on already effective programmatic efforts designed to increase diversity in STEM fields and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to present the existing research on already effective programmatic efforts designed to increase diversity in STEM fields and to subsequently encourage researchers and practitioners to more intentionally build upon and design effective interventions around this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous research findings accredit this success to various forms of support, such as mentors, study groups, student programs and student organizations (Hurtado et al., 2012; Maton et al., 2000; May and Chubin, 2003).

Findings

Higher education professionals have experienced a rise in concern regarding the alarming disparities of minority students pursuing STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) majors and careers. Because of this, researchers are interested in exploring and addressing some of the reasons.

Originality/value

Through the discussion of ideas for action and the proposing of a theoretical foundation from the field of student development, the authors offer recommendations for future research and strategies to further improve recruitment, retention and performance for minority students in STEM fields.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Book part

Magdalena Szaflarski and Shawn Bauldry

Discrimination has been identified as a major stressor and influence on immigrant health. This study examined the role of perceived discrimination in relation to other…

Abstract

Discrimination has been identified as a major stressor and influence on immigrant health. This study examined the role of perceived discrimination in relation to other factors, in particular, acculturation, in physical and mental health of immigrants and refugees. Data for US adults (18 +  years) were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Mental and physical health was assessed with SF-12. Acculturation and perceived discrimination were assessed with multidimensional measures. Structural equation models were used to estimate the effects of acculturation, stressful life effects, perceived discrimination, and social support on health among immigrants and refugees. Among first-generation immigrants, discrimination in health care had a negative association with physical health while discrimination in general had a negative association with mental health. Social support had positive associations with physical and mental health and mediated the association of discrimination to health. There were no significant associations between discrimination and health among refugees, but the direction and magnitude of associations were similar to those for first-generation immigrants. Efforts aiming at reducing discrimination and enhancing integration/social support for immigrants are likely to help with maintaining and protecting immigrants’ health and well-being. Further research using larger samples of refugees and testing moderating effects of key social/psychosocial variables on immigrant health outcomes is warranted. This study used multidimensional measures of health, perceived discrimination, and acculturation to examine the pathways between key social/psychosocial factors in health of immigrants and refugees at the national level. This study included possibly the largest national sample of refugees.

Details

Immigration and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-062-4

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Book part

Diane L. Barlow and Elizabeth Aversa

Asheim concluded by noting that the need for change was the thread that connected almost all discussions of library education during the decade; change was not just…

Abstract

Asheim concluded by noting that the need for change was the thread that connected almost all discussions of library education during the decade; change was not just accepted but anticipated, encouraged, and even instigated at an increasing pace. The accompanying effect on professional education was that “… the stress in education … fell upon education-for-change rather than upon the history, the heritage, the tradition.”(1975, p. 178) Wisely, perhaps, Asheim declined to predict whether or not this particular stress on change would continue, but he did raise the possibility of a respite, a period when change would be placed to the side in favor of reaction and retrenchment. Thirty years later his words sound almost wistful:The next few years may be a period of synthesis following the antithesis of the past decade—not a complete return to an earlier and more leisurely past, but not so violent a wrench as was feared by some, and sought by others (1975, p. 178).

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-007-4

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Book part

Glenda M. Flores and Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo

This chapter explains why college-educated Latinas, the daughters of working-class Latino immigrant parents, are disproportionately entering the teaching profession in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explains why college-educated Latinas, the daughters of working-class Latino immigrant parents, are disproportionately entering the teaching profession in the United States.

Methodology/approach

This qualitative study relies on secondary statistical data, an analysis of regional trends and 40 in-depth face-to-face interviews with Latina teachers that work in Southern California elementary schools.

Findings

Teaching has traditionally been a white woman’s occupation, but it is now the number one career drawing college-educated Latina women, who are entering the teaching profession at greater rates than African Americans or Asian Americans. Current scholarship posits that teaching is a career that resonates with Latina women’s racial-ethnic solidarity and feminine sense of duty to help others. In this chapter, we show how class background is also a key in understanding why the teaching profession has emerged as the top occupational niche for college-educated Latina women. While racial uplift, gender ideals, and family socialization help explain why college-educated Latinas are going into teaching, we add an emphasis on socio-economic class, demographic and structural context, and collectively informed agency.

Research limitations/implications

This study sheds light on the factors that shape upward mobility and career outcomes in white-collar jobs for minority students and second generation Latinas, the children of immigrants.

