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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Rachid Zeffane and Bruce Cheek

Because information is vital to effective decision making, the fostering of conditions which promote effective use of existing channels of information is therefore seen as…

Abstract

Because information is vital to effective decision making, the fostering of conditions which promote effective use of existing channels of information is therefore seen as a prime element contributing to organizational survival and success (Fulmer et al, 1990). In particular, the way in which characteristics of individuals and the attributes of the tasks they perform, affect the use of different information sources is a pertinent issue in organizational analysis. It is also an important consideration in information systems development and management. Much of the existing research in this area has been dominated by attempts to define appropriate modes of information processing and the construction of models that might enhance effective communication (O'Reilly, 1982; Schick et al, 1990; Kim 8c Lee, 1991). The importance of this area of research has been heightened by the dynamics and complexities of industrial organizations and the need for various modes of information processing to address these dynamics (Kim & Lee, 1991). Also, because the appropriate use of information is the ‘life‐blood’ of organizational dynamics, the identification of aspects that might affect differential use of various channels (of information) is fundamental to an understanding of the area.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Rachid Zeffane

This paper aims to review and discuss recent literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. On this basis, a hypothetical model as a basis for theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review and discuss recent literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. On this basis, a hypothetical model as a basis for theoretical and hypothetical development in future research is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a review of the literature on gender, trust, risk-taking and entrepreneurship. A hypothetical model that can form the basis of future research in the field of entrepreneurship is developed.

Findings

In recent years, the issue of gender and its effect on entrepreneurship has been the subject of much debate and controversies. While some studies have shown that gender differences tend to affect intentions to become an entrepreneur, other studies deny any significant differences in this regard. Among these, a significant number of studies reveal that women are less likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities than their male counterparts. One of the major reasons provided for these gender disparities is the tendency of women to be less predisposed to taking risk than their male counterparts. This may in itself be the resultant of gender differences in their predisposition to trust.

Research limitations/implications

The arguments and proposed model are in need of empirical testing and verifications. Future research may consider and test the validity of the model. Use of structural equation modeling in this regard may prove beneficial.

Practical implications

The proposed model may also be considered by governments and stakeholders vested with tasks of promoting the participation of females in entrepreneurial activities in various contexts. This would entail that the factors of risk-taking/aversion and propensity to trust be considered and alleviated.

Originality/value

In examining the underlying reasons for gender differences in entrepreneurial activities, the research to date has not incorporated the interplay of risk propensity and the propensity to trust. The proposed model incorporates these to help unravel the “enigma” of gender differences in entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Rachid M. Zeffane and Geoffrey Mayo

In the 1990s, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challengesto the staffing function in both public and private sectororganizations. Discusses these issues and…

Abstract

In the 1990s, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the staffing function in both public and private sector organizations. Discusses these issues and their implications on career trends and staffing strategies. In particular, examines and discusses the various staffing and career challenges posed by workforce diversity, the increasing entry of women in the workforce, the increasing demand on education and training, the increasing importance of equal opportunity and age discrimination legislation and the changing pattern in employee aspirations and attitudes. Also presents the way in which organizations in the 1990s are responding to the above challenges. Also outlines and discusses a number of suggestions relating to more effective career and staffing strategies to deal with the above challenges.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Rachid Zeffane

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, personality and risk taking on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). In this perspective, it explores gender differences among nascent and actual entrepreneurs in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from two sets of populations: 370 students attending business courses in a university in the UAE (as proxies to nascent entrepreneurs) and 324 small business owners/operators (as proxies to actual entrepreneurs). The scales used in the study were borrowed from previous research and were also empirically confirmed through reliability tests.

Findings

In support of previous research, analyses of variance confirmed the hypotheses that females are less inclined to become entrepreneurs and are less likely to take risk. Females were also found to be less trusting than males. Regression analysis revealed that, the intention to engage in entrepreneurship is most significantly affected by the propensity to trust. These confirm the study hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

This study is set in a single country and as such, its findings may be constrained by cultural/national specificities. Future research could consider examining the variables of this study (particularly gender differences and their relevance to the effects of trust and risk taking on EIs) in a wider cross-national context.

Practical implications

The findings of this study clearly indicate that trust is an important variable that can be cultivated at the pre-entrepreneurial stage so that future entrepreneurs (females in particular) are appropriately equipped and geared to cope with risk in entrepreneurship activities.

