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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Rachid Zeffane and Bruce Cheek

Because information is vital to effective decision making, the fostering of conditions which promote effective use of existing channels of information is therefore seen as…

Abstract

Because information is vital to effective decision making, the fostering of conditions which promote effective use of existing channels of information is therefore seen as a prime element contributing to organizational survival and success (Fulmer et al, 1990). In particular, the way in which characteristics of individuals and the attributes of the tasks they perform, affect the use of different information sources is a pertinent issue in organizational analysis. It is also an important consideration in information systems development and management. Much of the existing research in this area has been dominated by attempts to define appropriate modes of information processing and the construction of models that might enhance effective communication (O'Reilly, 1982; Schick et al, 1990; Kim 8c Lee, 1991). The importance of this area of research has been heightened by the dynamics and complexities of industrial organizations and the need for various modes of information processing to address these dynamics (Kim & Lee, 1991). Also, because the appropriate use of information is the ‘life‐blood’ of organizational dynamics, the identification of aspects that might affect differential use of various channels (of information) is fundamental to an understanding of the area.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Rachid Zeffane

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of age, work experience and gender on individuals’ propensity (inclination or readiness) to trust others.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of age, work experience and gender on individuals’ propensity (inclination or readiness) to trust others.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors gathered literature arguments and developed a basic theoretical model explored through an empirical study. The study uses a sample of 324 retail business owners/operators in the United Arab Emirates. The authors developed and tested three main hypotheses.

Findings

Age has a significant positive impact on the propensity to trust. Work experience has a similar effect, but to a lesser degree. Females are generally less predisposed to trust. However, the impact of age on trust was significant for both males and females.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on a small sample of individuals in a single country. A larger multi-context study would be beneficial in verifying the above findings. Also, the concept of trust used in this study is general and focuses mainly on general likelihood/aspirations to trust others. Future research could examine the relationship of age to different aspects of trust and in different circumstances.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have several practical benefits. They draw the attention of human resource management practitioners and policy makers to the importance of age, work experience and gender in shaping trust relationships in both societal and business contexts.

Originality/value

The impact of age (and aging) work and society in general is a growing concern. Despite the number of studies examining trust and the process of trust formation, the relationships between age, gender and trust have been largely overlooked in previous research. This study attempts to address this gap and provides useful evidence likely to inspire further/future research on this issue.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Rachid Zeffane and Shaker Jamal Bani Melhem

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the differential impacts of job satisfaction (JS), trust (T), and perceived organizational performance (POP) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the differential impacts of job satisfaction (JS), trust (T), and perceived organizational performance (POP) on turnover intention (TI) in public and private sector organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Draws on a sample of 311 employees from the service sector (129 public and 182 private) in the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE). The main concepts utilized in the study are borrowed from previous research and further tested for validity and reliability. Four main hypotheses are explored.

Findings

In support of previous research, statistical analysis (t-test) revealed that public sector employees tend to be more satisfied, more trusting, and have less intention to leave their organization. Regression analysis revealed that public sector employees’ TI are most significantly affected by their perceptions of the performance of their organization, with JS, work experience (WE) and education (Ed) also having significant effects. In contrast, private sector employees’ TI was most significantly affected by JS and feelings of trust (T).

Research limitations/implications

Although very useful, the present study is limited in scope and therefore suffers from some limitations. The sample only includes employees from UAE organizations operating in education, some government institutions and the financial sector. Future research might consider including employees the health sector and other public organizations such as the immigration/police departments which play important strategic roles in the UAE economy. Also, future research might consider extending the scope of the study to include institutions in similar neighboring countries in the region, such as Qatar and Kuwait.

Practical implications

The findings of this study points to the relative importance of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance in affecting TI in public and private sectors. These can be considered as indicators to assist managers in these sectors to better manage/minimize TIs. In particular, the findings indicate that managers in general (and UAE public sector managers in particular) need to monitor and better manage not only their employees’ JS but also perceptions of the overall performance of the organization.

Originality/value

While research on the influence of JS on TI in both of these sectors has been abundant over the years, studies examining the impact of trust and perceptions of organizational performance remain few and are largely lacking. Also, studies on turnover in the UAE (and particularly those comparing public and private sectors) remain largely lacking. This study and its findings fill this gap and provide some insights on the differential impact of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance on employee TIs in public-private sectors, particularly in the UAE context.

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Shaker Bani-Melhem, Rachid Zeffane and Mohamed Albaity

This study aims to examine the impact of workplace happiness, coworker support and job stress on employee innovative behavior. The mediating effects of coworker support…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of workplace happiness, coworker support and job stress on employee innovative behavior. The mediating effects of coworker support and job stress are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses survey data from 328 employees from different departments in four- and five-star hotels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Based on an extensive literature review, five main hypotheses were formulated and explored. These were tested through multiple regression analysis using the SPSS Process Macro plugin.