Originality/value

This chapter offers a sociological analysis that suggests Latina teachers navigate their educational and career choices with collective-informed agency and strong obligations to family members. To best understand why Latina/Chicana college graduates are increasingly concentrated in the teaching profession, we advocate an intersectionalities approach that takes class seriously.

Details

Immigration and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-632-4

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Book part

Kammi K. Schmeer

Past research on the immigrant health paradox suggests that children with immigrant parents may have a health advantage over those with US-born parents, especially if the…

Abstract

Past research on the immigrant health paradox suggests that children with immigrant parents may have a health advantage over those with US-born parents, especially if the parent is a recent immigrant. Other research emphasizes the social and economic challenges children with immigrant parents face, in part due to disadvantaged social class and racial/ethnic positions. Underlying physiological changes due to chronic stress exposures among children in immigrant families is one potential health disadvantage that may not yet be apparent in traditional health measures. To explore these biological disparities during childhood, I use national biomarker and survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) (N = 11,866) to evaluate parent nativity and educational status associations with low-grade inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), in children ages 2–15 years. I find that children with an immigrant parent, and particularly a low-educated immigrant parent, have higher CRP, net of birth, body mass index (BMI) and other factors, than children with a US-born parent with either a low or higher education. Comparing children with low-educated parents, those with a foreign-born parent have higher predicted CRP. The findings from this study provide new evidence that children living in immigrant families in the US may be facing higher levels of chronic stress exposure, as indicated by the increased risk of low-grade inflammation, than those with US-born parents. The physiological changes related to increased risk of inflammation, could set children in immigrant families on pathways toward mental and physical health problems later in the life course.

Details

Immigration and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-062-4

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Book part

Claudia Stoicescu, Ariel Richer and Louisa Gilbert

Global evidence indicates that multiple structural, biological, and behavioural mechanisms link gender-based violence (GBV), HIV/HCV, and substance misuse among women and…

Abstract

Global evidence indicates that multiple structural, biological, and behavioural mechanisms link gender-based violence (GBV), HIV/HCV, and substance misuse among women and adolescent girls. The aim of this chapter is to briefly summarise and synthesise recent literature that examines the complex and bi-directional relationships among these epidemics in different populations of adolescent girls and women around the world. To inform this chapter, a selective search strategy was conducted, prioritising use of meta-analytic epidemiological studies and research on interventions and policies that address different aspects of the syndemic among women and girls who use drugs worldwide. The search targeted publications from 2015 to 2019 using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The chapter highlights methodological and geographic gaps in existing policy, intervention, and implementation research and makes recommendations for strategies to tackle these gaps. It also identifies a continuum of multilevel evidence-based interventions that target the risk environments and key syndemic mechanisms linking these intersecting epidemics that have been found to be effective in reducing intimate partner violence and other forms of GBV, substance use, and HIV/HCV risks. This chapter also assesses inclusiveness of existing research and interventions for underserved and disproportionately affected populations, affecting adolescent girls, sexual minority women, and racial/ethnic minority women and identifies strategies to target gaps or disparities for these key affected populations. Finally, this chapter describes the gaps and opportunities that harm reduction programmes, medical settings, and other community organisations experience in implementing gender-responsive programmes and policies to redress these intersecting epidemics.

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Article

Paulo Rita and Nuno António

Inclusive tourism has the potential to counter balance some of the disadvantages relating to tourism development and effectively exert positive impacts on society at large…

Abstract

Purpose

Inclusive tourism has the potential to counter balance some of the disadvantages relating to tourism development and effectively exert positive impacts on society at large and specifically on tourist destinations. However, there is a research gap in studies on inclusiveness related to the promotional efforts of national destination management organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data science-based methods, mainly text mining and image mining, were used to analyze both the explicit and implicit content in text and images in the English brochures published by nine European official destination management organizations.

Findings

Results highlighted that the countries' attitudes towards inclusion were aligned with what the countries’ destination management organizations were promoting, especially in the case of highly ranked countries on an inclusiveness index. However, there were differences between their explicit content (what they write in text) and their implicit content (what they show in images).

Originality/value

The combined analysis of text and image content allowed for a complete understanding as to how national’s destination management organizations are promoting inclusion, showing that destination management organizations should make an effort in improving their promotional material and above all the images they use.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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