Originality/value

Research on gender, trust, risk taking and entrepreneurial behaviors in the UAE/Middle East context remains lacking. Also, studies using samples of both actual and nascent entrepreneurs remain lacking. This study fills these gaps and also provides a platform for further understanding the importance of gender differences in relation to trust, personality, risk taking and EIs.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Rachid M. Zeffane

A strong body of research evidence has shown that better predictions oforganizational phenomena would be achieved if greater emphasis was puton the interactive effects of…

Abstract

A strong body of research evidence has shown that better predictions of organizational phenomena would be achieved if greater emphasis was put on the interactive effects of potential independent variables. As an integral part of that research, contingency theory has been a landmark approach to organizational analysis. Draws on the main body of literature and attempts to show that contingency theory and its basic postulate would strongly benefit the study of employee turnover. Argues that voluntary employee turnover is contingent on the amount of fit/misfit between individual values and the predominant organizational structure/management style. Shows and suggests that the use of a contingency approach to employee turnover could be of great benefit in future research designed to enhance our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

James C. Ryan, Syed A. Tipu and Rachid M. Zeffane

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the need for achievement (N‐ach) and entrepreneurial potential of young adults in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the need for achievement (N‐ach) and entrepreneurial potential of young adults in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of university business students (n=305) took part in the study. The data were collected using a tailored questionnaire designed to assess respondents' level of N‐ach motivation and their relative potential to pursue entrepreneurial activities.

Findings

The results revealed a strong correlation between N‐ach and entrepreneurial potential among the participants. Analysis of differences across gender and nationality was also conducted, revealing lower levels of N‐ach for UAE national participants, and higher levels of N‐ach among women participants.

Practical implications

Results support the view that achievement motivation is a potentially important factor in explaining entrepreneurial success. It also highlights a potential problem for the UAE economy and society in addressing the relatively low levels of N‐ach among UAE nationals, especially males.

Originality/value

Despite a professed desire on the part of the UAE Government to diversify the economy and promote entrepreneurial activity among UAE nationals, little research has been done on the nature of important variables such as N‐ach and entrepreneurial potential in the region. This research addresses a key gap in the literature by exploring this relationship.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Kay Gallagher and James Pounder

Abstract

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Shaker Bani-Melhem, Rachid Zeffane and Mohamed Albaity

This study aims to examine the impact of workplace happiness, coworker support and job stress on employee innovative behavior. The mediating effects of coworker support…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of workplace happiness, coworker support and job stress on employee innovative behavior. The mediating effects of coworker support and job stress are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses survey data from 328 employees from different departments in four- and five-star hotels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Based on an extensive literature review, five main hypotheses were formulated and explored. These were tested through multiple regression analysis using the SPSS Process Macro plugin.

Findings

Workplace happiness is the most significant determinant of employees’ innovative behavior, while coworker support plays a significant mediating role. Contrary to the study hypothesis and assumption, job stress alone is not a significant mediator; it only plays a mediating role when combined with coworker support.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is from a single sector (hotels) in a single country. Future research would benefit from examining the above relationships in other sectors (such as health and education) in the UAE. It could also explore the validity of these relationships in the tourism/hotels sector of other countries in the Middle East and Gulf regions.

Originality/value

Few studies have attempted to investigate factors that may promote or impede innovative behavior among employees in the hotels sector, particularly in the UAE. The data, model and findings of this study address this gap and add to the current state of knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Rachid Zeffane

Organizational commitment and perceived management styles were examined using survey responses from 1418 employees from both public and private sector organizations…