Findings

Workplace happiness is the most significant determinant of employees’ innovative behavior, while coworker support plays a significant mediating role. Contrary to the study hypothesis and assumption, job stress alone is not a significant mediator; it only plays a mediating role when combined with coworker support.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is from a single sector (hotels) in a single country. Future research would benefit from examining the above relationships in other sectors (such as health and education) in the UAE. It could also explore the validity of these relationships in the tourism/hotels sector of other countries in the Middle East and Gulf regions.

Originality/value

Few studies have attempted to investigate factors that may promote or impede innovative behavior among employees in the hotels sector, particularly in the UAE. The data, model and findings of this study address this gap and add to the current state of knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Rachid Zeffane and Geoffrey Mayo

In recent years, organisations around the world have been seriously affected by a range of economic, political and social upheavals that have gathered momentum in most…

Abstract

In recent years, organisations around the world have been seriously affected by a range of economic, political and social upheavals that have gathered momentum in most parts of the globe. The viability of the conventional (pyramidal) organisational structures is being challenged in conjunction with major shifts in the roles of mid and top managers. In many countries, the pace of the above socio‐economic events and uncertainties is happening at an unprecedented pace. Some markets are showing signs of potential gigantic expansions while others (historically prosperous) are on the verge of complete collapse (Dent, 1991). In responding to the socio‐economic challenges of the nineties, organisations (across the board) have resorted to dismantling the conventional pyramidal structure and adopting so‐called “leaner” structures (see Zeffane, 1992). The most common struggle has been to maintain market share in an economic environment increasingly characterised by excess labour supply (Bamber, 1990; Green & Macdonald, 1991). As organisations shifted their strategies from “mass production” to “post‐fordism” (see, for example Kern and Schumann, 1987), there has been a significant tendency to emphasise flexibility of both capital and labour in order to cater for the niche markets which are claimed to be rapidly emerging, world‐wide. This has resulted in massive organisational restructuring world‐wide.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 14 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Rachid Zeffane

Organizational commitment and perceived management styles were examined using survey responses from 1418 employees from both public and private sector organizations…

Abstract

Organizational commitment and perceived management styles were examined using survey responses from 1418 employees from both public and private sector organizations, operating in Australia. Comparisons between public (n=474) and private (n= 944) sector employees revealed significantly higher levels of commitment amongst private sector employees. These differences were consistent with differences in perceived management styles. The concept of organizational commitment was found to incorporate the notion of “corporate loyalty/citizenship” and the notion of “attachment to the organization”. Management styles (as perceived by respondents) were found to relate to four main sub‐dimensions: (1) the degree of “emphasis on flexibility and adaptation”; (2) the degree of “emphasis on rules and regulations”; (3) the degree of emphasis on “hierarchy and role specialization” and (4) the degree of “work‐group discontinuity/change”. For both sectors, statistical analysis (regressions) revealed that the degree of organizational commitment as well as the extent of loyalty and attachment to the organization were affected positively by perceptions of greater (perceived) emphasis on “flexibility and adaptation” and by lesser (perceived) emphasis on “rules and regulations”. Salient implications of these findings on management practice are discussed. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been invested in identifying the various causes and implications of organizational commitment. The main thrust was to afford reasonable explanations of the development process of organizational commitment defined as the strength of an individual's identification and involvement with an organization. One of the most contended views is that positive organizational commitment, including feelings of affiliation, attachment and citizenship behaviour, tends to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness by contributing to resource transformations, innovativeness, and adaptability (Williams & Anderson, 1991). As such, organizational commitment has important implications for both individual and organizational outcomes and is central to organizational life. In general, the antecedents of commitment have been grouped into two categories: personal characteristics and situational attributes. However, previous research has not reached any substantial agreement on the precedence of the above characteristics. While some researchers have found (and argued) the prevalence of personal characteristics (Brooks & Seers, 1991) others have tended to emphasise situational effects (Grau et al, 1991), while still others have underlined equal effects of both types of characteristics (O'Reilly et al, 1991). In an attempt to contribute to the research debates and suggestions, the present article examines the potential impact of management styles (as perceived by members) on the degree of organizational commitment. The notion of management style is considered from the organizational standpoint (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Shrader et al, 1989). The article draws on an empirical study focusing on a sample of 1418 public and private sector employees from a variety of industries based in Australia. Management style can significantly influence the degree of workers commitment to organizational values and goals. In general, it has widely been shown and argued that the more flexible and participative management styles can strongly and positively enhance organizational commitment (Gaertner & Nollen, 1989). These styles tend to decrease role stress and thereby significantly increase employee commitment. The organic style of management emphasising flexibility and adaptation (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Gonring, 1991) might provide greater concern for workers as human beings, and for the work organization as a total social and cultural system. The success of this type of management style lies with its flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions while maintaining organizational consistency and continuity. Because of its greater reliance on worker loyalty and trust, this style of management might also be geared to enhance organizational citizenship behaviours (Williams & Anderson, 1991).

Details

Management Research News, vol. 18 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Rachid Zeffane

This paper aims to review and discuss recent literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. On this basis, a hypothetical model as a basis for theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review and discuss recent literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. On this basis, a hypothetical model as a basis for theoretical and hypothetical development in future research is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a review of the literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. A hypothetical model that can form the basis of future research in the field of entrepreneurship is developed.

Findings

In recent years, the issue of gender and its effect on entrepreneurship has been the subject of much debate and controversies. While some studies have shown that gender differences tend to affect intentions to become an entrepreneur, other studies deny any significant differences in this regard. Among these, a significant number of studies reveal that women are less likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities than their male counterparts. One of the major reasons provided for these gender disparities is the tendency of women to be less predisposed to taking risk than their male counterparts. This may in itself be the resultant of gender differences in their predisposition to trust.

Research limitations/implications

The arguments and proposed model are in need of empirical testing and verifications. Future research may consider and test the validity of the model. Use of structural equation modeling in this regard may prove beneficial.

Practical implications

The proposed model may also be considered by governments and stakeholders vested with tasks of promoting the participation of females in entrepreneurial activities in various contexts. This would entail that the factors of risk-taking/aversion and propensity to trust be considered and alleviated.

Originality/value

In examining the underlying reasons for gender differences in entrepreneurial activities, the research to date has not incorporated the interplay of risk propensity and the propensity to trust. The proposed model incorporates these to help unravel the “enigma” of gender differences in entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Rachid Zeffane

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender differences among nascent and actual entrepreneurs in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from two sets of populations: 370 students attending business courses in a university in the UAE (as proxies to nascent entrepreneurs) and 324 small business owners/operators (as proxies to actual entrepreneurs). The scales used in the study were borrowed from previous research and were also empirically confirmed through reliability tests.

Findings

In support of previous research, analyses of variance confirmed the hypotheses that females are less inclined to become entrepreneurs and are less likely to take risk. Females were also found to be less trusting than males. Regression analysis revealed that, the intention to engage in entrepreneurship is most significantly affected by the propensity to trust. These confirm the study hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

This study is set in a single country and as such, its findings may be constrained by cultural/national specificities. Future research could consider examining the variables of this study (particularly gender differences and their relevance to the effects of trust and risk taking on EIs) in a wider cross-national context.

Practical implications

The findings of this study clearly indicate that trust is an important variable that can be cultivated at the pre-entrepreneurial stage so that future entrepreneurs (females in particular) are appropriately equipped and geared to cope with risk in entrepreneurship activities.

Originality/value

Research on gender, trust, risk taking and entrepreneurial behaviors in the UAE/Middle East context remains lacking. Also, studies using samples of both actual and nascent entrepreneurs remain lacking. This study fills these gaps and also provides a platform for further understanding the importance of gender differences in relation to trust, personality, risk taking and EIs.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Rachid Zeffane and Robert Rugimbana

Outlines and discusses some of the pertinent issues of managementand organization facing less developed countries (LDCs). Based on areview of the most recent literature…

Abstract

Outlines and discusses some of the pertinent issues of management and organization facing less developed countries (LDCs). Based on a review of the most recent literature, illuminates the central place of culture in reflecting and explaining organizational behaviour. Examines the controversies surrounding management and marketing, human resource management and those relating to the adoption of new technology by LDCs. Outlines contemporary responses to these challenges. Concludes with a series of observations and suggestions which may show some light for future research on the management and organizational behaviour of LDCs.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1992

Rachid Zeffane

Reviews and discusses some major issues and controversies of theearly 1990s. Focuses on issues pertaining to organizationalrestructuring and design in the face of emerging…

Abstract

Reviews and discusses some major issues and controversies of the early 1990s. Focuses on issues pertaining to organizational restructuring and design in the face of emerging contemporary forces and examines corporate responses to those forces. Examines, in particular, the problem of choice of appropriate structures and the controversies and implications relating to downsizing in the light of dominant suggestions and various research findings from different platforms of management thinking. Concludes with suggestions for organizational success in these areas.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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