Abstract

Organizational commitment and perceived management styles were examined using survey responses from 1418 employees from both public and private sector organizations, operating in Australia. Comparisons between public (n=474) and private (n= 944) sector employees revealed significantly higher levels of commitment amongst private sector employees. These differences were consistent with differences in perceived management styles. The concept of organizational commitment was found to incorporate the notion of “corporate loyalty/citizenship” and the notion of “attachment to the organization”. Management styles (as perceived by respondents) were found to relate to four main sub‐dimensions: (1) the degree of “emphasis on flexibility and adaptation”; (2) the degree of “emphasis on rules and regulations”; (3) the degree of emphasis on “hierarchy and role specialization” and (4) the degree of “work‐group discontinuity/change”. For both sectors, statistical analysis (regressions) revealed that the degree of organizational commitment as well as the extent of loyalty and attachment to the organization were affected positively by perceptions of greater (perceived) emphasis on “flexibility and adaptation” and by lesser (perceived) emphasis on “rules and regulations”. Salient implications of these findings on management practice are discussed. In recent years, a great deal of attention has been invested in identifying the various causes and implications of organizational commitment. The main thrust was to afford reasonable explanations of the development process of organizational commitment defined as the strength of an individual's identification and involvement with an organization. One of the most contended views is that positive organizational commitment, including feelings of affiliation, attachment and citizenship behaviour, tends to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness by contributing to resource transformations, innovativeness, and adaptability (Williams & Anderson, 1991). As such, organizational commitment has important implications for both individual and organizational outcomes and is central to organizational life. In general, the antecedents of commitment have been grouped into two categories: personal characteristics and situational attributes. However, previous research has not reached any substantial agreement on the precedence of the above characteristics. While some researchers have found (and argued) the prevalence of personal characteristics (Brooks & Seers, 1991) others have tended to emphasise situational effects (Grau et al, 1991), while still others have underlined equal effects of both types of characteristics (O'Reilly et al, 1991). In an attempt to contribute to the research debates and suggestions, the present article examines the potential impact of management styles (as perceived by members) on the degree of organizational commitment. The notion of management style is considered from the organizational standpoint (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Shrader et al, 1989). The article draws on an empirical study focusing on a sample of 1418 public and private sector employees from a variety of industries based in Australia. Management style can significantly influence the degree of workers commitment to organizational values and goals. In general, it has widely been shown and argued that the more flexible and participative management styles can strongly and positively enhance organizational commitment (Gaertner & Nollen, 1989). These styles tend to decrease role stress and thereby significantly increase employee commitment. The organic style of management emphasising flexibility and adaptation (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Gonring, 1991) might provide greater concern for workers as human beings, and for the work organization as a total social and cultural system. The success of this type of management style lies with its flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions while maintaining organizational consistency and continuity. Because of its greater reliance on worker loyalty and trust, this style of management might also be geared to enhance organizational citizenship behaviours (Williams & Anderson, 1991).

Details

Management Research News, vol. 18 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Rachid Zeffane and Shaker Jamal Bani Melhem

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the differential impacts of job satisfaction (JS), trust (T), and perceived organizational performance (POP) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the differential impacts of job satisfaction (JS), trust (T), and perceived organizational performance (POP) on turnover intention (TI) in public and private sector organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Draws on a sample of 311 employees from the service sector (129 public and 182 private) in the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE). The main concepts utilized in the study are borrowed from previous research and further tested for validity and reliability. Four main hypotheses are explored.

Findings

In support of previous research, statistical analysis (t-test) revealed that public sector employees tend to be more satisfied, more trusting, and have less intention to leave their organization. Regression analysis revealed that public sector employees’ TI are most significantly affected by their perceptions of the performance of their organization, with JS, work experience (WE) and education (Ed) also having significant effects. In contrast, private sector employees’ TI was most significantly affected by JS and feelings of trust (T).

Research limitations/implications

Although very useful, the present study is limited in scope and therefore suffers from some limitations. The sample only includes employees from UAE organizations operating in education, some government institutions and the financial sector. Future research might consider including employees the health sector and other public organizations such as the immigration/police departments which play important strategic roles in the UAE economy. Also, future research might consider extending the scope of the study to include institutions in similar neighboring countries in the region, such as Qatar and Kuwait.

Practical implications

The findings of this study points to the relative importance of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance in affecting TI in public and private sectors. These can be considered as indicators to assist managers in these sectors to better manage/minimize TIs. In particular, the findings indicate that managers in general (and UAE public sector managers in particular) need to monitor and better manage not only their employees’ JS but also perceptions of the overall performance of the organization.

Originality/value

While research on the influence of JS on TI in both of these sectors has been abundant over the years, studies examining the impact of trust and perceptions of organizational performance remain few and are largely lacking. Also, studies on turnover in the UAE (and particularly those comparing public and private sectors) remain largely lacking. This study and its findings fill this gap and provide some insights on the differential impact of trust, JS and perceived organizational performance on employee TIs in public-private sectors, particularly in the UAE context.

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